It is the most common form of diabetes, characterized by disorders of insulin resistance and insulin secretion, either of which may be the predominant feature. Both are usually present at the time that the diabetes is clinically manifest.
The number of people with diabetes will nearly double within the first quarter of this millennium.
World Health Report, 1997; Geneva: WHO.
Developed Vs Developing King et al, Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 1414-31 4.9% 227.7 million 3.5% 99.6 million Developing countries 7.6% 72.2 million 6.2% 54.8 million Developed countries 2025 2000 Region
Why is the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes increasing?
Aging of the population.
Increased incidence due to urbanization especially in the developing countries.
More sedentary lifestyle.
Food consumption patterns, more foods with high fat content and more refined carbohydrates.
The DaQing Chinese study showed that over 6 years there were significant and similar reductions in the incidence of diabetes in subjects with IGT who were randomized to diet, exercise, or combined diet-exercise treatment groups.
Pan et al, Diabetes Care, 1997; 20: 537-44
Cumulative incidence of diabetes at 6 years Data from: Pan et al, Diabetes Care, 1997; 20: 537-44
The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study showed that Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by changes in the lifestyles of high-risk subjects (middle-aged, overweight subjects with IGT). The risk of diabetes was reduced by 58% in the intervention group. The cumulative incidence was 11% in the intervention group compared to 23% in the control group.
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) funded by the NIH-USA to perform a major IGT intervention to examine the potential for prevention of Type 2 diabetes. It includes both lifestyle and pharmacological interventions.
Diabetes Prevention Program, Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 623-4