Identify and name the major endocrine organs of the body
Know the structures and functions of each of the following glands, include the hormones that are produced by each gland and how they are controlled. Hypophysis (pituitary) Suprarenal Thyroid Parathyroid Gonads Pancreas Pineal
Indicate how hormones contribute to body homeostasis - give examples of hormonal actions.
What is the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary?
Identify the histology structures of the glands provided on slides.
Pituitary gland – (the hyperlinks work on this page) PARS DISTALIS: chromophils (50%) and chromophobes (50%). The chromophils can be further subdivided into acidophils (40%) and basophils (10%). The acidophils secrete GH (somatotropes) and prolactin (mammotropes). Basophils secrete TSH (thyrotropes), LH (gonadotropes), FSH (gonadotropes), and ACTH (corticotropes). PARS NERVOSA: main cell type here is a glial or supporting cell called a pituicyte . The bulk of the pars nervosa consists of axons from neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. PARS INTERMEDIA: rudimentary in humans, lies between the pars distalis and pars nervosa. BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE STRUCTURES WITH HYPERLINKS
Panoramic view of adult thymus, largely replaced with adipose tissue. There are recognizable remnants of thymic lymphatic tissue, however, and Hassall's corpuscles are still present in the medulla. Why is there so much adipose tissue?
THE SLIDES OF THE PINEAL ARE NOT VERY DISTINGUISHING It consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, glial cells, and pinealocytes (which secrete melatonin). Pinealocytes have larger, lighter staining nuclei and glial cells have small darker staining nuclei. With age, calcified formations appear in the pineal gland (brain sand or corpora aranacea ).