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The bulk of the pars nervosa

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  • 1. Endocrine lab BIOL 242
  • 2.
    • OBJECTIVES
    • Identify and name the major endocrine organs of the body
    • Know the structures and functions of each of the following glands, include the hormones that are produced by each gland and how they are controlled. Hypophysis (pituitary) Suprarenal Thyroid Parathyroid Gonads Pancreas Pineal
    • Indicate how hormones contribute to body homeostasis - give examples of hormonal actions.
    • What is the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary?
    • Identify the histology structures of the glands provided on slides.
    • STRUCTURES AND WORDS TO KNOW
    • Lab 27:
    • Pituitary gland: anterior/posterior Hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, MSH, OT, ADH
    • For the slides - try to find acidophils and basophils, chromophobes/pituicytes
    • Thyroid gland: Hormones: T3 and T4, CT
    • For the slides - follicle cells
    • Parathyroid glands: Hormones: PTH
    • For the slides - oxyphil (large ones) and chief cells
    • Adrenal gland: Hormones: EPI, NOREPI, mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids
    • For the slides - medulla, three zones, capsule
    • Pancreas: Hormones: Insulin, glucagon
    • For the slides - alpha and beta cells
    • Gonads: testes/ovaries Hormones: Estrogens, progesterone, testosterone
    • Thymus gland: Hormones: Thymosin
    • Pineal body: Hormones: Melatonin
    • For the slides - be able to identify the different glands that the slides represent.
  • 3. OBJECTIVES
    • Identify and name the major endocrine organs of the body
      • See the list in the lab assignments
    • Know the structures and functions of each of the following glands, include the hormones that are produced by each gland and how they are controlled
      • Hypophysis (pituitary)
      • Suprarenal
      • Thyroid
      • Parathyroid
      • Gonads
      • Pancreas
      • Pineal
    • Indicate how hormones contribute to body homeostasis
      • Be able to give examples of hormonal actions.
    • What is the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary?
    • Identify the histology structures of the glands provided on slides.
  • 4. Pituitary gland
    • Be able to identify which hormone comes from the anterior and posterior pituitary
    • Hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, MSH, OT, ADH
  • 5. Pituitary gland
  • 6. Pituitary gland – (the hyperlinks work on this page) PARS DISTALIS: chromophils (50%) and chromophobes (50%). The chromophils can be further subdivided into acidophils (40%) and basophils (10%). The acidophils secrete GH (somatotropes) and prolactin (mammotropes). Basophils secrete TSH (thyrotropes), LH (gonadotropes), FSH (gonadotropes), and ACTH (corticotropes). PARS NERVOSA: main cell type here is a glial or supporting cell called a pituicyte . The bulk of the pars nervosa consists of axons from neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. PARS INTERMEDIA: rudimentary in humans, lies between the pars distalis and pars nervosa. BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES WITH HYPERLINKS
  • 7. chromophobes
  • 8. Thyroid gland
    • Hormones: T3 and T4
  • 9. Thyroid gland BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES LABELED ON THE ABOVE SLIDE
  • 10. Parathyroid glands
    • Hormones: PTH
  • 11. Parathyroid glands
    • oxyphil (large ones) and chief cells
    Parathyroid Glands Red arrows – Oxyphil/Principle Cells Yellow arrow - Chief Cells BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES LABELED ON THE SLIDE
  • 12. Adrenal gland
    • Hormones: EPI, NOREPI, mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids
  • 13. Adrenal gland BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES LABELED ON THE SLIDE
  • 14. Pancreas
    • Hormones: Insulin, glucagon
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtsQxUYHXbw Play at your own risk (grin!)
  • 15. Pancreas BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES LABELED ON THE SLIDES
  • 16. Gonads : testes/ovaries
    • Hormones: Estrogens, progesterone, testosterone
  • 17. Gonads : testes/ovaries Which is which?
  • 18. Thymus gland
    • Hormones: Thymosin
    Panoramic view of adult thymus, largely replaced with adipose tissue. There are recognizable remnants of thymic lymphatic tissue, however, and Hassall's corpuscles are still present in the medulla. Why is there so much adipose tissue?
  • 19. Pineal body
    • Hormones: Melatonin
    THE SLIDES OF THE PINEAL ARE NOT VERY DISTINGUISHING It consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, glial cells, and pinealocytes (which secrete melatonin). Pinealocytes have larger, lighter staining nuclei and glial cells have small darker staining nuclei. With age, calcified formations appear in the pineal gland (brain sand or corpora aranacea ).