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  • 1. Serious Gaming: Taxonomies © Dr. Igor Mayer i.s.mayer@tudelft.nl Faculty Technology, Policy and Management (TPM) & Signature Games Delft University of technology, The Netherlands Challenge the future 1
  • 2. References • Mayer, I. S. (2009). The Gaming of Policy and the Politics of Gaming: A Review. Simulation & Gaming, 40(6), 825–862. doi:10.1177/1046878109346456 • Mayer, I. S., Bekebrede, G., Warmelink, H. J. G., & Zhou, Q. (2013). A Brief Methodology for Researching and Evaluating Serious Games and Game-Based Learning. In T. M. Connolly, L. Boyle, T. Hainey, G. Baxter, & P. Moreno-Ger (Eds.), Psychology, Pedagogy and Assessment in Serious Games (pp. 357–393). IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-47732.ch017 • Mayer, I. S., Warmelink, H. J. G., & Zhou, Q. (2014). The Utility of Games for Society, Business and Politics: A Frame Reflective Analysis. In Nick Rushby & D. Surry (Eds.), Wiley Handbook of Learning Technology (in press). Wiley. • Warmelink, H. J. G., Meijer, S. A., Mayer, I. S., & Verbraeck, A. (2009). Introducing Serious Gaming in a Multinational : Experiences with the Supervisor Serious Game for HSE Training. In Y. G. Kin, C. Yiyu, & Y. Gee (Eds.), Learn to Game Game to Learn, Proceedings of the 40th ISAGA conference. June 29-July 3 (Vol. 2009, pp. 1–12). Singapore: Society of Simulation and Gaming of Singapore. Challenge the future 2
  • 3. http://serious.gameclassification.com Pank A Squit, Women Sufrage, Germany, 1910 Hexagon, national development, Dick Duke, 1970 September 12, Gonzalo Frasca, America’s Army, US September 12th , Gonzalo Frasca Food Force, UNFP Virtual Leader, Aldrich Dean for America, Ian Bogost, Remission, Kato Homeland Guantanamos Darfur is Dying, Ian Bogost, US Raise the Village Peace Maker Global conflict Palestine, Global Conflict Latin America MP for a Week, PlayGen, UK Democracy2 Branches of Power Mayor Wanted Airport Security, Ian Bogost Flood Sim, PlayGen/SGI, UK Energy Ville Enercities Harpooned World Without Oil Stop Disasters Driving Safety Water Bazen, Ranj, NL The Great Flu, Ranj, NL Katrina The Blob Hazmath Hotzone Challenge the future Sharkworld 3
  • 4. Serious gaming Common understanding • (Re) use of (digital) game technology and concepts for non-entertainment purposes. Applications • Military, Safety and security, Health (care), Education and training, Management and Business, Infrastructures… Related notions • Simulation-games, Social Impact Games, Persuasive games, Applied gaming, • Gamification, Ludification Characteristics • Goal outside the game • Interactive, Experiential, Immersive Origins More.. • Clark Abt (1970) Serious gaming • Dick Duke (1974) Gaming the futures language • Ben Sawyer (2002) • www.seriousgames.org • www.socialimpactgames.com Challenge the future 4
  • 5. Serious gaming experi(m)ent(i)al, rule-based, interactive environments, where players learn by taking actions and by experiencing their effects through feedback mechanisms that are deliberately built into and around the game. Gaming is based on the assumption that the individual and social learning that emerges in the game can be transferred to the world outside the game. This transfer is largely negotiated and not immediate, thereby making a simulation game low in external risks and giving the players a sense of safety, which is prerequisite for experimentation and creativity. Mayer, I., (2009) The Gaming of Policy and the Politics of Gaming: A Review. In: Simulation & Gaming: 40(6) 825–862 Challenge the future 5
  • 6. Innovation model: Where is SG? Peak of inflated expectations Gamification Marketing, branding games Policy games, E-learning games Training simulators Mixed & augmented reality Business games War games Plateau of productivity Second Life Second Life? Slope of enlightenment Trough of Disillusionment Technology Trigger Ref: Gartner Hype Cycle / Through of disillusionment Challenge the future 6
  • 7. Push factor: Game culture Proposition: Parts of society, cultures, economies etc. are increasingly colored and pervaded Lan party World Cyber games Kinect Farmville by digital game cultures. The present and future gamegeneration of students, policy makers, leaders, modelers are/will be different in their learning (style, behavior) than those who did not grow up with digital games. Challenge the future 7
  • 8. Pull factor: Science for Decision Making The War Room dream! The Opps room of the Cybersyn project (Chile, 70s) Digital game technology allows us to create virtual environments where we can try out safely and learn from experience in alternate, immersive realities. Minority report ASU Decision Theatre (2000s) Challenge the future 8
  • 9. Pull factor: Safety and security The Holodeck dream! Digital game technology allows us to Holodeck Hazmat Hotzone Virtual Battle Space E-semble XVR create stories, alternative scenarios to try out safely and learn from experience in alternate, immersive realities. Challenge the future 9
  • 10. Push factor: Technology More game power for a buck! Digital game technology has become Simulation power Graphical realism Motion capturing Augmented reality powerful, adaptable and affordable to be used for non-entertainment purposes. Challenge the future 10
  • 11. Challenge the future 11
  • 12. Taxonomies Loose taxonomy Hierarchical tree taxonomy Entertainment games Game play: competi-/ cooperative, single/ multi player… Analogue SG Digital Purpose: data gathering, PR, training, education, decision, etc. ...? Serious Games Role play Console Board games Internet Mobile … Genres: action, simulation, adventure, racing, strategy, puzzle, platform, etc. PC … Domain of application: health, military, advertisement, etc. Technolog y: (non) digital, online, etc. Mixed … Computer supported / mediated Mixed reality Augmented reality … Challenge the future 12
  • 13. Market games Strategy games Serious games Tactical games Training games Challenge the future 13
  • 14. Serious Game Taxonomy Analytical: Learning from a game Learning: Learning in a game System (Ex ante) validation of a complex system Systems thinking / Develop strategy, learning decision, policy organization Network Ex ante validation Coordination in of interactions in a chains, networks policy network Develop governance, coordination, etc Actor / group Ex ante validation of (operating) procedures SOPs; Job oriented training (JOT), skills and competencies Situational awareness, sense making, team learning Instrumental: Develop, train through a game Challenge the future 14
  • 15. Serious game taxonomy System level Actor / group level Mono disciplinary operational training (game) Sector 2: (e.g. rescue services) Sector 3: (e.g. health services) Strategic co-ordination (game) Tactical co-ordination (game) Multi sectoral chain (game) Multi sectoral and multi level exercise Network level chain of command training (game) Sector 1: (e.g. security services) Interdisciplinary operational training (game) Challenge the future 15
  • 16. SG value chain = complex multi actor network Warmelink, H., Meijer, S., Mayer, I., Verbraeck, A., (2009) Introducing Serious Gaming in a Multinational: Experiences with the Supervisor Serious Game for HSE Training. Senior management 10. Organizational context Strategy, busin. consultants 9. Didactical context Learning & HR dep. Domain & field experts 8 Debriefing, assessment, evaluation layers 7. Game content Learning & training consult. Domain exp., data providers 6. Game concept Innovation & Research dep. Serious game evangelists 5. Player environment Financial dep. Serious game companies 9. Technical layers Training, assment dep. 4. Facilitator environment Procurement dep. 3 Authoring environment Scenario builder, administrator, building tools, level editor, scripting, etc.m Game companies Simulation dep. 2. Game Engine Graphics, sound, physics, AI, animation, network, etc. Game software dev. ICT dep. 1. Hardware layers CPU, Graphics, Sound, Physics cards etc. Hardware suppliers Trainers, facilitators Challenge the future 16
  • 17. Framing the Discourse on (Serious) Gaming Realist / Utilitarian (Serious) gaming as learning tool Interventionist / decisionist (Serious) gaming as economic innovation SG discipline Frameworks Methods, Tools, Ethics (Serious) gaming as persuasion Evolutionist / transformationist Serious gaming as cultural change Idealist / Fenomenological Challenge the future 17