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    School of Basic Medical Sciences (2007-2008).doc School of Basic Medical Sciences (2007-2008).doc Document Transcript

    • 17. SCHOOL OF BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES The School of Basic Medical Sciences consists of the Departments of Anatomy, Endocrinology, Genetics, Medical Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology and Physiology. Along with the establishment of Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (PGIBMS), the division of Medical Biochemistry was first established in March 1968. In January 1969, the divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics came into being. Subsequently, all these divisions became independent departments. Later, the PGIBMS was expanded in 1976 when the Taramani campus started functioning, with the addition of the departments of Microbiology, Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology and Physiology. The third phase of expansion of PGIBMS was in 1977, when the departments of Anatomy and Pathology were added. All departments are involved in active research, training Ph.D. students and offering postgraduate degree programmes. The department of Anatomy offers M.Sc. Anatomy and M.S. Neuroscience programmes. It is a DST-FIST supported department carrying out research in neural transplantation, cortical localization, and neuro-electrophysiology in primates and comparative neuroanatomy of primates including man,. The department has a well-equipped aseptic operation theatre, tissue processing laboratory, neuroimmunology laboratory, rare collections of histological slides, audio-visual teaching aids and video and audio cassette library. It has several sophisticated equipment like cryostat, vibrotome, microscope, fluorescent microscope, stereo zoom microscope, neonatal incubator, surgical diathermy, bio-monitor, X-ray machine, electro-physiological unipolar cortical stimulator etc. The department of Endocrinology is a research department recognized by UGC for Departmental Research Support under UGC Special Assistance Programme (UGC-SAP-DRS-I) to facilitate research in the following thrust areas since 1999.(1) Reproductive and Molecular Endocrinology and (2) Environmental Endocrinology. The UGC-SAP-DRS-II programme is in operation since 2004. UGC has also selected this department for its Assistance for Infrastructural development in science and technology (ASIST) since April 2005 to create infrastructure for offering the new M.Sc. Biomedical Science programme and for research in Environmental Endocrinology and Hormone Toxicity. The Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India has selected the department for infrastructural and equipment facilities for Research indents FIST programme from 2000 onwards. In addition to this, the department is funded by various National Agencies such as DBT, CSIR, DST, DAE, ICMR and UGC. The department undertakes research works involving evaluation of hormones and receptors at the level of genes, in endocrines, reproductive, bone and metabolic disorders and cancer. The department has sophisticated equipments like electroporator, PCR machine, ELISA reader, CO2 incubators, vacuum concentrator, ion-exchange chromatography, double beam spectrophotometer, spectrofluorimeter, research microscopes with fluorescence, phase contrast and photography, electrophoretic and blotting systems, inverted microscope, stereo zoom microscope, ultra deep freezers, rotary vacuum flash evaporator, cell culture facility and temperature and light controlled animal room facility. The department has BARC recognized radioisotope laboratory. The department also offers M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes in Endocrinology and two elective papers for M.Sc. CBCS students and a P.G. Diploma in Applied Endocrinology. The department of Genetics is supported under DST-FIST programme. The faculty members pursue basic and applied research in frontier areas of Genetics that has direct/indirect bearing on health care. The areas of interest include clinical cytogenetics (mental retardation, infertility and birth defects), molecular and biochemical genetics (lysosomal storage disorders, hearing, visual and speech disorders), molecular biology (intron-exon organization, DNA-drug genotoxicity, evaluation and search for potential antimutagens, occupational risk assessment etc.). The department offers postgraduate research programmes leading to M.Sc. (Biomedical Genetics and Molecular Biology), M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees. The department has animal house, cold room, departmental library and a centralized instrumentation facility, which includes thermo cyclers, transilluminator, spectrophotometer, refrigerated centrifuges, DNA sequencer, fluorescence microscope etc. The department also offers consultancy services on genetic counseling, clinical cytogenetics, genetic toxicology evaluation of suspected compounds and molecular and biochemical diagnosis of lysosomal disorders. The department of Medical Biochemistry offers M.Sc. Medical Biochemistry. It is a UGC-SAP-DRS I and DST-FIST supported department specializing in metabolic free radical mediated diseases including Diabetes mellitus, artherosclerosis, alcoholism, kidney stone disease, cancer, ageing and biochemical toxicology. The facilities of the department include various sophisticated instruments including Scintilation counter, Double beam UV spectrophotometers, spectrofluorimeter, epiflurescence microscope, ultracentrifuge, super speed refrigerated centrifuges, ELISA readers, deep freezers, equilibrium dialyzers, electrophoresis units, thin layer and column chromatographic systems. The department offers expert consultancy in clinical biochemistry in selected areas of metabolic disorders and kidney stone disease. The department of Microbiology offers M.Sc. Medical Microbiology and M.D. Microbiology and is a UGC-SAP-DRS-I and DST-FIST department. The faculty members do research in medical microbiology (diarrhoeal diseases, new diarrhoea pathogens, respiratory pathogens, hospital acquired bacterial, fungal and viral infections; sequelae; Herpes keratitis; AIDS. Immunology (development of diagnostic kits for microbial characterization of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens by RFLP, cloning and sequencing and development of antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents from medicinal plants and marine organisms; Indigenous development of vaccines; Evaluation of industrial products like vaccines, drugs, devices, kits, disinfectants etc. The facilities of the department include tissue culture systems; antigen & antibody purification and characterization; preservation of microbial cultures; In vitro and in vivo laboratory models for drug and vaccine development; design and conduction of clinical trials, evaluation etc. The sophisticated equipments of the department are : ELISA systems, HPLC, UV- vis spectrophotometer, UV- Transilluminator with photography, PCR – Systems, Ultracentrifuge and refrigerated centrifuge, lyophiliser, luminometer, tissue culture laminar flow systems, environmental temperature controlled shakers, ice flaker, deep 1
    • freezers, liquid nitrogen cylinders, different electrophoresis systems including blotting systems and chromatographic systems, CO 2 Incubator and water purification systems. The department of Pathology offers M.D.Pathology and Diplomo in Clinical Pathology programmes. The faculty carry out research in histopathology, immunology, haematology, haematopathology, immuno-histochemistry and in situ hybridisation. The facilities of the department are histopathology with frozen section facilities, histochemistry cytochemistry, immunohistochemisstry in situ hybridization for viral DNA and RNA. The department is a referral centre for immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The department is also a WHO training centre for immunohistochemistry and cytochemistry. The department of Pharmacology & Environmental Toxicology offers M.Sc. Environmental toxicology and M.D.Pharmacology and is a UGC- SAP- DRS-I AND DST-FIST department. The faculty members carryout intensive research in experimental pharmacology, phytopharmacology, traditional medicine formulations, immuno-pharmacology and toxicology, neuropharmacology and toxicology, cardiovascular pharmacology, aquatic toxicology, environmental toxicology and food toxicology. The expertise and facilities can be used for screening of pharmacological as well as toxicological profile of drugs and medicinal plants as well as toxicology evaluation of specific environmental pollutants. The department has the sophisticated equipment of florescence spectrophotometer, high pressure liquid chromatography, UV visible spectrophotometer, soft laser screening densitometer, refrigerated centrifuge, thin layer chromatography system, high speed kymograph for anesthetized animal experiments, physiograph, electro cardio graph, rota-rod, actophotometer, electrophoresis unit, flame photometer, liquid nitrogen cylinder etc. The department of Physiology offers M.Sc. Physiology programme. The faculty members carry out research in the areas of neuroimmunomodulation, stress physiology, liver regeneration, cassava studies and medical / laboratory instrumentation. The facilities of the department include recording of basic physiological data, behavioral studies in small animals, all common biochemical investigations, all haematological investigations, computer facility for physiological data acquisition etc. The sophisticated instruments of the department are HPLC (Waters) with ECD detector, spectroflurometer, UV- visible spectrophotometer, flame photometer, single channel strip chart recorder (physiograph), 8-Channel physiological data recorder (Polyrite), Single Channel ECG recorder, deep freezers, laminar flow hood, ultrasonic disintegrator etc. Faculty Dr. A. Ramesh, Ph.D. - Chairperson Anatomy V. Sankar, Ph.D. - Lecturer & Head in-charge S. Prakash, Ph.D. - Lecturer R.Rameshkumar - Lecturer Endocrinology M. Michael Aruldhas, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Professor and Head N. Srinivasan, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Professor K. Balasubramanian, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Professor J. Arunakaran, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Lecturer B. Ravisankar, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Lecturer Genetics A. Ramesh, Ph.D. - Professor and Head S.T. Santhiya, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Professor Malathy Raghunathan, Ph.D. - Professor G. Jayaraman, Ph.D. - Reader A. K. Munirajan, Ph.D. - Reader N. Chandra, M.Phil., Ph.D. - Lecturer Medical Biochemistry P. Varalakshmi, Ph.D. - Professor and Head C. Panneerselvam, Ph.D. - Professor D. Sakthisekaran, Ph.D. - Professor P. Sachithanandam, Ph.D. - Professor P. Kalaiselvi, Ph.D. - Lecturer T.Sumathi, Ph.D. - Lecturer 2
    • Microbiology T. Sundarraj, Ph.D. - Professor and Head P. Rajendran, Ph.D. - Professor Thangam Menon, Ph.D. - Professor R. Elanchezian, Ph.D. - Professor Padma Krishnan, Ph.D. - Lecturer S.Srivani - Lecturer Pathology Rama Gopalan, M.D. - Professor and Head P. Shanthi, M.D. - Professor K. Rekha, M.D. - Lecturer Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology R. Venkatakrishnamurali, M.D., Ph.D.- Professor and Head S.L. Maheswari, Ph.D. - Professor M.P. Balasubramanian, Ph.D. - Professor S. Karthikeyan, Ph.D. - Sr.Lecturer P.Senthilkumaran Ph.D. - Lecturer Physiology R. Sheela Devi, Ph.D. - Lecturer and Head in-charge R. Ravindran, Ph.D. - Lecturer M.Sc. BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY Dr. ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras Taramani Campus, Chennai – 600 113 M.Sc. Medical Biochemistry Course Contents 3
    • C- Core E- Elective L – Lecture T – Tutorial P – Practical * - Compulsory Elective FIRST SEMESTER BMS –C001- CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES Core Course Course No. Course title C L T P Credit / s E I Semester BMS –C001 Chemistry of Biomolecules C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C002 Biophysical Chemistry and Analytical Techniques C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C003 Cellular Biochemistry C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C004 Practical I C - - 4 4 Elective E 2 1 - 3 Elective E 2 1 - 3 UOM S 001 Soft skill S 2 II Semester BMS –C005 Food Sciences and Nutrition C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C006 Principles of Immunology C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C007 Macromolecular Biosynthesis C 3 1 - 4 BMS –C008 Practical II C - - 4 4 Elective E 2 1 3 Elective E 2 1 - 3 UOM S 002 Soft skill S 2 Internship S 2 III Semester BMS –C009 Enzymes and Enzyme Technology C 3 1 - 4 BMS –C010 Molecular Physiology and Cell signaling C 3 1 - 4 BMS –C011 Medical Biotechnology C 3 1 - 4 BMS –C012 Practical III C - - 4 4 Elective E 2 1 3 Elective E 2 1 - 3 UOM S 003 Soft skill S 2 IV Semester BMS –C013 Hormonal Biochemistry C 3 1 - 4 BMS –C014 Metabolic and Gene Regulation C 3 1 - 3 BMS –C015 Molecular basis of diseases C 3 1 - 4 UOM S 004 Soft skill S 2 BMS –C016 Project C 3 - - 6 Elective Courses BMS –E001 Principles of Biochemistry – I E 2 1 - 3 BMS –E002 Principles of Biochemistry –II E 2 1 - 3 BMS –E003 Intermediary Metabolism* E 2 1 - 3 Unit – I INTRODUCTION : Chemistry of Monomeric Units of Polysaccharides, Proteins and Nucleic acids (structure and function only). Isolation and purification of Polysaccharides, Proteins and Nucleic acids, Determination of molecular Weight and shape of Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Unit – II POLYSACCHARIDES: General Methods of investigating the structure, methylation, acetylation, graded degradation of acid hydrolysis, enzymic hydrolysis and periodate oxidation methods. Homoglycans: Occurrence, structure, isolation, purification, properties and biological functions of glycans. A brief account of chitin, nectans, mannans, xylans, galactans and galacturonans. Heteroglycans and Complex carbohydrates: Occurrence ,structure, isolation, purification, properties and biological functions of mucopolysaccharides, bacterial cell wall Polysaccharides, sialic acids and blood group substances. A brief account of Polysaccharides with xylane backbone, Polysaccharides with glucose and manose 4
    • backbone and Polysaccharides with galactose backbone. Chemical synthesis of Polysaccharides Unit III – PROTEIN -I Terminology : Peptide bond, peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Protein as biological machinery (functions) Structure: Primary, secondary and tertiary structure of proteins and its determination. Conformation of protein structure and its study with absorption of spectroscopy, polarization spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Peptide synthesis, organization of amino acids in peptide chain, organization of peptide chain in protein, Ramachandran’s plot. Determination of amino acid sequence- insulin. Classification of Proteins: Fibrous proteins, structure of α keratin, collagen and filamentous proteins, Globular proteins- structure and function of hemoglobin. Properties of proteins in aqueous solutions: isoelectric pH, acid base properties, electrophoretic mobility, influence of ionic concentration on the protein solubility, hydrolysis of proteins, denaturation and renaturation of proteins, protein stability UNIT – IV- PROTEIN – II Lysozyme- A case study – structure, enzymic activity, mechanism of action, the ionization state of side chains and denaturation of lysozyme. Metalloprotein- A case study- The biological periodic table, the relative importance of the metal and protein components of metalloprotein; a hierarchy of behaviour from metal to metalloprotein. Unit V NUCLEIC ACIDS: structure, chemical and enzymic methods of sequence analysis, properties in aqueous solutions, sedimentation behaviour, viscosity, hyper-chromic effect, melting point of DNA, hydrolysis of Nucleic acids, hybridization techniques and chemical synthesis of Nucleic acids. LIPIDS : Classification, properties, structure and functions; Lipoproteins- structure, composition and function. Books Recommended : 1. Biochemistry by Geoffrey L Zubay, Fourth Edition, 1998 2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith Voet and Pratt, second edition, 1995 3. Harper’s Biochemistry by Murray etal. Appleton and Lange Publishers, 27h edition, 2006 4. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and Grisham, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 5. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 6. Textbook of Biochemistry by West and Todd, Fourth Edition, 1966 7. Chemistry of Natural Products, Volume I by Chatwal and Anand, Himalaya Publishing House, India 2002 8. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by J L Jain, Sanjay Jain and Nitin Jain, Sixth Edition, S. Chand Publishers, India, 2005 BMS –C002 - BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Core Course Unit I Physical properties of water, structure of water, hydrogen bonding, dipole moment, ionization of water, pH scale, acids, bases and buffers, pH measurements Bond angles, bond lengths, contact distances, asymmetry of right handed and left handed molecules 5
    • Osmotic pressure, osmolarity of fluids and electrolyte balance. Donnan membrane equilibrium, dialysis. Surface tension and viscosity of blood. Electrochemical techniques- principles of redox reactions, pH electrode, Clarke’s Oxygen electrode and their applications. Unit II Centrifugation principles, basic principles and laws of sedimentation. Preparative and analytical ultracentrifuges. Sedimentation equilibrium methods. Types of separation methods in preparative centrifuges. Differential and density gradient centrifugation. Analysis of sub-cellular fractions. Estimation of purity of macromolecules and detection of conformational changes. General approaches to biochemical investigations. Organ and tissue slice technique. Cell disruption and homogenizing techniques. Cell sorting and cell counting. Cryopresevation. Microscopy, Cytophotometryand Flow cytometry, manometric techniques. Unit III Chromatography: Theory and practice, column chromatography, column efficiency and resolution. Types of adsorption chromatography- hydroxyapatite chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC). Types of partition chromatography- normal phase and reverse phase- liquid chromatography, chiral and counter current chromatography. Paper chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography. Exclusion chromatography, chromatofocussing, affinity chromatography. Principles and application of GLC, LC, LPLC and HPLC. Selection of chromatographic systems. Unit IV Electrophoretic principles, support media, factors affecting electrophoresis. Types of electrophoretic techniques-zonal and disc electrophoresis. High and low voltage electrophoresis. Principles and applications of PAGE. Isoelectric focusing, Isotachophoresis, PFGE and capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids. Unit V Spectroscopy: basic laws of light absorption, optical rotatory dispersion, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction. UV and visible light spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry. Atomic flame photometry, Plasma emission spectroscopy, infra-red spectrophotometry. Basic principles, instrumentation and application of mass spectrometry, Tandem mass spectroscopy, ESR and NMR. Radiochemical methods, basic concepts, detection, counting methods and applications, autoradiography, Cerenkov radiation. Enzymes monitoring techniques and assay methods. Books Recommended: 1. Practical Biochemistry – Keith Wilson & John Walker, fifth edition, Cambridge Universtiy Press, UK (2000) 2. Analytical Biochemistry & Separation Techniques – Palanivelu third edition (2004) 3. Principles of Instrumental analysis – Skoog, Holler, Nieman, fifth edition Published by Harcourt College Publishers, Singapore (2001) 4. Enzymes Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Clinical Chemistry– Trevor Palmer, Published by Horwood Publishing Chichester, UK (2001) 5. Biochemical calculations – Irwin H. Segel, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA (1976) 6. Biochemistry, The Chemistry of Living cells – David E Metzler, second edition, Harcourt Academic Press, USA, 2001 BMS –C003 – CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY Core Course Unit-I Plasma Membrane : Biochemical composition :Membrane proteins glycophorin, bacteriothodopsin, membrane bound enzymes-cell surface antigens, Molecular organization, freeze fracture technique and fluid mosaic model, lipid and protein fluidity and molecular mobility of proteins. Isolation and characterization of plasma model membranes: isolation techniques for making multilamellar vesicle, bilayer, reconstitution of proteins into vesicles, liposomes. 6
    • Unit-II Mitochondria-Structure of mitochondria, inner and outer membrane, cristae, matrix aerobic respiration, respiratory chain carriers, respiratory enzyme complexes and redox potential, inhibitors of respiratory chain, uncouplers,. Thermodynamic principles, Energy rich bonds, coupled reactions and oxidative phosphorylations, Bioenergetics. Reconstitution experiments, theories on oxidative phosphorylation- Chemiosmotic hypothesis- loop mechanism, respiratory control, inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Microsomal electron transport: Components and function-cyt p450-biosynthesis of steroids and their detoxification, oxidation of xenobiotics, microsomal hydroxylations and NADPH- dependent mixed function oxidation. Unit-III: Membrane transport: Small molecules, simple diffusion, Donnan equilibrium, diffusion of charged and uncharged particles, Flick’s law, Nernst law passive transport. Facilitated transport :Pores and channels-properties, carriers, specificity, ionophores Transport proteins: Periplasmic binding proteins. Active transport : Energy for active transport. Na pump models mechanisms, Ca pump, ATP dependent proton pump. Co-transport: Symport and Antiport; sodium dependent glucose transport aminoacids and calcium. Unit-IV Microtubules-Structure, function and assembly, Colchicine interaction- formation of centrioles, basal bodies and mitotic spindle, cytokinesis. Golgi apparatus: ultra structural organization – cisternae dictysomes: functions: exocytosis: Protein maturation and modifications; sorting of proteins. Ribosomes: Assembly of ribosomal sub units. Lysosomes: formation and function- phagocytosis, nucleus-Nuclear envelope: pore complex: Nucleolus- Structure and composition: Chromosome: Chromatin structure. Nucleosome, histone and non histone proteins. Unit-V Vesicular traffic in the secretory and endocytic pathways- Transport from a) the ER through Golgi apparatus b)Trans Golgi Network to Lysosomes Mannose 6-Phosphate receptor shuttles Transport in excitable cells. Internalization of macromolecules by phagocytosis, endocytosis and exocytosis. Pinocytosis: Receptor mediated endocytosis- delivery of iron by transferring and infection. The molecular mechanisms of vesicular transport and maintenance of compartmental diversity. Books Recommended : 1. Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet, third edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons, USA, (2004) 2. Molecular Biology of the cell-Bruce Alberts Alexander John, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, fourth Edition, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New york, USA (2002) 3. The cell and molecular approach -Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert E Hausmann, third edition, ASM Press, Sinauer Associates Inc, Washington, DC (2007). 4. Molecular cell Biology –Lodish Baltimore, Berk, Matsudaira, Kaiser, Krieger, Scott, Zipursky, Darnell, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2004) . 5. Biochemistry –Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko and Lubert Stryer, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2007). 7
    • BMS –C004 - Practical I 1. Preparation of buffers and titration curves for simple acids and amino acids 2. Separation Procedures a. Separation of amino acids and sugars by paper Chromatography b. Separation of aminoacids, protein and protein hydrolysate by Ion Exchange Chromatography c. Separation of lipids by TLC d. Separation of plant pigments by column chromatography e. Separation of protein by Gel filtration f. Separation of glycoprotein by PAGE and lipoprotein by Agar Gel Electrophoresis 1. Subcellular fractionation of a cell by differential centrifugation and assay of markers (any two fractions sufficient) Nucleus (DNA), Mitochondria (SDH), Cytosol (LDH), Lysosome (Acid phosphatase), Microsome (Glucose 6 phosphatase) 2. Biochemical Studies and Estimation of Macromolecules a. Isolation and Estimation of Glycogen from liver b. Isolation and Estimation of DNA from animal tissue c. Isolation and Estimation of RNA from yeast d. Separation of starch from plant source and assessment of its purity e. Determination of N and C terminal aminoacids f. Denaturation of DNA and UV absorption studies 3. Colorimetric Estimations a. Estimation of pyruvate b. Estimation of lactate c. Estimation of Tryptophan d. Estimation of Total and Inorganic phosphate e. Estimation of protein by Lowry's method 4. Fluorimetric Estimations a. Estimation of vitamin - riboflavin, thiamine Books Recommended: 1. Textbook of Medical laboratory technology by Praful B Godkar and Darshan P Godkar, Second Edition, Published by Bhalani Publishing House, India (2003) 2. Introduction to Practical Biochemistry by Sawhney and Randhir Singh, Narosa Publishing House, London (2000) 3. Experiments in Biochemistry – A Hands on Approach by Shawn O Farrell and Ryan T Ranallo, Thomson Learning Inc., USA (2000) 4. Essentials of Practical Biochemistry by Lalit M Srivatsava, Nibhriti Das, Subrata Sinha, Published by CBS Publishers and Distributors, India, (2002) 5. Modern Experimental Biochemistry by Rodney Boyer, third edition, Published by Pearson Education Inc, Singapore, (2001) 6. Varley’s Practical Clinical Biochemistry by Alan H Gowenlock, published by CBS Publishers and distributors, India Sixth Edition (1988) SECOND SEMESTER BMS –C005 – Food Science and Nutrition Core Course Unit I The meaning of food – Food habits – The Nutrients, Nutrition and body weight - Determination – Food and energy – Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – Factors influencing BMR – Respiratory quotient – Food value of different commodities, conventional and novel sources of food. Unit II An overview of vitamins and minerals – function of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins – vitamin preparation, enrichment and fortification – overload and criteria of food sources – functions of minerals – requirements of macro and micro elements – under load and overload criteria for food sources. Antioxidants and oxidative stress 8
    • Unit III Nutrition for infants, children and adults – nutrition in pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition in diseases (liver disease, pancreatic insufficiency, obesity, alcoholism, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease) and malnutrition – Recommended daily dietary allowances. Unit IV Nutrition and Body’s defense – Dietary Guidelines for Disease Prevention, The Process of Cancer Development, the body’s Defense system and Nutritional Therapy. Drug–Nutrient Interactions - Drug-Nutrient Problems in Modern Medicine. Effects of Drugs on Food and Nutrients. Unit V Food Preparation and management – Food spoilage and Food preservation – Canning, Pressure canning, Freezing, Lyophilization and ionizing radiation. Food Microbiology – Micro organisms as food and in food products – Bacterial food poisoning and its prevention – Fermentation and fermented food products. Mycotoxins, aflatoxin, citrinin, patulin and mycotoxicosis. Books Recommended : 1. Techniques of Food Analysis – Andrew L Winton and Kate Barber Winton, Published by Agrobios (India) Ltd., (2001) 2. Human Nutrition and Dietitics, Garrow and James, Ninth Edition, Published by Churchill Livingstone Inc, USA (1996) 3. Antioxidant Status, Diet, Nutrition and Health, Andreas M Pappas , Published by CRC Press, Washington DC ( 1999) 4. Essentials of Nutrition & Diet Therapy 5th Edition – Sue Rodwell Williams. 5. Modern Nutrition in Health & Disease 8th Edition – Maurice E. Shils, James A. Olson, Moshe Shike. 3. Nutritional Biochemistry by Tom Brody, Acadmic Press, USA (1994) 4. Principles of food science Part I Food Chemistry Ed. By O.R. Fennema 5. Food Fundamentals Second Edition, Margaret Mc Williams. 6. Modern Nutrition in Health and disease. Wohl and Goodheart 7. Microbiology – principles and applications. John G. Creager, Jacquelyn G Black and Vee E Davison 8. Introduction to Nutrition, H. Fleck IV Ed. 9. The Science of food, by P.M.Gaman and B.Sherrington. BMS –C006 - PRINCIPLES OF IMMUNOLOGY Core Course Unit – I Immunity: Innate and acquired immunity, antitoxic antibacterial and antiviral immunity – Self and non-self discrimination – Structure and function of primary and secondary lymphoid organs – Phagocytic cells and their killing mechanisms – Differentiation of stem cell and idiotypic variations. Antigenicity: Antigens , autoantigens , blood group antigens, bacterial, viral and tumour antigens – Tissue antigenic determinants – Haptens – Immunogens. Unit – II Immunoglobulins: Isolation of immunoglobulins – Basic structures, functions, classification and variations of immunogobulins – Theories of imunoglobulin formation – Organisation and expression of immunoglobulin genes – Generation of antibody diversity. Anitgen – Antibody Interactions: Examples of antitoxins, opsonin, bacteriolysin, inflammatory process – Avidity and specificity of antibody – Multivalent binding – Cross reactivity – Kinetics of antigen antibody reactions. Unit – III Cells of Immune system: T and B lymphocytes – T cell receptor diversity – T and B cells interactions – Antigen processing and presentation – Kinetics of primary and secondary immune response. Complement system: Complement activation and its biological consequences. Production of vaccines and their uses. 9
    • Unit – IV Immunological Techniques: Principle and titre of antisera – Precipiation, agglutination – Precipitation test – Immunodiffusion – Immune adherence – Immuno electrophoresis – Immunofluorescence – Complement fixation test – Widal test – VDRL test – Test for AIDS. Hybridoma technique: Monoclonal antibody – merits and demerits – Recombinant antibodies, DNA vaccines – Radioimmuno assay – Enzyme immunoassay – ELISA and EMIT – Immunotherapy. Unit – V Allergy and Hypersensitivity – Immediate Hypersenstitivity, Delayed Hypersensitivity. Transplantation: Immunological response, HLA and other systems of human major histocompatability complex, rejection mechanism. Auto antibodies and autoimmune diseases. Books Recommended : 1. Immunology : Janis Kuby fourth edition, W H Freeman Company, USA (2000) 2. Essential Immunology : Ivan Roitt (Blackwell Science Publishers, UK, 1997) 3. A Hand Book of Practical Immunology : GP Talwar (Vikas Publishing House, 1983) 4. Immunology : DN Weir 5. Fundamentals of Immunology : OG Veir and others 6. Essential Immunology : In: Rokno (Ellis Croom, Helar) 7. Hand Book of Experimental Immunology : DM Weir (Blackwell Scientific Immunochemistry (Vol. IV) Publication, Chicago, 1986) 8. An introduction to Immunology : CV Rao, I edition, Narosa Publishers, India (2002) BMS –C007 - MACROMOLECULAR BIOSYNTHESIS Core Course Unit I Biosynthesis of nucleic acids Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, modes of replication, experimental models, semi-conservative replication of double stranded DNA, replication of circular DNA, central molecular dogma, reverse transcription Unit II DNA Replication Enzymology of DNA replication, action of gyrase, polymerization reactions and polymerases of prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, binding proteins, DNA ligase, DNases, events in the replication fork, termination, replication of bacterial viruses, animal viruses, plasmids and mitochondrial DNA. Unit III Transcription Basic features of RNA synthesis, prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA-polymerases, prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription - initiation, elongation and termination; classes of RNA molecules, mRNA,t RNA, rRNA: biosynthesis, maturation, post-transcriptional processing and splicing mechanisms; hypersensitive sites and enhancers. Unit IV Translation Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ribosomes, protein synthesis, genetic code, amino acid activation, initiation, elongation and termination of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation. Post-translational modification of proteins, polysomes, coupled-transcription and translation. Inhibitors and modifiers of protein synthesis. Unit V Proteoglycans and glycoprotein synthesis Glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate, keratin sulphate, heparin, glycoprotein synthesis (N-linked oligosaccharide, role of dolichol carrier- oligosaccharide transferring enzyme, ER and golgi apparatus, O-linked oligosaccharide synthesis with an example of mucin). Proteoglycans, mucoproteins, bacterial cell wall- peptidoglycan framework N- and O- glycosidic protein – anti-freeze, glycoprotein and mucins. 10
    • Books Recommended : 1. Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet, third edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons, USA, (2004) 2. Molecular Biology of the cell-Bruce Alberts Alexander John, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, fourth Edition, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New york, USA (2002) 3. The cell and molecular approach -Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert E Hausmann, third edition, ASM Press, Sinauer Associates Inc, Washington, DC (2007). 4. Molecular cell Biology –Lodish Baltimore, Berk, Matsudaira, Kaiser, Krieger, Scott, Zipursky, Darnell, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2004) . 5. Biochemistry –Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko and Lubert Stryer, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2007). BMS –C008 - PRACTICAL II Enzyme Studies a. Isolation, Purification and Kinetic studies of i) Acid phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase of rat kidney or liver ii) Urease from plant seeds iii) Amylase from saliva b. Assay of phosphatase, ATPase and Creatinine Phosphokinase, ß- glucuronidase, LDH (spectrophotmetric assay) c. Immobilization of Alkaline Phosphatase by entrapment method Food Analysis a. Proximate analysis of food material for protein, carbohydrate, fat, calorific value calculation b. Ash content and Moisture content of food c. Estimation of Ca and Fe from ash Immunological Studies a. Serotyping b. Production of antibody c. Determination of Antibodytitre. d. Assay of IgM, IgG e. Qualitative determination of antigen by Outcherlony diffusion technique Books Recommended: 1. Textbook of Medical laboratory technology by Praful B Godkar and Darshan P Godkar, Second Edition, Published by Bhalani Publishing House, India (2003) 2. Introduction to Practical Biochemistry by Sawhney and Randhir Singh, Narosa Publishing House, London (2000) 3. Experiments in Biochemistry – A Hands on Approach by Shawn O Farrell and Ryan T Ranallo, Thomson Learning Inc., USA (2000) Essentials of Practical Biochemistry by Lalit M Srivatsava, Nibhriti Das, Subrata Sinha, Published by CBS Publishers and Distributors, India, (2002) Modern Experimental Biochemistry by Rodney Boyer, third edition, Published by Pearson Education Inc, Singapore, (2001) Varley’s Practical Clinical Biochemistry by Alan H Gowenlock, published by CBS Publishers and distributors, India Sixth Edition (1988) THIRD SEMESTER BMS –C009 - ENZYME BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Core Course Unit I: ENZYME STRUCTURE X- ray diffraction, enzyme structure, chemical modification by active site directed reagents- Modification of protease, active site, Affinity Labelling; Other probes for enzyme structure, site directed mutagenesis, classification of enzymes, co factors as carriers: Redox carriers (NAD, NADP, flavor proteins, lipoate, glutathione, ascorbic acid, quinnones, cytochromes) CO Carriers (Biotin): Amino group Carriers (Pyridoxal phosphate, Acyl coA, carnitine). 11
    • Carriers of one carbon Group: (Tetra hydrofolate, Homocystene) Aldehyde Carrier (T-P) Phosphate Carriers (ADP) Sulphate Carriers (adenosine triphosphate): Glycosyl Carriers (UDP). UNIT II: AN INTRODUCTION TO BIO ENERGITICS, AND KINETICS First and second laws of thermodynamics ; Enthalpy, entropy, and free energy; free energy and chemical reaction; Factors affecting rate of chemical reaction – Collision theory , Activation energy and transition-state theory, catalysis. ENZYME KINETICS General Kinetic principles: Steady – state enzyme kinetics MM eqation and linear transformation of MM equation – reversible reactions – fast reactions and methods of study- rate equation by King and Altman, Enzyme Inhibition: kinetics of competitive, noncompetitive, uncompetitive and mixed inhibitors, Reactions of two substrates- isotope exchange. Unit III:ENZYME REGULATION Allosteric and Cooperative effects: Conquered model of Monod et al, and Sequential model of koshland et al, principles of metabolic regulations; feedback regulations of multifunctional pathway, NAD/ NADH ratio, adenylate change. Mechanism of enzyme action : Acid base Catalysis, covalent catalysis, chymotrypsin, metals in enzyme catalysis: Pyruvate kinase, Super oxide dismutase creatine kinase, carboxy peptidase Multi enzyme complex: Fatty acid synthetase complex, Biological significance of multi enzyme complex. Unit IV: ENZYME TECHNOLOGY Isolation and purification of enzymes: extraction of enzymes- soluble enzymes, membrane bound enzymes, purification- precipitation methods, chromatographic methods, and electrophoretic methods, criteria of purity- total activity and specific activity, crystallization of enzymes Immobilized enzymes, techniques of immobilization, effect of immobilization on enzyme activity, application of immobilized enzymes. Immobilized enzyme complexes, uses of enzymes in solution. Commercial production of enzymes- amylases, proteases , pectinases, cellulases. Unit V: APPLICATIONS OF ENZYMES Uses of enzymes in analysis - enzyme electrodes. Enzyme as biosensor, colorimetric biosensor, potentiometric biosensor, optical and industrial applications of enzymes. Commercial value: steriodical conversions, penicillin and antibiotic conversion, immunosensor. Recent advances and future prospects of enzyme engineering; artificial enzymes. Enzymes in organic solvents, enzyme targeting using liposomes, isoenzymes. Books Recommended : 1. Biocatalysis – Fundamentals and Applications by Andreas S Bommarius and Riebel, Wiley VCH, Verlag GmBH &Co., USA, 2004 2. Enzymes Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Clinical Chemistry– Trevor Palmer, Published by Horwood Publishing Chichester, UK, 2001 3. Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet, third edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2004 4. Molecular Biotechnology by S. B. Primrose, Second Edition, Panima Publishing Corporation, India,2001 5. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 6. Biochemistry by Mathews van Holde and Kevin G Athern, III edition, Published by Pearson Education Inc., Singapore, 2003 7. Protein Engineering in Industrial Biotechnology by Lilia Alberghina, Harwood Academic publishers, Netherland (2003) BMS –C010 - MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND CELL SIGNALING Core Course Unit I Chloroplast and Photosynthesis : Structure of Chloroplasts – Photosynthesizing prokaryotes and eukaryotes, light reaction – photsystems, plastoquinine, plastocyanin, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, dark reactions – carbon cycle and the energetic reactions in CO2 fixation. 12
    • Nitrogen fixation system : Nitrogen fixing organisms (eg. Azetobacter, Clostridium, Rhizobium), Symbiotic relationship in leguminous plants. Nitrogen fixation, Molecular nitrogen to ammonia through the intermediate formation of di-imide and hydrazine. Conversion of nitrate to ammonia by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter and metabolism of amino acids. Unit II Gaseous transport, and Acid Base homeostasis : Molecular mechanism of the movement of O2 and CO2 through lungs, arterial and venous circulation. Bohr effect, Oxygen and CO2 binding hemoglobin, pH maintainence by cellular and extracellular proteins, phosphate and carbonate buffers through the lungs and the kidney. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. Hormonal regulation of water balance in man. Cell – Cell adhesion, Cell – matrix adhesion , Cell junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes, Gap junctions and communication between cells. Unit III Sensory Transduction : Nerve impulse transmission – Nerve cells, synapses, reflex arc structure, Resting membrane potential, Nernst equation, action potential, voltage gated ion-channels, impulse transmission, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter receptors, Synaptosomes, synaptogamin. Rod and cone cells in the retina, Biochemical changes in the visual cycle, photochemical reaction and regulation of rhodopsin. Odor receptors, Learning and memory Chemistry of muscle contraction – actin and myosin filaments, theories involved in muscle contraction, mechanism of muscle contraction, energy sources for muscle contraction. Unit IV Cell signaling - Different types of signaling, cell surface receptors, G protein coupled receptors and Receptor tyrosine kinases, Spatial arrangement of receptor, a protein, protein kinase, adenylate cyclase in the celll membrane, their stimulation and inhibition, signaling molecules, cAMP and MAP kinase pathways. Metabolic pathways for the formation of Inositol triphosphate from phosphatidyl inositol diphosphate, formation of DAG, Ca2+ channel activation, ryanodine receptors, Receptor activation and phosphoregulation of inositol and the calcium channel activation, activation and translocation of protein kinase C in the cell membrane. cAMP and CREB, JAK-STAT pathway, Smads Interaction between various signaling pathways Unit V Cell cycle : Growth factors, different phases of cell cycle, cyclin dependant kinases – check points in the cell cycle – yeasts and mammalian cell cycle regulation. Polypeptide growth factors, signals for the stimulation of DNA synthesis and cell division. Developmental control genes of nematode worm Apoptosis – pro-apoptotic regulators and caspase activation Mitogens, mutations causing loss of cell cycle – oncogenic mutations affecting cell proliferation – mutations affecting genome stability. Books Recommended : 1. Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet, third edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons, USA, (2004) 2. Molecular Biology of the cell-Bruce Alberts Alexander John, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, fourth Edition, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New york, USA (2002) 3. The cell and molecular approach -Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert E Hausmann, third edition, ASM Press, Sinauer Associates Inc, Washington, DC (2007). 4. Molecular cell Biology –Lodish Baltimore, Berk, Matsudaira, Kaiser, Krieger, Scott, Zipursky, Darnell, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2004) . 5. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 6. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 7. Cell and Molecular Biology by Gerald Karp, third edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2002) 13
    • 8. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical chemistry – Burtis and Ashwood, Fifth Edition, WB Saunders Company, Oxford Science Publications USA, (2001) Core course Unit I Restriction and modification systems - restriction enzymes. Other DNA modifying enzymes and their uses like end labelling, nick translation, random primer labelling, dephosphorylation, phosphorylation, blunting, end filling etc. BMS –C011 - MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Cloning vectors - plasmids, phages, cosmids, phagemids, shuttle vectors, expression vectors, suicide vectors, runaway plasmids, YACs. Restriction, ligation, transformation, recombinant selection methods. Unit II Genomic - and cDNA - library construction. High level expression of proteins. Production of insulin, interferon, interleukins, thrombolytic factors, tumour necrosis factor, human growth hormone and other rare biologicals. Production of peptide vaccines, novel antibiotics by gene manipulation. Transgenic animals and their uses. Unit III DNA polymorphism - Mutation and Molecular basis of genetic diseases: Haemoglobinopathies, phenylketonuria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy. DNA and RNA probes and their uses in disease diagnosis and in forensics. RFLP, SSCP and their applications. DNA sequencing. PCR and its application in infections and genetic disorders. FISH and its uses. Human gene therapy. Unit IV Human Genome Project - genome mapping - physical and genetic mapping of human genes. Application of human gene mapping - Bioinformatics, proteomics, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics. Current status of human gene mapping. DNA finger printing, prenatal diagnosis of human disorders. Unit V Production of monoclonal antibodies and their uses in diagnosis of diseases: sexually transmitted diseases, viral diseases, bacterial infections, cancer detection, pregnancy testing. Monoclonal antibody for preventive and therapeutic purposes. DNA vaccines. Protein engineering and its applications. Books Recommended : 1. Principles of Gene Manipulation - An Introduction to Genetic Engineering ( 5th Ed.). -- RE Old and SB Primerose 2. Gene Cloning - An Introduction (3rd Ed.) -- TA Brown 3. Recombinant DNA (4th Ed.) -- James D Watson et al., 4. th Genetics in Medicine (5 Ed.) -- Thompson et al., 5. DNA Technology - The Awesome Skill -- I Edward Alcano BMS –C012- PRACTICAL III 1. Collection and preservation of urine and blood samples. 2. Liver Function test: Estimation of bilirubin – direct and indirect. Estimation of plasma protein, A/G ratio, Thymol turbidity test, Assay of serum gluatamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase. Isoenzyme separation of LDH by electrophoresis. 3. Renal Function test: Qualitative tests for normal and pathological component of urine. Estimation of blood and urine urea, creatinine, creatine and uric acid. Urea clearance test. 4. Estimation of blood glucose by orthotoluidine and glucose oxidase method. Determination of glycosylated Hb. Glucose Tolerance Test. 5. Lipid profile; Esimation of cholesterol by Zak’s method, lipoprotein profile, estimation of ketone bodies, estimation of triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids. 6. Endocrine function: Assay of insulin by ELISA, estimation of urinary excretion of VMA, 5-HIAA, 17- ketosteroids, 17-ketogenic steroids, plasma level of cortisol. 14
    • 7. Electrolytes: Determination of serum calcium, sodium, potassium by flame photometer. Estimation of chlorides, phosphates. Estimation of Cu, Fe by colorimetric method. 8. Antioxidant status: estimation of LPO, assay of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Estimation of Vitamins A, E and C. 9. Haematology: RBC Count, WBC Count – total and differential count, ESR, PCV, MCV. Estimation of haemoglobin. Books Recommended: 1. Textbook of Medical laboratory technology by Praful B Godkar and Darshan P Godkar, Second Edition, Published by Bhalani Publishing House, India (2003) 2. Introduction to Practical Biochemistry by Sawhney and Randhir Singh, Narosa Publishing House, London (2000) 3. Experiments in Biochemistry – A Hands on Approach by Shawn O Farrell and Ryan T Ranallo, Thomson Learning Inc., USA (2000) 4. Essentials of Practical Biochemistry by Lalit M Srivatsava, Nibhriti Das, Subrata Sinha, Published by CBS Publishers and Distributors, India, (2002) 5. Modern Experimental Biochemistry by Rodney Boyer, third edition, Published by Pearson Education Inc, Singapore, (2001) 6. Varley’s Practical Clinical Biochemistry by Alan H Gowenlock, published by CBS Publishers and distributors, India Sixth Edition (1988) FOURTH SEMESTER BMS –C013- HORMONAL BIOCHEMISTRY Core Course Unit I Hormones of the hypothalamus and the pituitary – organisation of hypothalamus and hypophysis: chemical nature, biosynthesis, secretion and biochemical action of adenohypophysial hormones (GH, TSH, ACTH, LH,FSH, MSH and prolactin) and neurohypophyseal hormones (oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone), hypophyseal releasing and inhibiting factors Unit II Hormones of the adrenals – hormones of the adrenal cortex. Chemical nature, biosynthesis and mechanism of action of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids. Hormones of the medulla – chemical nature, biosynthesis and amechanism of action of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine). Endocrine function of the kidney – renin – angiotensin system Unit III Sex hormones – hormones of the testes and ovaries – chemical nature and biosynthesis of androgens, estrogens and progesterone. Metabolic fate and mechanism of action of androgens, estrogens and progesterone. Hormones of the corpus luteum and reproductive cycle. Disorders of the male and female reproductive system. Endocrine Responsive Cancer - Breast, Endometrial and Prostate Cancers. Unit IV Pancreatic hormones and other gastro-intestinal hormones – chemical nature of insulin and glucagon . Biosynthesis and regulation of secretion of insulin and glucagon. Effect of insulin and glucagon on carbohydrates, lipids and protein metabolism. Somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptides. Gastro-intestinal hormones – gastrin, enterogastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin. Unit V Hormones of the thyroid, parathyroid and prostaglandins – chemical nature and biosynthesis of thyroid hormones – structure and metabolic effect. Effect on carlorigenesis and induction of amphibian metamorphosis. Parathyroid hormones and calcitonin and calcium level and kidney function. Prostaglandin – chemical nature and biosynthesis, biological action of prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways, cAMP, a second messenger of hormone action. Books Recommended : 1. Textbook of Biochemistry – West, Todd and Mason 15
    • 2. Priinciples of Biochemistry – White A. Handler P and Smith E L 3. Clinical Biochemistry – E.J. King and I.D.B. Wootan 4. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology by Larsen, Kronberg, Melmed, and Polonsky, Tenth edition, Saunders Publications, USA, 2003 5. General endocrinology – Turner (C.T.Donnell) 6. Harper’s Biochemistry by Murray etal. Appleton and Lange Publishers, 27th edition, 2006 BMS – C014- METABOLIC AND GENE REGULATION Core Course Unit I Principles of metabolic control – hormonal control of metabolism – modulation of enzyme activity – non- covalent and covalent regulatory mechanisms, identification of rate limiting enzymes in metabolic pathways. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis : Cori’s cycle and Alanine cycle, Phosphofructokinase as the key enzyme in glycolysis, role of fructose 2,6 diphosphate, hexokinase and pyruvate kinase as regulatory enzymes in glycolysis. Glycogen synthesis and degradation : cAMP and its co-ordinated control of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis – Phosphorylase activation and inactivation, role of calcium and phospho inositide cascade. HMP shunt : G6PD as a regulatory enyzme. Role of NADPH in metabolism Unit II Lipid metabolism : Fatty acid biosynthesis, control of acetyl CoA carboxylase, role of hormones in lipid metabolism, effect of diet on fatty acid synthesis, Eicosanoid biosynthesis. Biosynthesis and regulation of triacyl glycerol, cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and sphingomyelin. Fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues, degradation, role of carnitine. Ketogenesis and its regulation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its regulation. TCA cycle – citrate synthase, ICDH and α - KGDH as regulatory sites Unit III Nitrogen Metabolism : Key role of glutamate dehydrogenase and its regulation, Urea cycle and its regulation. Biosynthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation. Key junctions in metabolism : Glucose –6-phosphate, pyruvate and acetyl CoA. Starve –Feed Cycle. Mechanisms involved in switching the metabolism of liver between the well-fed state and the starved state. Metabolic interrelationships of tissues in various nutritional and hormonal states. Unit IV Regulation of the activity of genes and gene products in prokaryotes. Types of regulation of transcription – positive and negative regulation. Jacob and Monod model of Operon concept – Lactose system – purification and structure of the repressor – effect of glucose on lac operon – regulatory region of the DNA of the lac operon – Mutants and gratitutous inducers of lac operon. Galactose operon, arabinose operon, tryptophan operon and their regulation. Regulons – HTP regulon, Pho regulon and SOS regulon Regulation of synthesis of ribosomes. Unregulated changes in gene expression- Flagellin synthesis Life cycle of Bacteriophage λ - Lytic and lysogenic cycles, λ genetic switches. Unit V Regulation in Eukaryotes: Differences in the genetic organization of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 16
    • Gene Families : Simple, multigene, complex multigene and developmentally controlled complex gene families. Regulatory strategies in eukaryotes – gene alteration, gene loss, gene amplification and gene rearrangement. Regulation of synthesis of primary transcript Response elements – Promoters, enhancers, DNA binding domains – Zinc finger motif, Homeodomains, Helix Loop Helix, Leucine zipper. Transcriptional control by hormones, regulation mediated through transcription factors, Histone acetylation and deacetylation, demethylation of DNA. Regulation of processing and polyproteins : Translational control: life time of m-RNA – control of initiation – regulation of rate of overall protein synthesis – regulation of the synthesis of vitellogenin. Books Recommended : 1. Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet, third edition, Published by John Wiley & Sons, USA, (2004) 2. Molecular Biology of the cell-Bruce Alberts Alexander John, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, fourth Edition, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New york, USA (2002) 3. The cell and molecular approach -Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert E Hausmann, third edition, ASM Press, Sinauer Associates Inc, Washington, DC (2007). 4. Molecular cell Biology –Lodish Baltimore, Berk, Matsudaira, Kaiser, Krieger, Scott, Zipursky, Darnell, fifth edition, Published by WH Freeman and Company, USA (2004) . 5. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 6. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 7. Cell and Molecular Biology by Gerald Karp, third edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA (2002) 8. Genes VIII by Benjamin Lewin, WH Saunders Publishers, USA, (2002) 9. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical chemistry – Burtis and Ashwood, Fifth Edition, WB Saunders Company, Oxford Science Publications USA, (2001) BMS – C 015 - MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASES Core Course Unit- I Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism Diabetes Mellitus and it s metabolic complications, GTT, assay of insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin. Glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, fructosuria, pentosuria, mucopolysaccharidosis, Disorders of lipid metabolism Sphingolipidosis, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Lipoproteins and hyperlipoprotenemia, LCAT deficiency, gall stones, gout, tropical sprue. Unit- II Disorders of amino acid, protein and nucleic acid metabolism Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, rheumatoid factors, multiple myeloma, glutathioneurea, Hartnup disease, hyperuricemia and gout, adenosine deaminase, oratic aciduria, Lesch Nyhen syndrome. Prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of inborn errors using enzyme assays, PCR, ARMS. RT-PCR, DHPLC in amniotic fluid, Chorionic villi. Disorders of blood Blood Agranulocytosis, Thrombocytopenia, β Thalassemias, anemias, haemoglobinopathies, disorders of blood clotting mechanism, laboratory test to measure coagulation and thrombolysis Unit-III Organ function tests Liver function test with special reference to hepatitis and jauindice, renal function test and gastric function test Diagnostic significance of serum enzymes Routine urine analysis and stone analysis, 17
    • Unit-IV Free radicals and anti-oxidants : chemistry of free radicals and reactive oxygen species-superoxide, hydroxyl peroxyl,alkoxyl, non radicals-hydrogen peroxide, reactive nitrogen species, role of nitric oxide, role of metals, generation of free radicals by one electron reduction, Detection of free radicals, trapping and finger printing methods: Lipid peroxidation, protein damage by ROS/RNS, DNA damage by ROS/RNS and repair mechanisms. Anti-oxidant defense enzymes-Superoxide dismutase,catalases, glutathione peroxidase, Glutatione reductase, glutathione-S- transferases.Free radical scavengers-Vitamins C,E, carotenoids, reduced glutathione, uric acid etc. Free radicals in health and disease. Reactive species as useful biomolecules, Origin of oxidative stress, consequences, Implications of free radicals in Atherosclerosis. Hypertension, Diabetes, Ischemia- reperfusion, Arthritis, Cancer, aging and Xeroderma pigmentosum. Unit-V Cancer Biology- Characteristics of tumor cells, cell culture and transformation, characteristics of transformed cells, changes in cell-cell interaction. Etiology of cancer- Agents of transformation –viruses as agents and oncogenes, DNA viruses, RNA viruses- retro viruses, chemical carcinogenesis and radiation carcinogenesis. Growth pattern, immortalization, angiogenesis. Molecular basis of cancer- apoptotic and tumor suppressor gene.Chemotherapy of cancer and other contempory therapies- immunotherapy and gene therapy. Books Recommended : 1. Cell and molecular biology- Gerald Karp, third edition (2002) 2. Biochemistry, A case oriented approach- Montgomery, Comway, Spector, Chappell, Sixth Edition, Mosby Publishers, USA, (1996). 3. Text book of Biochemistry –A clinically oriented approach-Dinesh Puri, B.I. Churchill Livingstone Inc., India (2002) 4. Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlations-T.M.Devlin. fifth edition (2002) 5. Free radicals in biology and medicine-Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge, Third Edition, Oxford Science Publications (1999). 6. Biochemical, Pharmacological clinical aspects of Nitric oxide-Weissman 7. Fundamentals of Biostatistics – Khan and Khanum UKaaz Publishers, India, Second Edition (2004) 8. Flavonoids in Health and Diseases-Rice Evans and Lester Packer, Marshall Decker Publishers, USA (1998) 9. Human Molecular Biology – Epstein- Cambridge University Press, UK (2003) 10. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical chemistry – Burtis and Ashwood, Fifth Edition, WB Saunders Company, Oxford Science Publications USA, (2001) 18
    • ELECTIVES I Semester BMS 1067- PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY - I Unit I Carbohydrates: Occurrence, chemical properties and classification, stereoisomerism and optical isomerism. Monosaccharides: Structure, properties, general reactions and their derivatives. Oligosaccharides – structure and general reaction. Polysaccharides – homoglycans: structural properties starch, cellulose and glycogen. Heteroglycans – structure, properties, mucopolysaccharides. Unit II Lipids-Classification, Structure and Function. Aminoacids - classification and structure. peptide linkages. Proteins and their classification and structure. Unit III Purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides and Nucleic acids Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, end products of purine and pyrimidine catabolism. Unit IV Biochemical test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, jaundice, liver and kidney function tests. Unit V Inborn errors of metabolism-Glycogen storage diseases, enzymes in clinical diagnosis References 1. Biochemistry by Geoffrey L Zubay, Fourth Edition, 1998 2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith Voet and Pratt, second edition, 1995 3. Harper’s Biochemistry by Murray etal. Appleton and Lange Publishers, 27th edition, 2006 4. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and Grisham, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 5. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 6. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical chemistry – Burtis and Ashwood, Fifth Edition, WB Saunders Company, Oxford Science Publications USA, (2001) 7. Text book of Biochemistry –A clinically oriented approach-Dinesh Puri, B.I. Churchill Livingstone Inc., India (2002) 8. Textbook of Biochemistry with clinical correlations-T.M.Devlin. fifth edition (2002) II Semester BMS E002 -Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY - II Unit I Classification of enzymes, enzyme mechanism, active site. Inhibition, competitive, uncompetitive noncompetitive and allosteric inhibitions, Co-enzymic of vitamins. Unit II Glucose metabolism - glycolysis, glucogenesis and glycogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, UDP hexoseamines and uronic acids and convertion of galactose to glucose. Unit III Fatty acids breakdown, phospholipid hydrolysis, cerebrosides and ganglisoside bisoynthesis and break down, cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid production, ketone bodies. 19
    • Unit IV Tricarboxylic acid cycle, biological oxidation and mitochondrial energy metabolites, oxidative deamination, transmination, decarboxylation, formation of urea, glutamine, creatinine ketogenic and glycogenic aminoacid., transmethylation, lipotrophic factors. Unit V Caloric requirement, recommended dietary allowances of vitamins mineral and proteins, Biological role of proteins, essential amino acids and fatty acids. Vitamin deficiency states and the mechanism of action of fat and water soluble vitamins. References 1. Biochemistry by Geoffrey L Zubay, Fourth Edition, 1998 2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith Voet and Pratt, second edition, 1995 3. Harper’s Biochemistry by Murray etal. Appleton and Lange Publishers, 27th edition, 2006 4. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and Grisham, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 5. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 III Semester BMS E003 - INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM Unit – I Classification of enzymes, enzyme mechanism, active site, inhibition, competitive, uncompetitive, noncompetitive and allosteric inhibitions, co-enzymic of vitamins. Unit II Glucose metabolism: Glycolysis, glycogenesis and glyconeogenesis, pentose – phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, UDP hexoseamines and uronic acids and convertion of galactose to glucose. Unit III Fatty acid breakdown, phospholipid hydrolysis, cerebrosides and ganglioside biosynthesis and break down, cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid production, ketone bodies. Unit IV Tricarboxylic acid cycle, biological oxidation and mitochondrial energy metabolics, oxidative deamination, transamination, decarboxylation, formation of urea, glytamine creatine, ketogenic and glycogenic aminoacid transmethylation, lipotrophic factors.] Unit V Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. End product of purine and pyrimidne, catabolism. References 1. Biochemistry by Geoffrey L Zubay, Fourth Edition, 1998 2. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith Voet and Pratt, second edition, 1995 3. Harper’s Biochemistry by Murray etal. Appleton and Lange Publishers, 27h edition, 2006 4. Principles of Biochemistry with human focus by Garrett and Grisham, Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005 5. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson and Cox, fourth edition, W H Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2005 20
    • Degree of Master of Science in the Faculty of Medicine for Science Graduates M.Sc. Branch II – Physiology (Interdisciplinary) Faculty of Medicine Under Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) New Regulation 2007 - 2008 1. ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO THE COURSE AND EXAMINATION A Candidate for admission to Branch II – Physiology should have passed in any of the following examinations of the University of Madras or any other University accepted by the Syndicate of this University as equivalent there to and shall be permitted to appear for M.Sc. degree in Physiology (Faculty of Medicine) of this University after a course study of three academic years. 1. B.Sc. Degree with any three of the following subjects at main or ancillary level namely Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Physics and Bio-chemistry. 2. B.Sc. degree in Life Sciences, Bioscience, Biology, Nutrition and Bio technology 3. B.Sc. (Allied Health Sciences) 2. Duration. The duration of the course of study shall be six semesters in three academic years. Each academic year which spans from July of a calendar year to June of next calendar year will consist of 180 working days with a total of 1000 working hours in each academic year. A student shall obtain the Master degree if he / she has: a. Registered, undergone and secured the required minimum credits for all the core, and elective courses and completed the project work. b. Has no due to University, Hotel or library and submitted no due certificates to the HOD. c. Has no disciplinary action pending against him / her. 3. Course of study. The duration of this course will be three years. The maximum period permitted for completion of the course shall be 6 years. The Course of study for the degree shall be of Semester pattern under Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) and will have Semesters I and II in the first year, Semesters III and IV in the second year and V and VI in third year. 4. Registration during course of study. The candidates admitted will assigned a Code number will be assigned indicating the course joined, the year of admission, and individual identification. At the beginning of each semester the candidate should register their names in the departments in which the core and elective subjects are being offered as specified in the course content book. The Registration form shall be filled in triplicate and with the details of the Core and Elective courses to be taken in each semester with the number of credits and signed by the candidate and the student advisor. Candidates must register for a minimum of 15 credits and maximum of 24 credits in a semester. However they should take a minimum of 108 credits in all subjects put together in 6 semesters to obtain pass and get the degree. The student’s advisor will help in selecting the core and elective courses. 5. Examination. There will be two sessional assessments and one end semester examination in each semester. End semester Examinations will be conducted on 15th of November for I III and IV semester and 15 th of April for II, IV and VI Semester of the course in every academic year. A Candidate should complete the course within 12 semesters. 21
    • For each subject the marks of two sessional tests shall be taken as 20% + 20% and totaled as 40% of continuous assessment. The end semester mark will be taken as 60% and the total of 100% will be computed adding all these marks. For a pass, a candidate is expected to secure a minimum of 50% marks in each of the theory paper individually and 50% in each of the practical and viva voce including continuous assessment put together. However, if a student failed in any one or more of the theory papers or practical in each semester examination, he / she shall attend classes of the next semester and register for the failed subjects and appear for the failed subjects in the subsequent semester along with the examination of the that semester. However they have to clear all the theory and practical examinations and dissertation for completion of the course and obtain degree. For passing the course they should earn a minimum of 108 credits. The failed candidate after completion of the all the VI semester of course should attend the theory and practical classes in which they have to re appear to complete and pass the examinations. 6. Minimum marks for passing. For a pass, a candidate is expected to secure a minimum of 50% marks in each of the theory paper individually and 50% in each of the practical and viva voce including continuous assessment put together. All the theory, practical, viva and dissertation examination should be cleared for obtaining the degree. For passing the course they should earn a minimum of 108 credits. 7. Eligibility for appearing Final examination and Submission of the Dissertation. i. The Candidates will be permitted to appear in the final semester Examination only after obtaining the certificate from the coordinator of the course about the satisfactory completion of all the course of study. ii. Three copies of the dissertation should be submitted by the third year students on or before 15th November of the 5th semester with a certificate from the guide and concerned Head of the Department. 8. Scheme of examination. There will be 6 semester examinations and each will be held in at the end of each semester. The examination will be held on 15th November for 1st semester and on 15th April for 2nd semester in the 1st year of course. The 3rd semester examination will be held 15th on November and 4th Semester examination will be held on 15 th April in the 2nd year of course. The 5th semester examination will be held on 15th November and 6th semester examination will be held on 15th April. Students will be given the degree only after passing the theory and practical and viva examination of the all the semesters. They should obtain a minimum of 108 credits for a pass in the course. In these 108 credits the candidates should get a minimum 90 credits in core subject, 18 credits in elective course. The examination will include theory papers, Practical and viva voce examinations. Both theory paper and practical will be of three hours duration. The students should submit a research dissertation in the 5th semester. 9. Classification of successful candidate. Candidates who obtain a minimum of 108 credits and 75% of the marks and above in the aggregate of all 6th Semester examinations shall be deemed to have passed the examinations in FIRST CLASS with OUTSTANDING Grade. Candidates who secure not less than 108 credits and 60% of the aggregate marks in all 6 th semester examinations shall be declared to have passed the examination in the FIRST CLASS. All other successful candidates shall be declared to have passed in .SECOND CLASS. Candidates who pass all the examinations in the first appearance and within a period of stipulated three academic years from the year of admission to the course are only eligible for ranking as First Class or First Class with Outstanding grade. 10. Attendance. Students should have a minimum of 80% of the attendance failing which they shall not be allowed to appear for the examinations. Under valid grounds such as health problems and maternity leave, a lower percentage of attendance may be permitted on production of valid evidences such as medical certificate and proofs of treatments undergone. In such cases students are liable for the payment of penalty, which will be prescribed by the University from time to time. However in any circumstances students with less than 70% of percentage shall not be permitted to appear for examinations. Branch II M.Sc. Physiology (Interdisciplinary) SYALLBUS Duration of the Course: 36 Months (6 Semesters) 22
    • FIRST SEMESTER (1st July to 15th November) Total teaching Hours: 500 Teaching Schedule-Theory and Practical subjects and distribution of Credits and Marks Course code Subjects Teaching Theory /Practical Credits Marks Total Marks Hours* Core/ Elective Human Physiology I 60 Core Theory 4 100 100 Human Histology and Embryology Section - A Theory Human Histology 45 Core 3 50 Section - B 100 Embryology 50 Human Anatomy –I 60 Core Theory 4 100 100 Practical –I Human anatomy Periodic assessment Core Record work 45 Practical 20 100 3 Viva Voce 10 Final Practical 20 (25 Spotters) 50 Physiology Practical–I Core Human Physiology 45 Practical 100 Periodic assessment 20 3 Record work 10 Viva Voce 20 Final Practical 50 Core 17 Total Total Marks 500 * Teaching hours included Lectures, Demonstrations and Seminars Elective courses recommended for the 1st Semester BMS Principles of Biochemistry (45hours Elective theory Credit3) SECOND SEMESTER (1st December to 15th April) Total teaching Hours: 500 * Teaching Schedule Theory and Practical subjects and distribution of Marks Course Code Teaching Theory / Practical Subject Hours* Core/ Elective Credits Marks Total Marks Human Physiology -II 60 Theory Core 4 100 100 Human Anatomy -II. 60 Theory Core 4 100 100 23
    • Practical III Human anatomy II and Neuro anatomy 20 Periodic assessment 90 Practical Core 10 3 100 Record work 20 Viva Voce 50 Final Practical (25 Spotters) Physiology Practical II Human Physiology 20 Periodic assessment 90 Practical Core 10 Record work 3 20 100 Viva Voce 50 Final Practical Core 14 Total 400 Total Marks * Teaching hours included Lectures, Demonstrations and Seminars Elective courses recommended for the 1st Semester BMS Principles of Biochemistry - II (45hours, Elective theory, Credit3) THIRD SEMESTER (1st July to 15th November) Total teaching Hours: 500 Teaching Schedule - Theory and Practical subjects and distribution Credits and of Marks Course Code Teaching Total Theory / Practical Credits Marks Subject Hours* Marks Core/ Elective Human Physiology III: General BMS Physiology -I 60 Theory 4 100 100 Core Human Physiology IV: General BMS Physiology-II 60 Theory 4 100 100 Core Human Physiology V: BMS Physiology III Core 60 4 100 100 Theory Human Physiology VI: BMS Physiology IV Core 60 4 100 100 Theory Research Method in Anatomy BMS 45 3 100 100 Core Theory Project Work** Core - - - 24
    • Hours Core 23 Total Total 00 Marks * Teaching hours included Lectures, Demonstrations and Seminars Elective courses recommended for the 3rd Semester BMS Medical Imaging and Radiology (Elective Course – 3 Credits) BMS Principles of Endocrinology (Elective Course – 3 Credits) BMS Principles of Genetics I (Elective Course – 3 Credits) BMS Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 45 hours (Elective Course – 3 Credits) **Project Work will be assigned in the beginning of 3rd Semester. The candidate will complete their project work and submit their Dissertation on 15th November in the 5th Semester. FOURTH SEMESTER (1st December to 15th April) Total teaching Hours: 500 Teaching Schedule Theory and Practical subjects and distribution of Marks Course Code Teaching Total Subject Theory / Practical Credits Marks Hours* Marks Core/ Elective Human Physiology VII: BMS Research Methods in Physiology I 60 Theory 4 100 100 Core Human Physiology VIII: BMS 60 Research Methods in Physiology II Theory 4 100 100 Core Human Physiology IX: BMS 60 Research Methods in Physiology III Theory 4 100 100 Core Physiology Practical III - Research Methods in Physiology BMS Periodic assessment 90 20 Practical 3 100 Record work 10 Core Viva Voce 20 Final Practical 50 Total Hours Core 17 * Teaching hours included Lectures, Seminars and Practical. Other Electives courses recommended for the 4th semester MSI Bio statistics (Elective course - 3 Credits) BMS Reproductive Endocrinology (Elective course - 3 Credits) BMS Computer Application in Biology and Medicine (Elective course - 3 Credits) BMS Basic Pathology (Elective 3 Credits) BMS Principle of Genetics -II (Elective course - 3 Credits) FIFTH SEMESTER (1st July to 14th November) Total teaching Hours: 500 Teaching Schedule Theory and Practical subjects and distribution of Marks Subject Teaching Course Code Credits Marks Total 25
    • Theory / Practical Hours* Marks Core/ Elective BMS Dissertation 314 Practical 10 100 100 Core Physiology Practical IV- Clinical examination BMS 20 Periodic assessment 120 Practical 4 10 100 Record work Core 20 Viva Voce 50 Final Practical Core 14 Total * Teaching hours included Lectures, Seminars and Practical. Elective courses recommended for the 5th semester BMS Principles of Genetics I (Elective – 3 Credits) PHY Biomedical Instrumentation (Elective – 3 Credits) BMS 1091 Drug Therapy (Elective – 3 Credits) BMS 2089 Fundamentals of Environmental Toxicology / Neurotoxicology (Elective – 3 Credits) * Project Work will be assigned in the beginning of 3rd Semester. The candidate will complete their project work and submit their Dissertation on 15th of November in the 5th Semester. SIXTH SEMESTER (1st December to 15th April) Total teaching hours: 500 Teaching Schedule Theory and Practical subjects and distribution of Marks Course Code Teaching Total Subject Theory / Practical Credits Marks Hours* Marks Core/ Elective Human Physiology VII: BMS Advances in Physiology 60 Theory 6 100 100 Paper 1 Core Human Physiology VIII: BMS Advances in Physiology 60 Theory 6 100 100 Paper 2 Core Human Physiology IX: BMS Advances in Physiology 60 Theory 6 100 100 Paper 3 Core Practical V- Experimental Physiology Cranial nerve and Autonomic function test BMS Periodic assessment 100 120 Practical 4 Record work 20 Core Viva Voce 10 Final Practical 20 50 26
    • - 100 Final Viva Voce Core 3 100 Core 26 500 Total 500 * Teaching hours included Lectures, Seminars and Practical. University of Madras Degree of Master of Science in the Faculty of Medicine Branch II - M.Sc. Physiology (Interdisciplinary) SYLLABUS DETAILED SYLLABUS 1st SEMESTER BMS - Human Anatomy I Theory (Core -4 Credits) (60 Hours) (Upper limb, Lower Limb and Thorax) Overview of Anatomy 1. Medical and Anatomical terminology, The Anatomical position, The Anatomical Plans, Sections of the body, Terms of relationship. Terms of comparison, Terms of movement, Anatomical Variations. 2. Diagnostic Imaging, 3. Bones and the skeletal system, Types of bone, 4. Joints, Classification of joints, innervation of joints. 5. Muscle tissue and muscular system. Types of muscle, 6. Blood vessels and cardiovascular system, Lymphatic and the Lymphatic system, Functions of the lymphatics, Nervous tissue and nervous system. The upper limb ( 1. Bones of the upper limb, The pectoral Girdle. 2. The pectoral muscles, 3. The axilla, The Brachial plexus . 4. The back and shoulder region Muscles connecting the upper limb to the vertebral column, The scapular muscles . 5. The arm , The Humerus, The brachial fascia and intermuscular septum,6. Muscles of the arm The cubital fossa. 7. The Forearm, Muscles in the cubital region, 8.bones of the wrist and hand 9. Muscles of the forearm. 10. Nerves of the forearm, 11.Arteries of the forearm, 12 The extensor muscles of the forearm,13. The posterior nerves of the forearm , The posterior arteries of the forearm .14. The Wrist and Hand , The hand. 15. Joints of the upper limb , 16. Patient oriented problem, Discussion of patients problems. ( 1st mid term examination ) The Lower Limb 1. The Hip and thigh areas, The bone and surface anatomy of the hip, 2. The bones and surface anatomy of the thigh, 3.The fascia of the thigh, The thigh muscles, 4.The femoral triangle . 5.The Gluteal Region, the gluteal nerves, 6.The gluteal arteries, The Gluteal veins , 7. The Posterior thigh muscles , 8.The Popleteal fossa , 9.The leg, 10.Bones of the leg , Surface anatomy of the leg , 11. Bones of the Foot , 12. The Crural Fascia , Compartments of the Leg. 13.The Foot , Muscles of the foot , 14. Nerves of the foot , 15.Arteries of the foot , 16.Veins of the foot. 17.Joints of the Lower Limb , The Hip joint , 18.The knee joint , 19.The Tibiofibular joints , The ankle joint , Joints of the foot , The Arches of the foot. 20.Patient Oriented Problems , Discussion of Patient's problems. (2nd mid term examination) The Thorax 1. The Thoracic Wall , Skin and Fascia of the Thoracic Wall , 2. Bones of the Thoracic Wall , 3. Surface Anatomy of the Anterior Thoracic Wall , 4.The Breasts , 5.Movements of the Thoracic Apertures , 6. Muscles of the Thorax , 7.The Intercostal Spaces , The Intercostal Nerves , The Intercostal Arteries , The Intercostal Veins , 8.The Internal Thoracic Vessels . 9.The Thoracic Cavity , 10.Pleura and Pleural Cavities , 11.The Lungs. 12.The 27
    • Mediastinum , The Pericardium , 13.The Heart , 14. The Superior Mediastinum , The Posterior Mediastinum , The Anterior Mediastinum. 15. Patient's Oriented Problems , Discussion of Patient's Problems . (End Semester Examination - including all the portions) Text Book: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, Keith L.Moore . Williams and Wilkins1992. 3rd Edition Book for Reference: 1. Structure and Function of the Body, Mosby Year Book 2. Grant's Method of Anatomy - Williams and Wilkins BMS Human Embryology and Histology Theory (Core - 3 Credits) (45 Hours) Human Embryology General Embryology: 1. Gametogenesis - Development of gametes. 2. First week of Development - Ovulation to Implantation. 3. Second week of Development - Bi-laminar Germ disc. 4. Third week of Development of tri-laminar germ disc. 5. Third to eighth week- The embryonic period. 6. Third month to Birth. The fetal Period and birth defects. 7. Fetal membranes and placenta. . Text Book: Langman's Medical Embryology. T.W. Sadler, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. (8th Edition) 2000. Human Histology Part I .: 1. Cell structure and function 2. Cell cycle and application Part II. Basic tissue types. 3. Blood. 4. Connective tissue 5.Epithelial tissue 6. Muscle 7. Nervous tissue . Part 3. Organ systems 8. Circulatory system 9. Skin 10. Skeletal tissue 11. Immune system 12. Respiratory system 13. Oral tissue 14. Gastro intestinal tract. 15. Liver and pancrease 16. Urinary system 17. The endocrine glands 18. Male reproductive system 19. Female reproductive system 20. Central nervous system 21. Special sense organs Text Book Wheater's Functional Histology, A Text and colour atlas. H. George Burkitt and Barbara Young and John W. Heath . ELBS English Language Book Society. Churchill Livingston . 1997. 3rd Edition. BMS - Practical -I Human Anatomy (Core 3 Credits) (45 Hours) Gross Anatomy - Demonstration of various Regions in Human Cadaver. Text Book Cunnighams Mannual of Practical Anatomy C.J. Romanes, Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford. 15th Edition. 2000. BMS Human Physiology - I. Theory (Core - 4 Credits) (60 Hours) Theory: The theory shall include principles of General cell Physiology and all systemic physiology. The standard of teaching shall be that of The Guyton text book of physiology. Unit I. Cell Physiology - Unit II. Muscle Physiology - Unit III. Blood - Unit IV Respiratory Physiology - Unit V Reference Books: 1. Text book of Medical Physiology. Arthur C. Guyton and John E. Hall. Har Court Asia Pvt Ltd. W.B. Saunders Company. Singapore. 2000. 10th Edition. 2. Human physiology, The basis of Medicine – Gillian Pocock and Christopher D.Richards. OXFORD, University press- 1999, First edition. 3. Review of Medical Physiology. William F. Ganong. The McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.2003. 21st Edition. BMS Physiology Practical - I - Human Physiology (Core - 3 credits) (90Hours) Haematology particles: 1. R.B.C count 2. Total leukocyte count 3. Estimation of Haemoglobin concentration 28
    • 4. Determination of packed cell volume (PCV) 5. Blood Indices 6. Differential Leukocyte count 7. Determination of Blood groups 8. Determination of bleeding time and clotting time. Reference Books: 1. Textbook of Practical Physiology , Ghai - 2004 2. Text book of Medical Physiology. Arthur C. Gyton and John E. Hall. Har Court Asia Pvt Ltd. .B. Saunders Company. Singapore. 2000. 10th Edition. 3. A Text book of practical Physiology, AR. Chaudhari. Paras Medical Pulishing 2000. 4. Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, SM Lewis , BJ Bain, I Bates – Churchill Livingstone-9th Edition 2001. SYLLABUS FOR RECOMMENDED ELECTIVE COURSES BMS 1071 Principle of Biochemistry -I Theory (Elective Course -3 Credits) (48 Hours) Bio Organic Chemistry A. Structure of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides with reference To ring structure, linkage, reducing action functional groups and occurrence of glucose, galatose, fructose, ribose, dexyribose, maltose, lactose, surose, starch, Cellulose, glycogen, hexosamines and hexuronic acids. (Derivation of structures is not needed) B. B. Fatty acids (Unsaturated and saturated chain length) glycerol, esters, phospholipids, and sphingolipids, cholesterol, ergosterol, hormonal steroids and bile acids. C. Amino acids classifications, peptide linkages, polypeptides, and proteins, primary, secondary, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures, reversible and irreversible inactivation of proteins, isoelectric point. Examples of plasma protein, haemoglobin, casein and egg albumin. D. Purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids. Enzymes Classification of enzymes, enzyme mechanism, active site, inhibition, competitive, uncompetitive, noncompetitive and allosteric inhibitions, co-enzymic of vitamins. Digestion of polysaccharides, triacyl glycerols and proteins in the gastro intestinal tract. Reference Books Harpers's Biochemistry, Robert K. Murray Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes and Victor W. Rodwell. Prentice -Hall International, INC. Singapore. 24th Edition. 1998. Principles of Biochemistry, Ambika shanmugasundaram DETAILED SYLLABUS 2nd SEMESTER BMS 1052 Human Anatomy II Theory (Core 4 Credits) (136 Hours) Head , Neck, The Head (74 Hours) 1. The skull , 2. Bones of the skull. 3.The face , Muscles of the face , 4.Arteries of the face , 5.Veins of the face , 6.Lymphatic Drainage of the face , 7.The parotid Gland . 8.The Scalp , Layers of the Scalp , Nerves of the Scalp , Arteries of the Scalp , Veins of the Scalp , Lymphatic Drainage of the Scalp . 9. The Cranial Fossae , The Anterior Cranial Fossae , The Middle Cranial Fossae , The Posterior Cranial Fossae. 10.Cranial Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid , 11.The Brain, The main parts of the brain , Ventricular System and CSF. 12. The Orbit , The orbital contents , The orbital muscles . 13. The parotid region , 14. The temporal region , 15. The temporal fossae , The infratemporal fossa. 16. The temporomandibular joint , 17. The oral region , The oral cavity , The palate The tongue , 18. The salivary glands , 19.The pterygopalatine fossa . 20.The nose , The paranasal sinuses . 21. The ear , The external ear , The middle ear , 23. The internal ear . 24. Patient Oriented Problems , Discussion of Patient's Problems. (1st Mid semester examination) 29
    • The Neck (25Hours) 1. Surface Anatomy of the Neck , Superficial Neck muscles . 2. Triangles of the Neck , Posterior triangle of the neck Anterior triangle of the neck , 3. The cervical viscera , 4.Fascial planes of the neck. 5.The Larynx , 6.Muscles of the pharynx , Interior of the pharynx. 7. The Larynx , 8. Patient Oriented problems , Discussion of patient's problems. The cranial nerves (32 Hours) 1. The olfactory nerve, 2.The optic nerve, 3.The oculomotor nerve, 4.The trochlear nerve, 5.The trigeminal nerve, 6.The abducent nerve, 7.The facial nerve 8.The vestibulocochlear nerve, 9.The Glossopharyngeal nerve, 10.The vagus nerve, 11.The accessory nerve, 12..The hypoglossal nerve. The Back (15 Hours) 1. The vertebral column , Normal curvatures of the vertebral column , Palpation of the vertebral column , 2.The vertebrae , 3.Joints of the vertebral column . 4.Muscles of the back , The Extrinsic back muscles , The intrinsic back muscles ,. The suboccipital region . 5. Spinal cord and Meninges , 6. Patient Oriented Problems , Discussion of Patient's Problems. (End semester examination including all portions) Text Book: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, Keith L.Moore . Williams and Wilkins1992. 3rd Edition. Book for Reference: 1. Structure and Function of the Body, Mosby Year Book 2. Grant's Method of Anatomy - Williams and Wilkins BMS 1058 Human Physiology II Theory (Core 4 Credits) (136 Hours) 1. Cardiovascular system (60 hours) 2. Special senses (20 hours) 3. Central Nervous system (56 hours) Reference Book: 1. Text book of Medical Physiology. Author C. Guyton and John E. Hall. Har Court Asia Pvt Ltd. W.B. Saunders Company. Singapore. 2000. 10th Edition 2. Human Anatomy and Physiology , Elaine N. Marieb 4th Edition 1998. 3. Anthony’s Text book of Anatomy and Physiology , Gary A. Thibodeau 13th Edition 1990 4. Text book of Physiology, Gabriel C. Ezeilo – Oxford press 1st Edition 2002. BMS 1080 Practical -V - Human Physiology -II (Core - 3 credits) (90 Hours) Haemotology 1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 2. Osmotic fragility of red blood cells 3. Specific gravity of blood by copper sulphate 4. Platelet count 5. Reticulotcyte count 6. Absolute Eosinophil count Reference Books: 1. Text book of Medical Physiology. Arthur C. Gyton and John E. Hall. Har Court Asia Pvt Ltd. W.B. Saunders Company. Singapore. 2000. 10th Edition. Books for Reference: 2. A Text book of practical Physiology, AR. Chaudhari. Paras Medical Pulishing 2000. 3. Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, SM Lewis , BJ Bain, I Bates – Churchill Livingstone-9th Edition 2001. BMS 1060 Practical - III - Human Anatomy II and Neuro Anatomy (Core - 3 credits) 90 Hours Gross Anatomy - Demonstration of various Regions in Human Cadaver. Demonstration of Human brain and dissected brain Text Book Cunnighams Manual of Practical Anatomy C.J. Romanes, Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford. 15th Edition. 2000. SYLLABUS FOR RECOMMENDED ELECTIVE COURSES 30
    • BMS 1072 PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY - II Theory 48 Hours ELECTIVE COURSE - ( 3 CREDITS) Intermediary Metabolism A. Glucose metabolism : Glycolysis, glycogenesis, pentose - phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, UDP hexoseamines and uronic acids and conversion of galactose to glucose. B. Fatty acid breakdown, phospho lipid hydrolysis, cerebrosides and ganglioside biosynthesis and break down, cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid production, ketone bodies. C. Tricarboxylic acid cycle, biological oxidation and mitochondrial energy metabolics, oxidative deamination, transamination, decarboxylation, formation of urea, glytamine creatine, ketogenic and glycogenic aminoacid transmethylation, lipotrophic factors. D. Biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in the intact cell. End product of purine and pyrimidine, catabolism. Nutritional Biochemistry A. Caloric requirement, recommended dietary allowances of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Biological role of proteins, essential amino acids and fatty acids. B. Vitamins deficiency states and the mechanism of action of fat and water soluble vitamins, hormonal actions. Clinical Biochemistry A. Inborn errors of metabolism with reference to galactosamine, phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, albinism, sphingolipidosis and mucopolysacchoridisis. B. Biochemical test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, jaundice, liver and kidney/function tests. Importance of assay of serum choliesterol, creatinine, phosphokinase, amylase, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and LDH in diagnosis. Reference Books. Harpers's Biochemistry, Robert K. Murray Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes and Victor W. Rodwell. Prentice -Hall International, INC. Singapore. 24th Edition. 1998. Principles of Biochemistry Ambika shanmugasundaram DETAILED SYLLABUS 3rd SEMESTER BMS Human physiology III: General Physiology - Theory core (112 Hours 6 Credits) Unit I: (28 hour) Function of cell organelles. Membrane structure –Transport across biological membrane. Simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, transport through channels and gating of channels, active transport, osmosis – method of studying channels. Unit II: (20 hour) Receptors: Sensory receptors - up and down regulation of hormonal receptors - Generator potential Unit III: (28 hour) Ionic basis of cell membrane potential –Nernst equation - Goldman Hodgkin equation - generation of action potential - components of action potential - types of action potential - methods of studying membrane potential and recording of action potential. Unit IV: (36 hour) Homeostasis: definition, Regulatory mechanism – positive and negative feed back mechanisms. Blood volume – Temperature - Blood glucose and their regulations - Acid base balance Reference books: 31
    • 1. Rceptors: Structure and Function, Clare Stanford and Roger Horton - Oxford press 2nd edition 2001. 2. Cell Physiology Molecular dynamics, Henry Tedeschi. Wm.C. Brown Publishers 2nd Edition. 1993. 3. Text book of Medical Physiology. Author C. Guyton and John E. Hall. Har Court Asia Pvt Ltd. W.B. Saunders Company. Singapore. 2000. 10th Edition 4. Basic Clinical Physiology-Oxford Medical Publications 5. Review of Medical Physiology. William F. Ganong. The McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.2003. 21st Edition. BMS Human physiology III: Physiology III Theory core (112 Hours) (6 Credits) Unit I: (52 hours) 1. Urinary system: Structure of urinary system and its histology with reference to its function. Blood supply and its peculiarities with reference to its function. Types of nephrone. 2. Mechanism of urine formation: Glomerular Filtration Rate - Factors responsible for Glomerular Filtration - Filtration fraction - Filtration coefficient - Factors regulating GFR Tubular reabsorbion: Proximal convoluted tubule - renal tubular maxima - renal thresh hold 3. Loop of Henle: Components in counter current mechanism - Role of exchanger and multiplier system. 4. Distal convoluted tubule (DCT): Juxta Glomerular Apparatus - Renin angiotensin system - Reabsorption and secretary process in the DCT. Collecting duct: Anti diuretic hormone function - Role in the maintenance of medullary interstitial fluid - Ureter –urethrorenal reflex - Vesicourethral reflex. 5. Bladder: Structure and innervations with reference to the function - cystometrogram - Micturtion reflex - urine volume and composition. Unit II (60 hours) 1. Gastro intestinal system (GI): Structure of GIT - intrinsic and extrinsic nervous system of GI tract. 2. Salivary gland: composition of saliva - it’s functions. 3. Stomach: Parts and types of glands in stomach - composition of gastric juice and their functions. 4. Liver: Bile composition and functions - role in digestion - enterohepatic circulation. 5. Pancreas: Pancreatic juice composition and it functions. 6. Digestion and absorption of fat, carbohydrate and proteins. Reference Books: 1. Human Physiology, Rhoades. Pflanzer – Thomson and Brooks 4th Edition 2003. 2. Best and Taylor’s Physiological Basis of Medical Practice John B. West 12th edition.1990. 3. Gastrointestinal Physiology, Leonard R.Johnson - Mosby press 6th Edition 2002, 4. Concepts of Human Physiology, Malvin, Johnson, Malvin - 1997 BMS Research methods in Anatomy, Practical (Core 3 Credits) (48 Hours) Demonstration of perfusion and fixation of animals Tissue procession of a given tissue piece up to blocking. Demonstration of microtome parts and their working, working Demonstration of cryostat, and cryosectioning of a given tissue. Demonstation of sectioning of the paraffin blocks. Staining the paraffin sections with H & E, trichrome, PAS and Toluidine blue. Staining the given sections for Neural cells, myelin, axons and glia using CFV, LFB, Loyex, Weigert & Pal, Bielchowsky’s silver and modified PTAH methods. Fluorescent tracer study using DiI – tracing a neural pathway in an animal cadaver. Demonstration of Nikon microscopes and their accessories Photomicrography. LIST OF PRACTICAL CLASSES 1. Perfusion fixation of a rat 2. Tissue processing and embedding in paraffin wax 32
    • 3. Section cutting of a paraffin block 4. Tissue preparation and sectioning using cryostat 5. Toluidine blue staining 6. Haematoxylin & Eosin staining. 7. Masson’s trichrome staining 8. Mallory’s trichrome staining 9. PAS Staining 10. CFV staining 11. Loyez’s method of staining 12. Glees and Marshland’s modification of Bielchowsky’s silver staining 13. Golgi-cox method of impregnation 14. Modified PTAH staining 15. Viability estimation using Trypan Blue exclusion method 16. Gastrocnemius innervation in frogs – DiI tracer injection 17. Fluorescent Microscopy for DiI labelled tissues 18. Stereological& Morphometry – I. Estimation of gross anatomical parameters such as weight, gross measurements, volume and specific gravity of various organs. 19. Stereological & Morphometry – II. Estimation of various microanatomical parameters such as area, volume density, numerical density, axial ratio of different tissue components of various organs 20. Reconstruction techniques – usage of camera lucida of drawing 21. Isolation of cells from tissues using trypsination for cell culture studies 22. Macro Photography 23. Photomicrography – light and fluorescent microscopy Books for Reference 1. Theory and practice of Histological Techniques, Bancraft and Marilyn Gamble. Churchill Livingstone, London. 5th Edition. 2002. 2. Trouble shooting Histology Stains - Churchill Living stone BMS MEDICAL IMAGING AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE Theory (Elective course - 3 credits) (90 Hours) Theoretical aspects, exact practical steps and interpretation of results regarding the following techniques 1. X-rays a. Plain x-rays b. Angiography c. Cholangiography d. Urography both intravenous and retrograde e. Salphingiography f. Barium meal, barium swallow and barium enema 2. Ultrasound Investigations 3. Doppler Study for Vascular structures 4. Computerized Tomography – both plain and contrast 5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging – both plain and contrast based BMS1013 Principles of Endocrinology Theory (Elective course - 3 credits) (48 Hours) Introduction to Endocrine organs - endocrine secretions - Hypothalamo - hypophyseal axis - Hypothalamic regulation of pituitary functions - Pituitary hormones and their target organs Thyroid glands - Its hormones - Their functions - The adrenal gland , adrenal cortex - adrenal medulla - cortical hormones and their functions - medullary hormones and their functions - Hormones of Islets of Langerhans and their functions - Endocrine functions of gonads - Hormones involved in calcium homeostasis - Endocrine diseases. BMS 1027 Principles of Genetics I (Theory) Elective Course - 3 Credits (48 Hours) Candidates with a good biology background are encouraged to take this course. The candidates will be introduced to the basic terms of genetics which will include Mendelian ratios, linkage and recombination, chromosome structure and abnormalities, structure and properties of the genetic material and basic biochemical genetics. 1. Essential Genetics , Daniel, L. Hartl. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston. 1996. 2. Basic Human Genetics, Rober F. Weaver and Philip W. Hedrick. W.C. Brown Publishers. Dubuque. 2nd Edition. 1995. 3. Basic Genetics, Gurbachan S. Miglani, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. 2000. BMS 1011 Molecular and cellular endocrinology Theory (Elective course - 3 credits) 33
    • (48 Hours) Course Objective To provide theoretical background on the molecular aspects of hormone synthesis secretion and action to those who intend to pursue research in this line. Syllabus: Chemistry, secretion, metabolism and action of peptide, thyroid, steroid Hormones and biogenic amines with reference to metabolic regulation. Interaction, gene expression, Mechanism of action of steroid and peptide hormones - Modulation of hormone secretion. Practical Methodology of Radio (RIA) Immuno assay and Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) DETAILED SYLLABUS 4th SEMESTER BMS Human Physiology V: Research Methods in Physiology I Theory (Theory Core130 hours Credits 6) Unit I: (28 hours) Cell : Methods of recording of action potentials - method of studying the channels Clinical disorder with reference to cell division - Turner's Syndrome -Klinefelter syndrome - Down syndrome (trisomy 21) non disjunction Unit II: (50 hours) Blood: Plasma protein - normal value - separation – its function- Plasmapheresis to show origin - Variation in Health and disease. Erythrocytes: Morphology -Variation in Physiological and Pathological condition - Factor regulation RBC production - Diseases affect RBC production - Anemias & its classification - determination of Anemia - Determination Life span of RBC. Jaundice: classification of Jaundice – Diagnosis - Clinical importance. Reticulocyte counts. Coagulation disorders and diagnostic test - Clotting time - Prothrombin time - Blood grouping – typing – its importance - Coombs test –direct and indirect methods. WBC: Function- Variation in Physiological and Pathological condition - Immune mechanism and antibody formation. Platelets: Origin –morphology – function – variation – disorders. Blood volume regulation – dehydration - edema – blood volume expanders. Diathesis - Some heritable disorders of blood coagulation associated with bleeding - Genetic disorders - Classic Hemophilia (factor VIII deficiency) - Von Willebrands disease (factor VIII deficiency, platelet abnormalities) - Christmas disease (factor IX deficiency) – Thalassemia - autoimmune disorder - Sickle cell anemia . Unit III: (32 hours) Gastro Intestinal system: Gastrointestinal movement - Jakson’s Enterograph - Endoscopy - Fractional test meal - Different classical pouches to study HCL secretion. Liver function tests. Unit IV: (20 hours) Kidney: Tubular function studies –Composition - Urine abnormal constituents - Kidney function tests. Reference Books: 1. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology, Cyril A. Keele, Eric Neil and Norman Joels Oxford press- 13th edition 1988 2. Text book of Physiology, Patton, Fuchs, Hille, Scher, Steiner. 21st edition 1989 3. The Phsiology of Excitable cells, David J. Aidley - Cambridge press- 4th edition 1998. 4. Gastro intestinal Transit Michael A.Kamm and John E. Lennard-Jones - WB Publisher 1st edition 1991. 5. Human Physiology , Vander, Sherman, Luciano - WCB Mc Graw Hill 6th Edition 1994 6. Cell Physiology Molecular dynamics, Henry Tedeschi. Wm.C. Brown Publishers 2nd Edition. 1993. 7. Sodium – Calcium Exchange, Donald W. Hilgemann, Kenneth D. Philipson, Guy Vassort- The New York Academy of Sciences- 1996. BMS Human Physiology VI: Research Methods in Physiology II Theory (Theory Core130 hours Credits 6) Cardio Vascular System Unit I: (74 hours) 34
    • Properties of Cardiac Muscle - General Principle - Einthovan law-Recording - Vector analysis - Diagnostic importance of ECG – Abnormal ECGs - Heart sound: Phonocardiogram - Abnormal heart sounds - thrills. Pulse – Recording - Clinical importance - Starling’s law - Starling’s heart lung preparation – Principle and application – Laplace law-Application- Triple response: Blood flow measurement by dye dilution- Fick’s principle and other methods Unit II (56 hours) Respiration: Physiological laws in respiration Mechanics of respiration, Lung volume and capacity, Compliance - Artificial respiration-Recording-Intrapulmonary pressure recording -Pulmonary function tests - Blood gas analysis. Reference Books: 1. Human Physiology , David F. Moffett, Stacia B. Moffett, Charles L. Schauf - Mosby - 2nd Edition 1993. 2. Human Physiology , Vander, Sherman, Luciano - WCB Mc Graw Hill 6th Edition 1994 3. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology, Cyril A. Keele, Eric Neil and Norman Joels Oxford press- 13th edition 1988. 4. Progress in Sensory Physiology, D. Ottoson - Springer- Verlag - 1989 MSI SU2 Bio-Statistics Theory (Elective Course 48 hours 3 Credits) Unit I: Frequency distribution- Diagrammatic representation – measures of Central tendency – Dispersion – Probability – Probability distribution – Binominal, Poisson & Normal Distribution- Applications in Biology , Correlation and Regression, Multiple and Partial Correlation – Rank Correlation. Unit II: Large Sample test – Small Sample test – Student “t” “F”’ tests – Chi-square test for independence and Goodness of fit – Analysis of Variance, Non parametric Tests – Sign test, Run test, median test, Two Sample Rank test. BMS 1012 Reproductive Endocrinology Theory (Elective Course 3 Credits48 hours) Sex differentiation and development of mammalian gonads and accessory sex organs, conception, and contraception and neuroendocrine perspectives of mammalian reproduction; methods of evaluation of male and female reproductive functions, semen analysis, hormone assays and induced ovulation. BMS Physiology Practical III- Research Methods in Physiology (Core 3 Credits 96 hours) 1. Total count- -Arneth count- count-Peripheral smear study, 2. Recording mechanical action potential in frog, Effect of second stimulus, repeated stimulus Tetanus and fatigue, effect of ions, effect of temperature on frog muscle 3. Demonstrating Starting law 4. Recoding Intestinal movement and drug effect - EMG 5. Isolated and intact frog’s heart preparation: effect of ions and drug on heart - Stannius ligature - General conduction pathway. 6. ECG recording 7. Blood Pressure - Measurement – Effect of exercise and postural variation on BP. 8. Respiration - Spirometry - Stethograph- Peak flow meters-FEV1-FEV2- Reference Text books: 1. A Text book of practical Physiology, AR. Chaudhari. Paras Medical Pulishing 2000. 2. Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, SM Lewis , BJ Bain, I Bates – Churchill Livingstone-9th Edition 2001. 3. Manual of Practical Physiology, A.K. Jain. - Avichal publishing company - 3rd edition 2004 BMS 1028 Principles of Genetics II Theory (3 Credits) (Elective Course 3 Credits) Pre-requisite: BMS 127-Principles of Genetics I or equivalent course. This course outlines the tenets of genetics in the areas of molecular genetics, microbial genetics, development genetics and environmental genetics. BMS 1078 Basic Pathology Theory Elective Course (48 Hours) (3 Credits) 35
    • Acute and Chronic inflammation- Tissue repair, Cellular growth, wound healing - Hemo dynamic disorder, thrombosis and shock - Genetic diseases - Diseases of Immunity Neoplasia - Infectious Diseases - Environmental and Nutritional Pathology - Diseases of Infancy & Childhood - Slides of the Condition to be shown and explained - Relevant Specimens to be studied - Relevant stains to be studied. - Diseases of the specific organs. Text Book: Cell Tissue and Disease. The basis of pathology Neville Woolf. W.B. Saunders Company Ltd. Edinburgh. 3rd Edition. 2000. DETAILED SYLLABUS 5th SEMESTER BMS Dissertation submission (Core practical, Hours 314, Credit 6) Project Work will be assigned in the beginning of 3rd Semester. The candidate will complete their project work and submit their Dissertation on 15th of November in the 5th Semester. BMS Physiology practical IV: Clinical examination. Core practical (90 hours 4 Credits) Clinical examination: General examination - Cardiovascular system – Respiratory system - motor and sensory nerve system testing. Reference books: 1. Essentials of Clinical Neurophysiology ,K arl E. Miulis and Thomas C. Head. -Butterworth and Heinemann 3rd edition 2003. 2. Hutchison’s Clinical Methods, Michael Swash - W.B.Saunders _ 21st Edition 2002. 3. Clinical Neruophysiology, UK Misra and J, Kalita – Churchill Livingstone- 1st edition 2001. 4. Macleod’s Clinical Examination, John F, Munro and Ian W. Campbell - Churchill Livingstone 10th Edition 2000. 5. Clinical Methods Wakeley BMS 1027 Principles of Genetics I (Elective Course, Hours 48 – 3 Credits) Candidates with a good biology background are encouraged to take this course. The candidates will be a introduced to the basic tenets of genetics which will include Mendelian ratios, Linkage and recombination, chromosome structures and abnormalities, structure and properties of the genetics materials and basic biochemical genetics PHY 2041 Biomedical Instrumentation Theory (Elective Course - 3 Credits) (48 Hours) Electro physiology - Bio signal - Acquisition - Measurements and monitoring systems - Sensory measurement and nervous systems - Clinical laboratory instrumentation - Bio telemetry and electrical safely. DETAILED SYLLABUS 6th SEMESTER BMS Human Physiology VII: Advance in Physiology I Theory (Theory Core130 hours Credits 6) Unit I: (28 hours) Transport: Pinocytosis - transport within cells phagocytosis and exocytosis with special transport proteins involved Unit II: (28 hours) Digestive system: GI hormone - GI movements - dietary fibers constipation – Achalasia- Zollinger Ellison syndrome - reflux esophagitis diverticulities - Megacolon - Dumping syndrome - Appendicitis. Unit III: (40 hours) Respiration: - High altitude physiology - Hypoxia classification - Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy - Dyspenic Index – Cyanosis - Hypercapnia – Asphyxia - Emphysema – Peumothroax and Deep sea physiology –Deep sea diving and its effect on body gases - Pathological condition affecting gas exchange - Types of respirations. Types of muscle and exercise. Effect of different exercise mild -moderate and severe aerobic and anaerobic exercises Unit IV: (34 hours) Kidney: Micturtion reflex and disorders - cystic fibrosis - Fanconi syndrome - renal glycosuria - Acute and chronic renal failure - Diseases of kidney and Urinary system - Diuretics - Dialysis – Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis - Diabetic insipidus. 36
    • Reference Books: 1. Comprehensive Human Physiology R. Greger, U. Windhorst – Volume I & II Springer- 1996. 2. Renal Physiolgy, Bruce M, Koeppen and Bruce A. Stanton 2002 3rd Edition BMS Human Physiology VIII: Advance in Physiology II Theory (Theory Core 130 hours Credits 6) Unit I: (60 hours) CVS: blood flow factors affecting, theories for blood flow. - Poussiuille’s law- Pulmonary circulation, Coronary circulation, Lymphatic circulation, cerebral circulation, splanchnic circulation shock classification Unit II: (70 hours) Endocrinology and Reproduction: Definition – Endocrine – Hormones - Methods of study – Alteration - Replacement - Bio assay – Role of second messengers and its types. Clinical disorders: Sheehan syndrome - Gigantism – Acromegali - Dwarf: Levi-Lorain dwarf/African dwarf - Diabetic mellitus – Piturary and adrenal diabetics - Insulin shock - Addisonian crisis - Cushing syndrome – Conn syndrome – Tetany - Pheochromocytoma – Goiter and its types - Graves disease – Myxedema - Cretinism - Osteoporosis - Adrenogenital syndrome - In appropriate ADH syndrome - Houssay animal - Fertility control - Fertility clinical Ablation - Replacement therapy for male and females - Determination of ovulation time – Cloning - Super female - true Hermaphroditism - Gauchers disease Reference Text books: 1. Essential endocrinology, John Laycock and Peter Wise - 3rd Edition 1996 2. Text book of Endocrine Physiology, James E. Griffin and Sergio R. Ojeda - Oxfort University press - 4th Edition 2000. 3. The Biochemistry of Cell Signalling, Ernst J.M.Helmreich - Oxfort University press- 1st Edition 2001. BMS Human Physiology IX: Advance in Physiology III Theory (Theory Core130 hours Credits 6) Unit I: (33 hours) Muscle - Theories of muscle contract - General muscle power testing - Duchene Type muscular dystrophy, Becker’s muscular dystrophy - Grip dynamometer. Unit II (33 hours) Special senses: Theories of colour vision - Color blindness and testing - Visual acuity – Perimetry - Errors of refraction - Glaucoma - Theories for hearing - deafness testing - Audiometry -Taste adaptation – Smell adaptation . Unit III (20 hours) Role of environment on human system - Stress induced alteration in hormonal and factors stress management with respect to yoga and meditations Unit IV: (44 hours) CNS Central Nervous System: Nerve resting membrane potentials - Recording of nerve action potentials - Nerve conduction velocity – Property of Synapses - Muscle tone - Regulation of voluntary movement – rigidity – plasticity - Flaccidity – Memory - Sleep – Learning - cerebral dominance - speech - Movement disorders due to Upper motor and Lower motor neuron lesion - Hemi section of spinal cord - Wallarian degeneration and regeneration - Basal ganglia disorders - Cerebellar disorders - Honer’s syndrome. Reference Text book: 1. Stress and Health research and clinical applications. Dianna T. Kenny, john G. Carlson, F. Joseph McGuigan, Jonh L. Sheppard – Harwood academic publishers-.2000 edition. 2. Stress and its management by YOGA, K.N. Udupa , R.C. Prasad – Motilal Banarsidass 2nd Edition 1985. BMS. Practical V: Experimental Physiology (Practical Core110 hours Credits 5) Clinical examination – Cranial nerve and Autonomic function test Final viva voce in all theory cores 37
    • 1st Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Human Anatomy, Histology & Anatomy, PGIBMS / Faculty Embryology Principal of Biochemistry Biochemistry, PGIBMS / Faculty 2nd Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Human Anatomy, Histology & Anatomy, PGIBMS / Faculty Embryology Principal of Biochemistry Biochemistry, PGIBMS / Faculty 3rd Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Research Method in Anatomy Anatomy, PGIBMS / Faculty Medical Imaging and Institute of Radiology, Govt. General hospital. Chennai. Radiology Principles of Endocrinology Endocrinology, PGIBMS / Faculty 4th Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Biostatic Biostatistics department, university of Madras Reproductive Endocrinology Endocrinology, PGIBMS / Faculty Computer application in biology Anatomy, PGIBMS / Faculty and medicine 5th Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Dissertation Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Principles of Genetics Genetic, PGIBMS / Faculty Biomedical instrumentation School of Physical sciences, University of Madras 6th Semester TEACHING DEPARTMENTS / INSTITUTIONS Subject Course Conducting departments and Faulty Physiology Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty Final Via voce Physiology, PGIBMS / Faculty BRANCH II - M.Sc. PHYSIOLOGY (INTERDISPLINARY) (COURSE CONTENT) SUBJECTS & CODE Ist SEMESTER BMS 1051 Human Anatomy I (Core - 4 credits) BMS 1053 Human Histology and Embryology (Core - 3 credits) BMS 1055 Human Physiology I (Core - 4 credits) 38
    • BMS 1057 Practical - I - Human Anatomy (Core - 3 credits) BMS 1059 Practical - II - Human Physiology (Core - 3 credits) BMS 1071 Principle of Biochemistry- I (Elective - 3 credits) SUBJECTS & CODE 2nd SEMESTER BMS 1052 Human Anatomy - II (Core - 4 credits) BMS 1058 Human Physiology - II (Core - 4 credits) BMS 1060 Practical - III - Human Anatomy II and Neuro Anatomy(Core - 3 credits) BMS 1080 Practical - II Human Physiology (Core - 3 credits) BMS 1072 Principle of Biochemistry- I (Elective 3 Credits) SUBJECTS & CODE 3rd SEMESTER BMS Human Physiology III -General physiology (Core 6 Credits) BMS Human Physiology IV- Physiology III (Core 6 Credits) BMS Human embryology and Histology II (Core 3 Credits) BMS Research method in Anatomy (Core 3 Credits) BMS Medical imaging and radiology (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1013 Principle’s of endocrinology (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1017 Principle’s of Genetics I (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1011 Molecular and cellular endocrinology (Elective 3 Credits) SUBJECTS & CODE 4th SEMESTER BMS Human Physiology V - Research methods in Physiology I (Core 6 Credits) BMS Human Physiology VI - Research methods in Physiology II (Core 6 Credits) MSI SU2 Biostatistics (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1012 Reproductive endocrinology (Elective 3 Credits) BMS Computer application in biology and medicine (Elective 3 Credits) BMS Physiology practical III- Research method in Physiology (Core 3 Credits) BMS 1078 Basic Pathology (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1028 Principals of Genetics II (Elective 3 Credits) SUBJECTS & CODE 5th SEMESTER BMS Dissertation (Core 6 Credits) BMS Physiology practical IV – Clinical Examination (Core 4 Credits) BMS 1027 Principle’s of Genetics I (Elective 3 Credits) PHY 2041 Biomedical Instrumentation (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 1091 Drug Therapy (Elective 3 Credits) BMS 2089 Fundamentals of Environmental toxicology / Neurotoxicology (Elective 3 Credits) SUBJECTS & CODE 6th SEMESTER BMS Human Physiology VII- Advances in Physiology I (Core 6 Credits) BMS Human Physiology VIII- Advances in Physiology II (Core 6 Credits) BMS Human Physiology IX- Advances in Physiology III (Core 6 Credits) BMS Practical V –Experimental Physiology (Core 5 Credits) BMS Final Viva Voce (Core 3 Credits) 39
    • Department of Endocrinology The Department of Endocrinology is a research department. The department has been recognized for Departmental research support under UGC Special Assistance Programme to facilitate research in the following thrust areas since 1999. (1) Reproductive and molecular Endocrinology and (2) Environmental Endocrinology. The Department of Science and Technology Govt. of India has selected the department for Infrastructural and equipment facilities for research under its FIST programme from 2000 onwards. In addition to this, the department is funded by various national agencies such as CSIR, DST, DAE, ICMR and UGC. The department undertakes research works involving evaluation of hormones and receptors and gene expression in endocrine pathophysiology, reproductive and metabolic disorders and cancer. Evaluation of bioavailability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokineties of contraceptive hormone preparations, hormone based drugs and plant biomolecules. And new bimolecular in endocrine, autoimmune metabolic and reproductive disorders. The departmental instrument facility includes electroporator, PCR machine, ELISA reader, CO2 incubators, speed vac concentrator, Liquid Scintillation counter, Gamma counter Ultracentrifuge, High speed refrigerated centrifuge, Double beam spectrophotometer, Research microscopes with Fluorescence, phase contrast and photography, inverted microscope, stero zoom microscope, Ultra deep freezers and Rotary vacuum flash evaporator. Modern laboratories for Cell culture radioisotope studies and temperature and light controlled animal experimental room are available. The department has BARC recognized radioisotope laboratory. The department offers M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes in Endocrinology and two optional papers and one supportive paper for M.Sc.students.. FACULTY LIST: Dr. M.Michael Aruldhas, M.Phil. Ph.D. : Professor and Head Dr. N.Srinivasan, M.Phil. Ph.D. : Professor Dr. K.Balasubramanian, M.Phil., Ph.D. : Professor Dr. J.Arunakaran, M.Phil., Ph.D. : Sr. Lecturer Dr. B.Ravisankar, M.Phil., Ph.D. : Lecturer Eligibility for Admission M.Phil. Endocrinology Illustration for postgraduate under CBCS with effect from the Academic year 2007-2008. Master of Philosophy course 40
    • Course code Title of the Paper C/E/S Credit SEMESTER I L T P C BMS 121 Hormones: Synthesis Secretion-Transport C 5 1 0 6 And Metabolism BMS 123 Hormones: Physiological and Molecular C 5 1 0 6 Mechanism of action BMS 125 Hormones: Pathophysiology and C 5 1 0 6 Research Methodology Skill Based Course S 2 2 SEMESTER II BMS 122 Dissertation and viva-voce C - - - 25 Skill Based Course S 2 2 Total 47 41
    • M.Phil. Endorinology (CBCS) SYLLABUS : First Semester BMS 121 – Paper – 1 Hormones: Synthesis-Secretion-Transport and Metabolism Total credits : 6 1. Hypothalamic hormones (TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH somatostatin) Structure-synthsis release and regulation. 2. Peptide/protein (GH, prolactin, ACTH, insulin, glucagon, PTH, calcitionin, Lactogen ) and glycoprotein hormones (TSH, FSH, LH) Structure, Synthesis- Release and regulation. 3. Steroid hormones (Androgens, estrogens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoid) – structure, synthesis-release transport-regulation and Metabolism. 4. Thyroid hormones-structure-synthesis-release-regulation-transport and metabolism. 5. Catecholamines-structure-synthesis-release-regulation-transport and metabolism. 6. Indolamines-structure-synthesis-release-regulation-transport and metabolism. BMS 123 – Paper –II Hormones: Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of action Total credits : 6 1.Peptide hormone’s receptors, their regulation and transmembrane signaling-Type of Receptors, G-protein complex, effectors-second messengers, kinases, adaptor Proteins, transcription factors 2.Nuclear action of peptide hormones binding and activation of gene expression. 3.Steroid/Thyroid hormones-transmembrane and intracellular transport, receptors- Structure, dimidiation-transformation, translocation into the nucleus and Interaction and regulation of target gene expression. 4. Physiological action of hormones in the regulation of spermatogenesis, sperm Maturation, oogenesis and menstrual/estrus cycles, hormones in pregnancy, Parturition and lactation, contraception. 5. Hormones in calcium, sodium, potassium and glucose homeostasis. 42
    • ******************** BMS 125 Paper –III Hormones: Pathophysiology and Research Methodology Total credits : 6 1.Pathophysiology of hypothalamus and pituitary (dwarfism, adenoma, galacorrhea amenorrhea) adrenal corex (Addison’s disease & Cushing’s syndrome, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia) medulla (Pheocromocytoma), thyroid (Autoimmune disorder) parathyroid (hypo and hyper parathyoridism) pancreas (IDDM and NIDDM) and gonads (cystic ovaries, endometriosis, hypogonadism, cryptorchidism and testicular carcinoma) 2.Laboratory techniques: Hormone assay-Chemical and Immunoassays (radiometric and non-radiometric), spectrophotometric and fluorimetric Techniques, histological and surgical endocrine techniques, semen analysis. 3.Receptor assays: Extraction, purification, and quantification of hormone receptors (cell surface, cytosolic and nuclear receptors) 4.Cell culture techniques. 5.Separation techniques-chromatography, electrophoresis, centrifugation and Dialysis. 6.Radioisotopes-safe handling radioiodination of peptides, autoradiography. and management of radioactive waste. 7. Biostatistics: Graphical representation of data, ANOVA, Student’s ’t’ test. Skill Based Course Credits = 2 43
    • BMS 122: DISSERTATION (Second Semester) Research evaluation by Guide = 8 credits M.Phil. dissertation = 12 credits Viva-voice = 5 credits Total = 25 credits Skill Based Course Credits = 4 Annexure - I Course Contents for 2006 – 2007 Department of Endocrinology I) M.Sc Biomedical Sciences Details of the Course 1. Name of the degree : M.Sc. Biomedical Sciences 2. Faculty : Science 3. Duration : 2 Years 4. Pattern : Choice Based Credit System 5. Total Number of Credits : 78 Credits 6. The details of papers to : 9 Core Papers; 3 Practicals; 1 Dissertation; be offered 6 Elective Papers 7. Total Strength : 10 8. Eligibility : Graduation in Life Sciences (except Plant Science), 44
    • Medicine and Pharmacy Core Code Title of the Course C/E/S L T P Credit SEMESTER I BMS Biochemistry – I C 3 1 0 4 BMS Molecular Biology of the Cell C 3 1 0 4 BMS General Microbiology C 3 1 0 4 BMS Practical I 0 1 3 4 Elective* E 2 1 0 3 Elective* E 2 1 0 3 Skill Based Skill Based Course S 2 2 Courses SEMESTER II BMS Biochemistry – II C 3 1 0 4 BMS Molecular Genetics C 3 1 0 4 BMS Principles of Human Physiology C 3 1 0 4 BMS Practical II 0 1 3 4 Elective* E 2 1 0 3 Elective* E 2 1 0 3 Skill Based Skill Based Course S 2 2 Coursed SEMESTER IIII BMS Hormones: Chemistry, Biosynthesis, C 3 1 0 4 Secretion, metabolism and physiological actions BMS Molecular Pathology C 3 1 0 4 BMS Endocrine Pathology C 3 1 0 4 BMS Practical III 0 1 3 4 Elective* E 2 1 0 3 Elective Skill Based Courses 2 2 UOM S 001 Soft Skill S 3 3 SEMESTER IV BMS Dissertation 0 0 12 12 Skill Based Skill Based Course S 2 Courses Internship 2 1. Offered by other departments Core 54; Elective 18 Total Credits : 88 Abstract of the Course Content Semester I BMS Biochemistry – I 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Medical Biochemistry Acids, Bases and Buffer; Thermodynamics of biological system; Classification, structure and functions of carbohydrates, Amino acids and Lipids, Nucleic acids – Chemistry and Methods of Sequencing. BMS Molecular Biology of 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Genetics the Cell Cell structure, continuous and synchronous cell culture, cell fractionization. Molecular organization of cell, transport of small and macro molecules, intra cellular organelles. Structure and functions of mitochondria. nucleus, nuclear envelope, cell cycle, and cell movement. Oncogenes and neoplastic cell group, tumour suppressor genes. BMS General Microbiology 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Microbiology 45
    • BMS Practical - I 0 1 3 4 Dept. of Endocrinology and Biochemistry Collection and Preservation of biological samples, Principles and uses of Colorimeter, Spectrophotometer, Flourimeter, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Beta and Gamma counters, Iso – electric focusing, PAGE. Cell Counting; vital staining; cell culture; cryopreservation; cell division-different stages in mitotic and meiotic divisions (alium sepa; grass hopper testis)- Cell organelles separation and identification Different staining and cultivation methods in Bacteriology Semester - II BMS Principles of Human Physiology 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Physiology Circulatory system – composition and functions of plasma, blood coagulation, transfer of blood gases. Respiratory system – components and their functions, Transport of oxygen and CO2, Acid – Base balance. Digestive system – composition and functions; Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins etc. Excretory system – Structure of nephron, formation of urine, tubular reabsorption and secretion; Nervous system – organization, nerve impulses and neurotransmission, Action Potential, Visual auditory pathways. BMS Molecular Genetics 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Genetics Molecular organization of chromosomes, Linkage and cross over, Molecular structure of genes, structure and functions of nucleic acids, replication of DNA and proof reading. Microbial genetics – transformation, transduction and conjugation in bacteria, phage genetics. Gene expression – transcription, translation and regulation, the Operon model. Human genetic disorders, genes in population. BMS Biochemistry – II 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Medical Biochemistry Classification and Mechanism of action of enzymes, Michaelis – Menton equation, industrial use of enzymes, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, biological oxidation. Amino acids – deamination, decarboxylation and transamination, phenylketoneuria, Parkinson’s disease, urea cycle. Synthesis and degradation of purines and pyrimidines. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication, Transcription and Translation. The meaning of food – Food habits The Nutrients, Nutrition and body weight – Determination – Food and Energy – Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – Factors influencing BMR BMS Practical II 0 1 3 4 Depts. of Medical Biochemistry, Physiology and Genetics Ultracentrifugation, Paper chromatography of amino acids and carbohydrates. Purification of enzymes and proteins. Separation and estimation of Lipids using TLC. Ion-Exchange chromatography, Flow cytometry and DHPLC. Writing a BASIC computer program to plot graphs of enzyme kinetic data by a variety of linear transforms and the Michaelis-Menton hyperbolic plot. Extraction of lipids from tissues – separation and estimation using thin layer chromatography – Neutral lipids and phospholipids. Ion exchange chromatography system – (Demo only) Flow cytometer – (Demo only) DHPLC (Demo only) Semester - III BMS Hormones: Chemistry, biosynthesis, 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Endocrinology secretion, metabolism and physiological actions. 46
    • Structure, synthesis, regulation and metabolism of peptide and glycoprotien hormones, steroid and thyroid hormones, catecholamines and indolamines. BMS Molecular Endocrinology 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Endocrinology Genetic control of hormone synthesis and principles of hormone actions. Molecular aspects of synthesis and regulation of peptide, thyroid and steroid hormones and biogenic amines. Genomic and nongenomic actions of steroid and peptide hormones. Hormones and genes involved in sex differentiation, growth and development. Gene transfer and knock out models, recombinant DNA technology based hormone production, gene silencing and gene therapy. Gene manipulation studies in metabolic and reproductive endocrinology. BMS Endocrine pathology 3 1 0 4 Dept. of Endocrinology Neuroendocrine disorders, hypo-and hyperthyroidism, Diabeties mellitus, Grave’s disease, congenital adrenal hypo – and hyperplasia, osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, Cushing’s disease, polycystic ovarian disease, cryptorchidism, menstrual disorders, infertility, hormone resistant syndrome and multiendocrine neoplasia. BMS Practical III 0 1 3 4 Dept. of Endocrinology Surgical endocrine techniques, radioiodination of peptides, RIA, ELISA, RRA, Semen analysis, isolation and purification of cells, cell culture, and gene expression analysis. Hormonal regulation of selected gene expression Semester - IV BMS Dissertation 0 0 12 12 Dept. of Endocrinology Detailed Syllabus Semester I Credits BMS : BIOCHEMISTRY – I 4 Unit I pH, acids, bases and buffers, Henderson – Hasselbach equation, osmotic pressure, Donnan membrane equilibrium, surface tension, viscosity and their biological applications, Thermodynamics of biological systems, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, free energy change and high energy compounds. Unit II Carbohydrates - Classification of carbohydrates, structure and properties of biologically important monosaccharides and disaccharides; Structure and function of homoglycans like starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin and heteropolysaccharides like glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and bacterial cell wall polysaccharides. Unit III Aminoacids – Classification, structure and properties of aminoacids, biological derivatives of amino acids, peptide bond, classification and properties of proteins (electrophoretic mobility, salting in and salting out), primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary structure of proteins and forces stabilizing them, Ramachandran Plot, Isolation, purification and sequencing of proteins. Unit IV Lipids - Classification, structure and functions of lipids and lipoproteins, properties of fatty acids and fats. Vitamins - Properties, functions as coenzymes and deficiency states of water and fat-soluble vitamins. Minerals and trace elements. Unit V Nucleic acids - Structure of purine and pyrimidine bases, structure of DNA, tRNA and mRNA. Viscosity, hyperchromic effect, melting point of DNA, Chemical and enzymatic methods of sequencing of nucleic acids. Books Recommended Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L (2002) Biochemistry, (5th edition), W.H Freeman Publishers, New York, USA. 47
    • Bhagavan NV (2002) Medical Biochemistry, (4th edition), Academic Press, USA. Bruce A, Johnson Alexander, Lewis Julian, Raff Martin, Roberts Keith, Walter Peter (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell, (4th edition), Garland Publishing, USA. Devlin TM (2002) Text Book of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, (5th edition), Wiley-Liss, New York, USA. Garrett RH and Grisham CM (2001) Principles of Biochemistry With a Human Focus, (1 st edition), Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM and Gutteridge J (1999) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford University Press, USA. Lewin B (2004), Genes VIII, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA. Lodish H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Scott MP, Zipursky S, and Darnell J (2004) Molecular Cell Biology, (5th edition), WH Freeman & Company, New York. Metzler DE (2001) Biochemistry - The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells, Vol. 1, (2nd edition), Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando. Metzler DE (2002) Biochemistry - The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells, Vol. 2, (2nd edition), Harcourt College Publishers, Orlando. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2004), Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4th edition) W.H Freeman Publishers, New York, USA. Robert K, Murray MD, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW and Murray RK (1999) Harper’s Biochemistry, (25 th edition), McGraw-Hill Publishers, USA. Voet D and Voet JG (2004) Biochemistry, Vol 1 and 2, (3rd edition), John Wiley & sons, New York, USA. Zubay GL (1998) Biochemistry, (4th edition), Wm. Brown Publishers, Iowa, USA. BMS : MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL Credits Unit I 4 Cell structure of archae and eubacteria, eukaryotes. Single cell to multicellular organisms, continuous and synchronous cell culture, cell fractionation. Experimental models: E.coli, yeast, slime mold, C.elegans, Drosophila and Arabidopsis thaliana. Unit II Molecular organization of cell: plasma membrane, lipid bilayer, membrane proteins, carbohydrates, transport of small and macro molecules-ectocytosis, endocytosis, cytosol, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and protein sorting and transporting. Unit III Mitochondria-origin, evolution, structure, chemosmotic theory, electron transport chain, electrochemical protein gradient, respiratory chain, redox potential; chloroplast: origin and evolution, structure, light absorption and conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate, carbon fixation, metabolic exchange by chloroplast membrane. Unit IV Nucleus, Nuclear envelope, cell cycle, cell growth and division, control of cell division, events in phases: G1, S, G2, M. Cytoskeleton and cell movement. Unit V Concept of oncogenes; neoplastic cell growth; tumour suppressor genes and their role in cell cycle. Books Recommended Cooper GM (2000) The Cell: A Molecular Approach. (2nd edition), ASM Press, Washington, USA 48
    • Bruce Alberts(1994) - Molecular Biology of the Cell (Bruce alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and James D. Watson (1994) (5th edition), Published by Garland Science, New York, USA. Pollard TD and Earnshaw WC. (2002) Cell Biology, Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. DeRobertis EDP and DeRobertis EMF Jr. (2004) Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. The World of the cell (2003), Becker W, Kleinsmith and Hardin J 5th edition, Benjamin Cummings. San Francisco, USA. Lewin B (2004), Genes VIII, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA. Lodish H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Scott MP, Zipursky S, and Darnell J (2004) Molecular Cell Biology, (5th edition), WH Freeman & Company, New York, USA. 49
    • Credits BMS - GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY 4 Unit I Introduction to Microbiology, Discovery of Microbes General biology of bacteria : Classification of bacteria Structure of Bacteria and Function Unit II Microscopy I – Basic Principles of microscopy. Microscopy II Different types of bright field Microscopy III – Phase contrast and Dark field. Microscopy IV – Fluorescence microscopy. Microscopy V : Electron microscopy Unit III Bacterial resistance to Physical and Chemical agents. Sterilization & Disinfection, types, evaluation, quality control. Basic principals, types, techniques and mechanisms of different staining methods in bacteriology Unit IV Cultivation methods. Physiology of bacteria I – Growth. Physiology of bacteria II – Metabolism Physiology of bacteria III – Nutrition, bacteriology of water, food, milk Unit V Antimicrobial agents. Mechanism of action of various antibiotics, their evaluation. Quality control Books Recommended Introduction to Microbiology – 2nd edn.2000, John L Ingraham & Catherine A Ingraham, Brooks/Cole, London Microbiology – an Introduction – 7th edn. 2001, Tortora, Funke, Case Microbiology - Principles and Exploration – 5th Edn. 2002, Jacquelyn G Black, John Wiley & Sons, New York Biology of Microorganisms – 10th edn. 2003, Michael T Madigan (edn.) Prentice Hall, London Microbiology : Lasing M Prescott, 5th edn. 2002. Wm C Brown Publishers Oxford, London Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn. 2003, Sundararaj A. Chennai – 600 096 General microbiology Robert F Boyd, 5 edn. 2002 St Louis, Times Mirror, Mosby college publishing Microbiology – 2nd edn. 1998, Joklik (edn), Prentice Hall Inc, London Fundamentals of Bacteriology – 5th edn 1986, AJ Salle, Tata McGraw Hill Review of medical microbiology E Jawetz Ernest California, Lange Medical Publication, 2004 Topley and Wilson’s principles of bacteriology virology and immunity Edn. 7 V – 3c bacterial Diseases, Graham Wilson, London Edward Arnold 2002 Microbiology 7th edn. 2002, Michael J Pelczar New Delhi, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd. Credits PRACTICAL – I 4 Collection and preservation of biological samples. Principles and uses of colorimetric techniques – Estimation of glucose and urea. Principles and uses of spectrophotometric techniques – Estimation of proteins and nucleic acids. Principles and uses of fluorimetric techniques – Assay of NAD / NADH or NADP/ NADPH, Epinephrine / Norepinephrine. Principles and uses of PAGE – LDH isoenzyme separation and identification, Serum protein separation and identification. Cell Counting; vital staining; cell culture; cryopreservation; cell division-different stages in mitotic and meiotic divisions ( alium sepa; grass hopper testis)- 50
    • Cell organelles separation and identification Different staining and cultivation methods in Bacteriology Atomic absorption spectrophotometry – Zinc and Copper estimation (Demo only) Isoelectric focusing (Demo only) Beta and gamma counters (Demo only) Books Recommended Farrel SO and Ranallo RT (2000) Experiments in Biochemistry – A Hands on Approach, Thomson Learning Inc., USA. Sambrook J and Russell DW (2000) Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual, Vol.I, II and III, (3rd edition), Cold Spring Harbor, Laboratory Press, USA. Sawhney SK and Singh R (1997) Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, Academic Press, New Delhi, India. Wilson W (2003) Practical Biochemistry, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. Varley H (1997) Practical Clinical Biochemistry, Academic Press, New York, USA. Caraine JA and Bell ETPT (1974) Hormone Assays and their Clinical Applications, Churchill and Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK. Chan DW and Perlstein MT (1987) Immunoassay – A Practical Guide, Academic Press, California, USA. Chard T (1995) An Introduction to Radioimmunoassay and Related Techniques, Elsevier Publications, USA. Exbraeyat JM (2001) Genome Visualization by Classical Methods in Light Microscopy, C.R.C.Press, New York, USA.. Masters JRW and Bernhard P (1999) Human Cell Culture, Vol II, Cancer Cell Lines, Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Price CP and Newman DJ (1996) Principles and Practice of Immunoassay, (2nd edition), Stockton Press, USA. Saxena BN (1987) A Handbook of Radioimmuno Assay, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. Thorell JL and Larson SM (1978) Radioimmuno Assay and Related Techniques, C.V.Mosby, St Louis, USA. Credits Skill Based Courses 2 SEMESTER II Credits BMS : PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 4 Unit I Circulatory system : Blood – composition and functions of plasma, erythrocytes including Hb, leukocytes and thrombocytes, plasma proteins in health and diseases. Blood coagulation – mechanism and regulation, Fibrinolysis, transfer of blood gases. Unit II Respiratory system : Components of respiratory system (nasal cavity, trachea, pharynx, larynx, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli) and their functions. Diffusion of oxygen and CO2; transport of oxygen; role of hemoglobin, dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin and its significance, Bohr’s effect; Transport of CO2 and chloride shift. Various buffer systems of the blood. Acid-base balance; factors affecting acid-base balance, acidosis and alkalosis, role of lung and kidney in the regulation of acid-base balance. Unit III 51
    • Digestive system : Composition, functions and regulation of saliva, gastric, pancreatic, intestinal and bile secretions – digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals and vitamins. Role of various enzymes and hormones involved in these processes. Mechanism of HCl formation in stomach, role of bile salts in lipid digestion and absorption. Unit IV Excretory system : Structure of nephron, formation of urine, glomerular filtration, tubular re-absorption of glucose, water and electrolytes – tubular secretion. Unit V Nervous system : Organization of the system, nerve cells, nerve fibres, nerve impulses and neurotransmission, synapses; Chemical and electrical synapses, functional properties of nerve fiber, action potential, reflex action and reflex arc. Visual Auditory pathways. Books Recommended Keele CA, Neil E and Jacks N (2003) Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology (13th edition), Oxford Medical Publications. Ganong WF (2003) Review of Medical Physiology, (21st edition), Lange Medical Books / MC-Graw Hill Medical Publishing division, USA. Guyton AC and Hall JE (2000) Textbook of Medical Physiology (10th edition), W.B. Saunders Company, USA. Stuart Ira Fox (2004) Human Physiology, McGraw-Hill¸ USA. Widmaier EP (2003) Human Physiology : The Mechanisms of Body Functions, McGraw-Hill College Publications, USA. Credits BMS : MOLECULAR GENETICS 4 Unit I Chromosomes and heredity - Molecular organization of chromosomes in viruses, bacteria /and eukaryotic organisms. Linkage and recombination – crossing over. Repetitive sequences, Transposable elements - terminology & transposition. Molecular structure of genes. Unit II Nature of genetic material – Nucleic acids: Structure and function of DNA, RNA – semiconservative replication of DNA – Replication of circular DNA – Modes of replication – Fidelity of replication – Proof reading – DNA repair, Genetic code. Unit III Microbial genetics – Methods of DNA uptake – Transformation – Transduction and conjugation in bacteria – Phage genetics – Phage mutants – Gene recombination in phages – Fine structure mapping in Phage – T4 and II locus. Unit IV Gene expression - Transcription - RNA processing - Messenger RNA – Translation – Ribosomes, Transfer RNA – Mechanisms of protein synthesis- Regulation of gene expression – The Operon model Unit V Mutations, positional cloning (Chromosomal aberrations), human genetic disorders - Genes in population - Hardy Weinberg (Law). Books Recommended Dale JW and Schantz MV (2002) From genes to genomes – Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology, John Willey & Sons Ltd, England. Lewin B (2004), Genes VIII, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA 52
    • Primrose SB Twyman RM and Old RW (2001) Principles of gene manipulation (6th edition), Blackwell publishers, USA. Strachan T and Reed AP (2004) Human Molecular Genetics, (3rd edition), Garland Science, London. Credits BMS : BIOCHEMISTRY – II 4 Unit I Enzymes - Classification of enzymes, active site and mechanism of enzyme action, Derivation of Michaelis- Menton equation, Determination of Km, bisubstrate reactions, types of inhibition, industrial use of enzymes, designer enzymes, ribozymes, biosensors, immobilized enzymes. Unit II Carbohydrate metabolism - Glycolysis, TCA cycle, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, interconversion of hexoses, gluconeogenesis, significance of HMP shunt, blood glucose homeostasis, glycogen storage diseases, diabetes mellitus, lactose intolerance and fructosuria. Biological Oxidation - Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, free radicals and defense mechanisms. Unit III Amino acids - Deamination, decarboxylation and transamination reactions of amino acids, Phenyl ketonuria, homocystinuria, tyrosinemia, Parkinson’s disease, histidinemia, Hartnup’s disease and alkaptonemia. Urea cycle, deficiency of urea cycle enzymes, glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Unit IV Lipid metabolism - Metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol, bile acids and ketone bodies, lipoprotein metabolism, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Nucleic acids - de novo synthesis and degradation of purines and pyrimidines, salvage pathway, Lesch Nyhan syndrome and hyperuricemia. Unit V The meaning of food – Food habits - The Nutrients, Nutrition and body weight – Determination – Food and Energy – Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – Factors influencing BMR – Respiratory quotient – Food value of different commodities, conventional and novel sources of food. Bacterial food poisoning and its prevention – Fermentation and fermented food products. Mycotoxins, aflatoxin citrinin, patulin and mycotoxicosis. Books Recommended Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L (2002) Biochemistry, (5th edition), Freeman & Company, New York, USA. Bhagavan NV (2002) Medical Biochemistry, (4th edition), Academic Press, USA. Bruce A, Johnson Alexander, Lewis Julian, Raff Martin, Roberts Keith, Walter Peter (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell, (4th edition), Garland Publishing, USA. Devlin TM (2002) Text Book of Biochemistry with clinical correlations, (5th edition), Wiley-Liss, New York, USA. Garrett RH and Grisham CM (2001) Principles of Biochemistry With a Human Focus, (1st edition), Brooks/Cole Publishing of Thompson Learning, Pacific Grove, CA, USA. Lewin B (2004), Genes VIII, Pearson Prentice Hall, Philadelphia, USA . Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky S, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D and Darnell JE (1999) Molecular Cell Biology, (5th edition), WH Freeman & Company, New York, USA. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM and Gutteridge J (1999) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford University Press, USA.. Metzler DE (2001) Biochemistry - The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells, Vol. 1, (2nd edition), Academic Press, New York, USA. Metzler DE (2002) Biochemistry - The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells, Vol. 2, (2nd edition), Academic Press, New York, USA. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2004), Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4th edition) W.H Freeman Publishers, New York, USA. 53
    • Robert K, Murray MD, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW and Murray RK (1999) Harper’s Biochemistry, (25 th edition), McGraw-Hill Publishers, USA. Voet D and Voet JG (2004) Biochemistry, Vol 1 and 2, (3rd edition), John Wiley & sons, New York, USA. Zubay GL (1998) Biochemistry, (4th edition), Wm. Brown Publishers, Iowa, USA. Credits PRACTICAL – II 4 Unit III Ultracentrifuge – Density Gradient centrifugation and isolation of subcellular fractionation of organelles from liver cells and identification by use of marker enzymes. Paper chromatography – Amino acids and carbohydrates, Purification of protein using ion exchange columns, gel filtration, affinity chromatography. Enzyme kinetics and purification – Alkaline phosphatase. Writing a BASIC computer program to plot graphs of enzyme kinetic data by a variety of linear transforms and the Michaelis-Menton hyperbolic plot. Extraction of lipids from tissues – separation and estimation using thin layer chromatography – Neutral lipids and phospholipids Ion exchange chromatography system – (Demo only) Flow cytometer – (Demo only), DHPLC (Demo only) Books Recommended Farrel SO and Ranallo RT (2000) Experiments in Biochemistry – A Hands on Approach, Thomson Learning Inc., USA. Sambrook J and Russell DW (2000) Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual, Vol.I, II and III, (3rd edition), Cold Spring Harbor, Laboratory Press, USA. Sawhney SK and Singh R (1997) Introduction to Practical Biochemistry, Academic Press, New Delhi, India. Wilson W (2003) Practical Biochemistry, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. Varley H (1997) Practical Clinical Biochemistry, Academic Press, New York, USA. Credits Skill Based Course 2 SEMESTER III Credits 4 BMS : HORMONES - CHEMISTRY, BIOSYNTHESIS, SECRETION, METABOLISM AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS Unit I Hypothalamic hormones (TRH, GnRH, CRH, GHRH, somatostatin) _ structure, synthesis, release and regulation. Unit II Peptide/protein (GH, prolactin, ACTH, insulin, glucagon, PTH, calcitonin and glycoprotein hormones (TSH, FSH, LH) – structure, synthesis, release and regulation. Steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens, progestin, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoid) – structure, synthesis, release, regulation, transport and metabolism. Unit IV Thyroid hormones – structure, synthesis, release, regulation, transport and metabolism. 54
    • Unit V Catecholamines and Indolamines – structure, synthesis, release, regulation, transport and metabolism. Unit VI Physiological actions of GH, thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, glucagon, PTH and calcitonin. Books Recommended Becker KL (2001) Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Lippincott- Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Braverman LE and Utiger RD (2000) Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid, A Fundamental and Clinical Text, (8th edition), Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Conn PM and Goodman HM (1998) Hand Book of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Vol.1, Cellular Endocrinology, Section 7, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.. DeGroot LJ and Jameson JL (2001) Endocrinology, Vol. I, II & III, (4 th edition), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. Fray JC (1999) Hand Book of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Vol.III: Endocrine Regulation of Water & Electrolyte Balance, Section 7, Oxford University Press, New York, USA. Griffin JE and Ojeda SR (2000) Text Book of Endocrine Physiology, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, USA. Hoftman JF and Jamieson JD (1997) Hand Book of Physiology, Cell Physiology, Section 14, Oxford University Press, New York, USA. Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS (2003), Williams Text book of Endocrinology, (10th edition), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. Knobil E and Neil JD (1994) The Physiology of Reproduction, Vol. I and II (2nd edition), Raven Press, New York, USA. Kostyo JL and Goodman HM (1999) Hand Book of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Vol.V, Section 7, Hormonal Control of Growth, Oxford University Press, USA. Mc Even B (2001) Hand Book of Physiology, Vol IV, Oxford University Press, New York. USA. Semester III Credits BMS : MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 4 Unit I Introduction – Genetic control of hormone synthesis – Expression of a protein – encoding gene. Molecular aspects of hormone secretion, principles of hormone action. Unit II Molecular aspects of the synthesis and regulation of peptide (GnRH, TRH, CRH, GHRH, FSH, LH, TSH, GH, PRL, ACTH, PTH, Insulin & Glucagon). Unit III Molecular aspects of the synthesis and regulation of thyroid and steroid hormones and biogenic amines. Unit IV Steroid hormones – Receptor – Expression, distribution, regulation and interaction with DNA – Transcription of specific mRNA – Post-transcription and post-translation effects, non-genomic actions. Unit V 55
    • Peptide hormones – Cell surface receptors – Kinetics and regulation, internalization, desensitization, autophosphorylation and regulation of gene expression, G-proteins – structure and role in signal transduction, Effector system and second messengers, Protein kinases and cellular responses. Unit VI Functional characterization of hormones – Gene silencing – gene over expression – transgenic and knockout model. Books Recommended Baniahmad H (2002) Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol 202, Thyroid Hormone Receptors, Methods and Protocols, Humana Press, USA. Conn PM and Means AR (2000) Principles of Molecular Regulation, Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. DeGroot LJ and Jameson JL (2001) Endocrinology, Vol. I, II & III, (4 th edition), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. Freifelder D (1987) Molecular Biology(2nd edition), Jones and Barlett Publishers, Philadelphia, USA Heldin C and Purton M (1996) Signal transduction, Chapman and Hall, London, UK. Lewin B (2004), Genes VIII, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA Radovick S and Mac Gillivray MH (2003) Pediatric Endocrinology, Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. Rumsey R and Farrow M (2000) Molecular Endocrinology, Academic Press, New York, USA. Baxter JD (2002) Genetics in Endocrinology, Lippincott- Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Dale JW and Schantz MV (2002) From genes to genomes – Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology, John Willey & Sons Ltd, England. Freifelder D (1987) Molecular Biology(2nd edition), Jones and Barlett Publishers, Philadelphia, USA Primrose SM, Twyman RM and Old RW (2001) Principles of Gene Manipulation, (6th edition), Blackwell Publications, Victoria, Australia. Radovick S and Mac Gillivray MH (2003) Developmental Endocrinology – From research to Clinical Practice, Humana Press, San Diego, USA. Shupnik MA (2000) Gene Engineering in Endocrinology, Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. Strachan T and Reed AP (2004) Human Molecular Genetics, (3rd edition), Garland Science, London. 56
    • Credits BMS : ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY 4 Unit I Neuroendocrine disorders – Obesity; diabetes insipidus; pituitary tumors – pathology and diagnostic tools. Unit II Metabolic endocrine disorders – Hypo- and hyperthyroidism; diabetes mellitus (type II); bone metabolic diseases – osteoporosis and osteopetrosis; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; cushing’s disease Unit III Autoimmune diseases; Principles - Graves disease; thyroiditis ; congenital adrenal hypoplasia; diabetes mellitus (type I). Unit IV Reproductive disorders – polycystic ovarian disease; cryptorchidism; male and female sexual disorders and infertility; menstrual disorders; pre- and postmenopausal syndromes. Unit V Molecular pathology – Hormone resistance syndrome (eg. Feminizing syndrome, Hypoparathyroidism, Dwarfism), Multiendocrine neoplasia – molecular screening of endocrine disorders – medullary thyroid carcinoma, central hypothyroidism; diabetes mellitus. Books Recommended Bilezikian JP, Raisz, LG and Rodan GA (2002) Principles of Bone Biology, Vol 1 and 2, (2nd edition), Academic Press, California, USA. Coe FL and Favus MJ (2002) Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, (2 nd edition), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. DeGroot LJ and Jameson JL (2001) Endocrinology, Vol. I, II & III, (4 th edition), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. Econs MJ (2002) The Genetics of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease, Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. Ethier SP (2000) Endocrine Oncology, Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. Gill RG, Harmon JT and Mac Laren NK (2002) Immunologically Mediated Endocrine Diseases, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Greenspan FS and Gardner G (2003) Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, (7th edition), Lange Medical Books, New York, USA. Henry HL and Norman AW (2003) Encyclopedia of Hormones, 3 Vol, Academic Press, New York, USA. Jameson JL (1999) Hormone Resistance Syndrome, Humana & Press, New Jersey, USA. Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS (2003), Williams Text book of Endocrinology, (10th edition), W.B. Saunder Company, Philadelphia, USA. Le Roith D, Tayler SI and Olafsky JM (2001) Diabetes Mellitus - A Fundamental and Clinical Text, (2nd edition), Lippincott –Willimas & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Lloyd RV (1990) Endocrine Pathology, Springer Verlag, New York, USA. Credits BMS : PRACTICAL III 4 Surgical endocrine techniques – Thyroidectomy, Gonadectomy, Adrenalectomy. Radioiodination of peptide hormones – Radioimmunoassay and ELISA of steroid and peptide hormones – Radioreceptor assay. 57
    • Semen analysis – Phases of estrus cycle – Isolation and purification of cells – DNA isolation and purification, Gene expression studies – PCR and Real Time PCR techniques, Northern or Southern and western blotting, Gel documentation. Books Recommended Brown TA and Brown TA (2001) Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis : An Introduction, (4 th edition), Blackwell Science Inc, USA. Glover DM and Hames D (1995) DNA Cloning : 2. Expression Analysis : A Practical Approach, (2nd edition), IRL Press, USA. Masters JRW and Bernhard P (1999) Human Cell Culture, Vol II, Cancer Cell Lines, Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Ravid K and Freshney RI (1998) DNA Transfer to Cultured cells, A John Wiley and Sons Inc. Publications, USA. Sambrook J, and Russell T (2000) Molecular Cloning - A Laboratory Manual, Vol.I, II and III, (3rd edition), Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, USA. Spector DL, Goldman RD and Leinwand LA (1998) Cells – A Laboratory Manual, Vol 1, 2, and 3, Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, USA. Credits Skill Based Course 2 Credits BMS : DISSERTATION 12  Elective papers – Two papers in I, II & III semesters 18 (3 credits / paper) Credits Skill Based Course 2 Credits Internship 2 Total Credits 88 M.Sc. CBCS (elective only) BMS Molecular and Cellular M.Michael Aruldhas 1011 Endocrinology L T P C N.Srinivasan 2 0 1 3 K.Balasubramanian J.Arunakaran B.Ravisankar 1) Pre-requirement : Nil 2) Course Objective To provide theoretical background on the molecular aspects of hormone Synthesis, secretion and action to those who intend to pursue research in this line 3) Syllabus : Chemistry, secretion, metabolism and action of peptide, thyroid, steroid hormones and biogenic amines with reference to metabolic regulation and gene expression. Molecular mechanism of regulation of synthesis and secretion of hormones. Mechanism of action of steroid and peptide hormones. Practical methodology of Radio Immuno assay (RIA) and Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA). BMS Reproductive M.Michael Aruldhas 58
    • 1012 Endocrinology L T P C N.Srinivasan 2 0 1 3 K.Balasubramanian J.Arunakaran B.Ravisankar 1) Pre-requirement : Nil 2) Course objective: To provide detailed information on hormones involved in reproductive functions and to enlighten about the current developments in fertility regulations. 3) Syllabus: Sex differentiation and development of mammalian gonads and accessory sex organs, conception, and contraception and neuro endocrine perspectives of mammalian reproduction; methods of evaluation of male and female reproductive functions, semen analysis, hormone assays and induced ovulation. M.Sc. (CBCS) Supportive BMS Principles of M.Michael Aruldhas 1013 Endocrinology L T P C N.Srinivasan 2 0 0 2 K.Balasubramanian J.Arunakaran B.Ravisankar 1) Pre-requirement : Nil 2) Course objective : To provide theoretical knowledge on the chemistry synthesis, secretion. Metabolism and function of hormones 3) Syllabus : Introduction to endocrine organs-secretions – hypothalamo-hypo physeal axis – regulation of pituitary function- target organs-thyroid – adrenal- gland-hormones & functions - Hormones of Islets of Langerhans and their functions Gonadal functions and hormones involved in calcium homeostasis-Endocrine diseases. ****** 59
    • DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS 2007-2008 1. Name of the Course : Master of Science (M.S.) in Neuroscience under Faculty of Medicine 2. Nature of the Course : Inter Disciplinary under CBCS pattern with Semester System -2 years (4 semesters) 3. Effect : With effect from 2007-2008 and thereafter 4. Course Content - M.S. Neuroscience (Faculty of Medicine) SEM Course Title Theory / Credits Course faculty code Practical Core / Elective Human Anatomy I BMS C601 (upper limb, lower limb, abdomen, Theory - Core 3 All faculties pelvis and perineum) Dept. of BMS C602 Human Physiology I Theory - Core 4 Physiology Practical I Practical - BMS C603 2 All faculties I Human Anatomy I Core Practical II Practical - Dept. of BMS C604 3 Human Physiology I Core Physiology Elective* Theory - E 3 Elective Theory - E Elective* 3 Elective UOM S 001 Soft skill 2 Total 20 * Suggested Electives BMS E001 – Principles of Biochemistry I (By: Dept of Bio Chem) BMS E714 - Human Histology (By: Dept. of Anatomy) SEM Course Title Theory / Credits Course faculty Code Practical Core / Elective BMS Human Anatomy II Theory - Core 3 All faculties C634 (Head and Neck and Thorax) BMS Neuroanatomy Theory – Core All faculties & 3 C635 Guest Faculty BMS C606 Human Physiology II Theory - Core Dept. of 4 Physiology BMS C607 Practical III Human Anatomy II Practical - II 2 All faculties Core BMS C608 Practical - V Human Physiology II Practical - Dept. of 3 Core Physiology E Elective* Theory - 3 Elective E Elective** Theory - 3 Elective UOM S 002 Soft skill 2 Total 23 * Suggested Electives BMS E002 – Principles of Biochemistry II (By: Dept of Bio Chem) BMS E – Basic Pathology (By: Dept. of Pathology) 60
    • SEM Course Title Theory / Credits Course faculty code Practical Core / Elective BMS Neuro Chemistry Theory – Core 3 Guest faculty C636 BMS C610 Neuro Physiology Theory – Core Dept. of 3 Physiology & Guest faculty BMS C611 Neuro pathology Theory – Core 2 Guest faculty BMS C612 Medical Imaging and Radiology Theory – Core All faculties & III 2 Guest faculty BMS C613 Practical V: Neuro Physiology Practical – Dept. of 2 Core Physiology E Elective* Theory – 3 Elective E Elective* Practical – 3 Elective UOM S 003 Soft skill 2 UOM I 001 Internship 2 22 * Suggested Electives BMS E706 - Research Methods in Neuroscience – 3 Credits Theory – By Dept. of Anatomy BMS E707 - Practical IV: Research Methods in Neuroscience – 3 Credits Practical – By Dept. of Anatomy SEM Course Title Theory / Credits Course faculty Code Practical Core / Elective BMS C614 Clinical Neurology Theory – Core 3 VHS BMS C615 Clinical Neuro surgery, Theory – Core Neurological Treatment and 3 VHS Rehabilitation BMS C616 Neuro Microbiology, Neuro Theory – Core Dept. of 3 Virology, Neuro Immunology Microbiology BMS C617 Psycho Pharmacology Theory – Core Dept. of IV 3 Pharmacology BMS C637 Research Project Practical – 6 All faculties and Dissertation Core BMS C619 Clinical Examination & Final Viva Practical – 3 VHS Core UOM S Soft skill 2 004 23 Total Credits = 88 (Core – 60 + Elective -18 + Soft skill – 8 + Internship - 2) 61
    • DETAILED SYLLABUS SEMESTER I BMS C601 Human Anatomy – I 2 1 0 3 Unit I : Introduction to Anatomy and Upper Limb Anatomical position – terms used in anatomy – bones and joints of upper limb – muscle groups of upper limb – arterial supply and venous drainage – lymphatic drainage - axilla – cubital fossa – carpel tunnel – brachial plexus – nerves of upper limb Unit II : Anatomy of Lower Limb Bones and joints of lower limb – muscle groups – arterial supply – venous drainage – lymphatic drainage - femoral triangle – popliteal fossa – sub-sortorial canal – anastamotic chain of thigh – arches of foot – layers of sole Unit III : Anatomy of abdominal wall and abdominal viscera Abdominal wall – peritoneal reflection and cavity – anatomy of abdominal organs: stomach, duodenum, jejunum and Ileum, colon, liver, extrahepatic biliary apparatus, pancreas, spleen, kidney, ureter, supra-renal gland Unit IV : Anatomy of pelvis and pelvic organs Skeletal pelvis – divisions of pelvis – anatomy of pelvic and reproductive organs: bladder, uterus and fallopian tube, ovary, seminal vesicle, prostate, rectum, anal canal Unit V : Anatomy of Perineal Region Divisions of perineal region – external genitalia of male and female – scrotum – testis – anal sphincters – inguinal canal List of Reference Books 1. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 2. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 3. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ) 2004. 4. Reference Books: 5. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 39th Edn.) 2005. 6. Surface Anatomy, John, S. Lumley, (Churchill Livingstone) 2002. 7. Mc,Minn’s color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Ahrahams, Peter H, ( Mosby ) 2003. 8. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of limbs and Back, Jenkins David,B,( W.B. Saunders, 8th Edn.) 2002. 9. Viva Voce in Anatomy, Gangane, S.D. (Churchill Livingstone) 1999. 10. Viva in Anatomy, Yadav, A. (Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers) 1998. 11. Cunningham’s Text book of Anatomy, Romanse, G.J.( Oxford University Press. 12th Edn.) 12. Grant’s methods of Anatomy: A Clinical Problem solving approach. Basmajian, John, V. (Williams, & Wilkins, 10th Edn) 1989. 13. Anatomy regional and Applied, Last, R. J, (English Language Book Society) 1981. 14. Hollinshead’s Text book of Anatomy, Rosse, Cornelius, ( Lippincott 5th Edn.)1997. 15. Last Anatomy regional and applied, Sinnatamby, Chammys, (Churchill Livingstone) 2001. 16. Essential Anatomy dissector following grant’s method, Hansen, John,T. (Lippincott, Wiliams and Wilkins 5th Edn.) 2002. 17. Text book of Human Anatomy, Hamilton, W. .J , (Macmillan publishing , 2nd Edn )1982. 18. Segmental Anatomy, Wagner, Marvin, (Williams and Wilkins) 1982. **** BMS C602 Human Physiology – I 3 1 0 4 Faculty, Dept. of Physiology For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** 62
    • BMS C603 Practical I : Human Anatomy I 0 0 2 2 Anatomy cadever demonstration - spotter identification – viva voce from upper limb, lower limb, abdomen, pelvis and perineal regions of human cadaevar. **** BMS C604 Practical II: Human 0 0 3 3 Physiology – I For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** SEMESTER II BMS C634 Human Anatomy – II 2 1 0 3 Unit I : Neck Region Muscle groups of neck region – cervical vertebrae – branches of carotid arteries – jugular veins – triangles of neck – mid line structures of neck: trachea, oesophagus, thyroid, parathyroid, larynx Unit II : Thorax region Thoracic vertebrae – ribs – sternum – thoracic cage – diaphragm – pleura – lungs – heart – thymus – thoracic duct – azygos system of veins - mediastinum Unit III : Head region Skull – norma, cranial fossae – facial muscles – muscles of mastigation – oral cavity & tongue – tonsils – pharynx – nasal cavity – eye ball – extraocular muscles – ear – salivary glands – paranasal sinuses List of Reference Books 1. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 2. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 3. Reference Books: 4. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 39th Edn.) 2005. 5. Surface Anatomy, John, S. Lumley, (Churchill Livingstone) 2002. 6. Mc,Minn’s color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Ahrahams, Peter H, ( Mosby ) 2003. 7. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of limbs and Back, Jenkins David,B,( W.B. Saunders, 8th Edn.) 2002. 8. Viva Voce in Anatomy, Gangane, S.D. (Churchill Livingstone) 1999. 9. Viva in Anatomy, Yadav, A. (Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers) 1998. 10. Cunningham’s Text book of Anatomy, Romanse, G.J.( Oxford University Press. 12th Edn.) 11. Grant’s methods of Anatomy: A Clinical Problem solving approach. Basmajian, John, V. (Williams, & Wilkins, 10th Edn) 1989. 12. Anatomy regional and Applied, Last, R. J, (English Language Book Society) 1981. 13. Hollinshead’s Text book of Anatomy, Rosse, Cornelius, ( Lippincott 5th Edn.)1997. 14. Last Anatomy regional and applied, Sinnatamby, Chammys, (Churchill Livingstone) 2001. 15. Essential Anatomy dissector following grant’s method, Hansen, John,T. (Lippincott, Wiliams and Wilkins 5th Edn.) 2002. 16. Text book of Human Anatomy, Hamilton, W. .J , (Macmillan publishing , 2nd Edn )1982. 17. Segmental Anatomy, Wagner, Marvin, (Williams and Wilkins) 1982. 63
    • BMS C635 Neuroanatomy 2 1 0 3 All faculty Unit I: Cranial cavity and CNS Meninges – dural venous sinuses – cerebral cortex: structure, divisions, functional regions and connections – cerebellum: structure, divisions, functional regions and connections – Thalamus – hypothalamus – limbic system – mid brain – nuclei of mid brain – medulla – spinal cord Unit II: PNS and ANS Spinal nerve formation – spinal nerve plexuses – cranial nerves – sympathetic chain – sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation through various cranial and spinal nerves – autonomic nerve plexuses and their functions 1. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ) 2004. 2. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 3. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 4. Reference Books: 5. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 39th Edn.) 2005. **** BMS C606 Human Physiology - II 3 1 0 4 Faculty Dept. of Physiology For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** BMS C607 Practical - III Human Anatomy- 0 0 2 2 II Anatomy cadaver demonstration - spotter identification – viva voce from head, neck and thoracic regions of human cadaver and from brain and spinal cord **** BMS C608 Practical IV: Human 0 0 3 3 Faculty Dept. of Physiology Physiology – II For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** SEMESTER III BMS C636 Neuro Chemistry 2 1 0 3 Dr. Kalaiselvi Dept of Medical Biochemistry Unit I Cellular Neurochemistry - i) Energy metabolism/glycolysis ii) Lipids of CNS iii) Carbohydrates, proteins , aminoacids Neural processing and behaviour - i) Endocrine effects on brain ii) Learning , memory and behaviour Development and differentiation - i) Biochemistry of CNS development ii) Biochemistry of ageing and age related disorders. Unit II Applied Neurochemistry - Inherited and Neurodegenerative diseases i) Disorders and carbohydrate , lipids and mitochondria metabolism ii) Disorders of muscle iii) Disorders of aminoacid metabolism iv) Disorders of basal ganglia v) Biochemistry of dementia. Unit III Neuropshychiatric disorder i) Neurochemistry of schizophrenia ii) Biochemistry of mood and anxiety disorder iii) Neurochemical aspects of drug of abuse Neuroimmunology 64
    • Immune system and brain; Immunopathological mechanism operative in brain disease. Unit IV Clinical Biochemistry--Automated analysis, Blood profile, CSF profile, Neurochemistry - Protein estimation , electrophoresis HPLC exposure , radio ligand binding , Fluorescence ELISA , RIA , Enzymes. References Basic Neurochemistry, George,.J. Siegel, (Lippincot Williams and Wilkins, Wilkins 6th Edn. ). 1999. **** BMS C 610 Neuro physiology 2 1 0 3 Dept. of Physiology, PGIBMS & NIMHANS, Bangalore Unit I Neurobiology of sensation and sensory processing; mechanism of movements and it regulations; neurobiology of emotion; motivation; leaning and memory and neural substrate of different states of conciousness. Unit II Trophic factors, extra cellular matrix components in nervous system development. Neuron-Glia interactions in development. Cellular neurophysiology - synapses and neuronal signaling. Unit III An over view of the neurobiology of sensation and sensory processing. Principal mechanisms of movement and its central control. Neurobiology of emotion and motivation. Unit IV Neural substrates regulating the states of consciousness. Neurobiology of learning and memory. Unit V Neuro physiological basis of psychiatric disorder. Neuro physiological basis of neurological disorders. **** BMS C611 Neuro Pathology 1 1 0 2 Dr. Sarasabarathi Arumugam- Guest faculty Unit I Organisation of the nervous system macroscopic and histological features Fine structural features of the nervous system Unit II Cytogenesis of brain cells Blood Brain Barrier - structural and functional aspects Morphological histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of skeletal muscle Unit III Peripheral nerves - structure, development and diseases Dystrophinopathies and congenital myopathies Unit IV Regeneration of the nervous system Neuropathology of infections of nervous system - Tissue reaction Neuropathology of ischemia - evolution of lesions Unit V Neuro-Oncology - Cellular and molecular aspects Neurodegeneration **** BMS C612 Medical Imaging and Radiology 1 1 0 2 Guest Faculty 65
    • Unit I Principles of medical imaging and radiology: x-rays, angiograms, contrast x-rays, MRI, CT, ultrasound, echocardiogram Unit II Practical demonstration of performing various imaging techniques Unit III Medical Imaging and Radiology of limbs and thorax: features of normal study, signs of pathology in limbs and thoracic organs through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. Unit IV Medical Imaging and Radiology of abdomen and pelvis: features of normal study, signs of pathology in various abdominal and pelvic organs through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. Unit V Medical Imaging and Radiology of head, brain and spinal cord: features of normal study, signs of pathology in head, brain and spinal cord through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. **** BMS C613 Practical VI 0 0 2 2 Dept of Physiology, PGIBMS & Neuro Physiology NIMHANS, Bangalore Unit I 1.Demonstration of different structures of human brain. 2.Demonstration of nerve action potential. 3.Demonstration of primary neuronal culture technique. Unit II 4.Stereotaxic technique to demonstrate the effect of lesioning and stimulation of various brain regions. Unit III 5.Polysomnographic recording to study sleep wakefulness cycle. 6.In vivo and in vitro recording of single and multi unit activity. Unit IV 7.Demonstration of EEG, EMG and Evoked Potentials will be carried out in collaboration with th Department of Neurology. Unit V 8.Demonstration of motor skills learning and memory in experimental animals 66
    • SEMESTER IV T.S. Srinivasan Center for BMS C614 Clinical neurology - 2 1 0 3 Clinical Neurosciences VHS Medical centre Faculty members: Prof. K. Krishnamoorthy Srinivas : Chairman & Honorary Visiting Professor Dr.E. S. Krishnamoorthy Head of Research and Consultant in Behavioural Neuroscience & Honorary Visiting Professor Unit I. Essentials of Clinical Neurology Symptoms in neurological disease The Neural examination Common diagnostic tests in Clinical neurology Special diagnostic approaches & their appropriate use Clinical case presentation & discussion Unit II Neurological Disorders manifesting in childhood Disorders due to birth injury and impaired neurodevelopment Genetic diseases of the central nervous system Mitochondrial and Neurocutaneous syndrome Disorders of nerve and muscle in childhood Other hereditary disorders Unit III Clinical Neurological syndrome ( Including clinical case presentation) Stroke Headache & other pain syndromes Epilepsy Movement disorders Infections Demyelinating disorders Unit IV Disorders of nerve & Muscle in adults Neurobehavioral syndromes Autonomic Nervous system syndromes. Environmental, occupational, Iatrogenic & system neurological disorders. Alcohol & Drug dependence Iatrogenic neurological disease Unit V Occupational & Environmental neurology Endocrinal and metabolic neurology Systemic neurological syndromes and the interface between general medicine and neurology **** 67
    • BMS C615 Clinical Neuro surgery, T.S. Srinivasan Center for Neurological treatment and 2 1 0 3 Clinical Neurosciences Rehabilitation. VHS Medical centre Unit I Clinical neurosurgery Essentials of Neurosurgery Trauma - Diagnosis and management Tumours - Diagnosis and Management Common neurosurgical procedures Novel Neurosurgical therapies clinical case presentation Unit II Neurological treatment and Rehabilitation (50 hours) The principles of neurological and neurosurgical treatment. Prescribing for neurosurgical illness. Unit III The treatment of medical & psychiatric co - morbolity The six friendly men of neurosurgery : who, what, why, when , where & how? Understanding and evaluating disablement in neurological disorders Unit IV Physical therapy Occupational therapy Speech therapy Unit V Cognitive & neurobehavioral rehabilitation Psychological therapies for neurological diseases An evidence based approach to the patient with a neurological illness. Neurological & Neuro surgical Research : Principle and Practice ( 10 Hours). Books for reference: Neurological in clinical practice - volumes 1&2 Eds, Bradley et al Principles of Neurology - Adams & Victor Textbook of Neurosurgery - Ramamurthi Neurological Rehabilitation - ed. Greenwood Essential Reading: Neurology & Neurosurgery Illustrated - Lindsay, Bone & Carpenter Merrit's Neurology handbook - Ma zzoni & Rowland Lecture notes & Reference papers 68
    • **** Neuro Microbiology, 2 1 0 3 Dr.P.Rajendran BMS C616 Neuro Virology and Dr. Thangam Menon Neuro Immunology Unit I 1.Principles of general Microbiology. 2. Microbes and man. 3. Host-Microbe relationship. 4. Infectious diseases. 5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infections: its realities and myths. 6. Principles of neuro microbiology Unit II 7. Blood barrier and CNS infections. 8. Pathogenesis of CNS microbial infections. 9. Laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections. 10. Neuro tuberculosis and Neuro cysticercosis. 11. Antibiotics and Microbes. 12. Prevention, control and public health aspects of CNS infections. Unit III 1. Preparation of culture media, stains etc. 2. Isolation of bacteria, mycobacteria and funji. 3. Biochemical characterization and antibiogram. 4. Immunological diagnosis of infectious diseases. 5. Serological assays. 6. Use of PCR in the diagnosis of Infections. Unit IV Neurovirology 1. Viral infections of CNS 2. Viral Neurotropism 3. Pathogenesis of viral infection of CNS. 4. Lab diagnosis of viral infections of CNS. 5. Prevention and control of viral infections of CNS. 6. HIV and the nervous system Prions. 7. Japanese encephalitis Rabies. Unit V Neuroimmunology 1. Fundamentals of neuroimmunology 2. Viral Immopathology in CNS 3. Psychoneuro immunology 4. Immunology : Basic techniques - Elisa, IFA, Western Blot, Virus Neutralization. 5. Cell Culture: Growth and maintenance of cell culture, storage and revival of cell lines, lymphocyte cultures 6. Virology: Virus growth and titration animal inoculations. BMS C617 Psycho Pharmacology 2 1 0 3 Guest Faculty Unit I: Mechanism of action of important drugs used to treat Psychiatric and Neurological disorders , Unit II: Pharmacokinetics and adverse drug reactions. Unit III: Animal models of amnesia, learning and recall Unit IV: Animal models of anxiety and depression Unit V: Animal models for the assessment of functioning of neuroreceptor BMS C637 Research Project and 0 0 6 6 All Faculty Dissertation BMS C619 Clinical Examination T.S. Srinivasan Center for Clinical and 2 1 0 3 Neurosciences Final Viva VHS Medical centre 69
    • Name of the Degree : M.Sc (Medical Microbiology) Faculty : Medicine Duration : Three Years Pattern : CBCS Total Number of Credits : 131 Details of the papers to be offered (credits) : Core : 90 Elective : 27 Soft skill and Internship: 14 Total strength : 10 Eligibility : B.Sc (Microbiology, Zoology, Botany, Biotechnology, Biology, Medical lab technology, ) Year Semester Core Practical Intern Elective Soft Total Subtotal G skill total I I 16 3 2 21 39 131 II 13 3 2 18 II III 18 6 2 26 43 IV 12 3 2 17 II V 12 6 2 20 49 VI 19 2 6 2 29 First year Semester I Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C301 Human anatomy I 3 3 BMS C302 Human anatomy II * 3 3 BMS C303 Human physiologyI* 4 4 BMS C308 Practical I (anatomy)* 3 3 BMS C305 Practical II (Physiology)* 3 3 BMS Elective 1 * 3 Soft skill 2 Total 21 Semester II Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C306 Human Anatomy III* 3 3 BMS C307 Human physiology II* 4 1 4 BMS C308 Practical III (Human AnatomyII)* 2 1 3 BMS C309 Practical IV (Physiology II)* 3 3 BMS 1072 Elective 2* 3 Soft skill 2 Total 18 • Other departments Second year 70
    • Semester III Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C310 General Microbiology 2 1 3 BMS C311 Molecular Microbiology 2 1 3 BMS C312 Practical V 3 3 BMS C313 Practical VI 3 3 BMS 314 Practical VII 3 3 BMS 315 Practical VIII 3 3 BMS Elective 3 2 1 3 BMS Elective 4 2 1 3 SOFT SKILL 2 Total 26 Semester IV Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C316 Parasitology 2 1 3 BMS C317 Medical Mycology 2 1 3 BMS C318 Practical IX 3 3 BMS C319 Practical X 3 3 BMS Elective 5 * 3 SOFT SKILL 2 Total 17 Third Year Semester V Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C320 Systematic bacteriology 3 1 4 BMS C321 Practical XI 1 3 4 BMS C322 Practical XII 1 3 4 BMS Elective 6 3 BMS Elective 7 * 3 SOFT SKILL 2 Total 20 Semester VI Core code Title L T P Credit BMS C323 Virology I 3 1 4 BMS C324 Virology II 2 1 3 BMS C325 Practical XIII 3 3 BMS C326 Practical XIV 3 3 BMS C327 Project with Dissertation 6 BMS Elective 8 3 BMS Elective 9 3 SOFT SKILL 2 INTERNSHIP 2 Total 29 Credit Distribution Core Subjects - 90 Electives - 27 Soft Skill - 12 Internship - 02 ------- Total 131 ------- 71
    • YEAR -II III SEMESTER Code Course L T P Credi Faculty t BMS C310 General 2 1 3 Dr.P.Rajendran Microbiology BMS C310 General Microbiology I Theory ( Core 3 Credits) Unit I : Introduction to Microbiology, Discovery of Microbes General biology of bacteria: Classification of bacteria Structure of Bacteria and Function Unit II : Microscopy I- Basic Principles of microscopy. Microscopy II Different types of bright field Microscopy III - Phase contrast and Dark field. Microscopy IV - Fluorescence microscopy. Microscopy V: Electron microscopy Unit III : Bacterial resistance to Physical and Chemical agents. Sterilization & Disinfection, types, evaluation, quality control. Basic principles, types, techniques and mechanisms of different staining methods in bacteriology Unit IV: Cultivation methods. Physiology of bacteria I –Growth. Physiology of bacteria II -Metabolism Physiology of bacteria III – Nutrition, bacteriology of water, food, milk Unit V: Antimicrobial agents. Mechanisms of action of various antibiotics, their evaluation. Quality control Books 1) Introduction to Microbiology –2nd edn.2000, John L Ingraham & Catherine A Ingraham, Brooks/Cole, London 2) Microbiology - an Introduction –7th edn. 2001, Tortora, Funke, Case 3) Microbiology –Principles and Explorations – 5th Edn.2002 Jacquelyn G Black, John Wiley & Sons, New York 4) Biology of Microorganisms –10th edn. 2003 Michael T Madigan (edn.) Prentice Hall, London 5) Microbiology: Lansing M Prescott,5th edn. 2002. Wm C Brown Publishers Oxford, London 6) Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn: 2003 Sundararaj .A. Chennai 600096 7) General microbiology Robert F Boyd, 5 edn. 2002 St Louis, Times Mirror, Mosby college publishing 9) Microbiology – 2nd edn 1998, Daniel Linn, WCB McGraw-Hill 10) Zinsser Microbiology – 19th edn 1988, Joklik (edn.), Prentice Hall Inc, London 11) Fundamentals of Bacteriology – 5th edn 1986 AJ Salle, Tata McGraw Hill 12) Review of medical microbiology E Jawetz Ernest California, Lange Medical Publication, 2004 13) Topley and Wilson's principles of bacteriology virology and immunity Edn.7 V - 3c Bacterial Diseases, Graham Wilson, London Edward Arnold 2002. 14) Microbiology 7th edn.2002, Michael J Pelczar New Delhi, Tata McGraw - Hill Publishing Company Ltd Code Course L T P Credi Faculty t BMS Molecular 2 1 3 Dr.Thangam Menon 72
    • C311 Microbiology BMS C311 Molecular Microbiology II Theory ( Core 3 Credits) Unit I : Structure of Prokaryotic DNA and replication, Enzymes involved in replication and its control. Metabolic regulation – Operon concept, Lactose, Tryptophan operons and their control, Mutations, types and agents Unit II : Bacterial genetics: Organization, alterations and expression of nucleic acids of bacteria. Bacterial variations, metabolic regulations, genetic transfers, genetic manipulations, Unit III : Different techniques of Amplification (nucleic acids and signal), Hybridizations (Southern, Northern, Western), Restriction enzymes, Gene cloning and their role in vaccine developments and development of diagnostic tests. Unit IV: Bacteriophages: Phage genetics, phage conversions and their use in bacterial conversion. Plasmids / cosmids Unit V : Gene transfer in bacteria, ( Transformation, conjugation, transductions, transfection,), Transposable elements Books: 1) Cellular and Molecular Immunology- 5th Edn 2003 Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Saunders, New York 2) Molecular biotechnology, BR Glick and JJ Pasternak, 2 edn.1998.ASM press Washington.D.C 3) Manual of Clinical Microbiology 8th edn. PR Murray,Volms 1,2, 2003, ASM Press, Washinton, D.C. 4) Molecular biology and genetic engineering ,1st Edn.2005,P.K Gupta, Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. 5) Molecular cloning, Sambrook, J, Third edition, 2001,Cold Spring Harbor New York 6) Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn: 2003, Sundararaj .A. Chennai 600096. 7) Molecular Cloning Vol I , II& III Sambrook and Russell 3 Edn.2001, New York 8) Molecular Biology, 3 Edn, 2003, David Freifelder, Narosa Publishing house, New Delhi 9) Microbial genetics, Freifelder,D.,4th edn. 2002, Narosa Publishing house, New Delhi Code Course L T P Credi Faculty t BMS C312 Practical V 3 3 Dr.Padma Krishnan BMS-C312 Practical V General Microbiology (Core 2 Credits) Microscopy, Staining, Sterilization and washing of glassware Preparation of culture media, Cultivation of bacteria, Total and viable counts Tests for identification of bacteria, Demonstration of bacterial enzymes Antibiotic sensitivity tests, Bacteriological analysis of food water and milk Code Course L T P Credi Faculty t BMS C313 Practical VI 3 3 Dr. Thangam Menon BMS –C313 Practical VI Molecular Microbiology (Core 3 Credits) Gel electrophoresis- serum , antigens, others. Isolation of plasmids, Transformation experiments, Separation and analytical techniques (chromatography) Preparation and standardization of bacterial suspensions for immunizations Eg : Salmonella, Vibrio etc BMS –C314 Practical VII Basic Immunology (Core 3 Credits) Preparation and titration of immune sera ex: Anti sheep cell antibodies / antisera against bovine serum, Peripheral blood T cell enumeration Test for immediate and delayed hypersensitivities in animals BMS –C315 Practical VIII Animal experiments (Core 3 Credits) Raising immune sera, Pyrogen testing of parenteral solution Virulence and toxigenicity tests Eg: Tetanus toxin, Cholera toxin Bleeding different animals for various experiments Animal autopsy for evidence of pathogenicity Books for the above practical 1. Introduction to Microbiology –2nd Edn 2000 John L Ingraham & Catherine A Ingraham,(Edr) Brooks/Cole 2. Microbiology – 5th Edn 2002 Prescott, Harley, Klein McGraw Hill 3. Microbiology –Principles and Explorations – 5th Edn 2002 73
    • Jacquelyn G Black, John Wiley & Sons, New York 4. Microbiology - an Introduction –7th Edn 2001 Tortora, Funke, Case, Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 5. Microbiology – 2nd Edn 1998, Daniel Linn, WCB McGraw-Hill 6. Brock Biology of Microorganisms –10th Edn 2003 Michael T Madigan (Edn.), Prentice Hall 7. Molecular Cloning Vol I , II& III Sambrook and Russell 3 Edn. 2003 8. Practical Medical Microbiology Mackie & McCartney 9. Laboratory Animals Some Basic Concepts and experiments Rajendran .P , 2000 10. Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn: 2003 Sundararaj .T. Chennai 600096. 11. Handbook of experimental immunology Fourth Edition, 1986.DM Weir Volm 4 Blackwell Scientific Publications,London 12. The laboratory Mouse selection and management. ML Simo and J.O Brick.1st Edn.1970, Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey 13. Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry CA Williams, MW Chase, Volm 1,1967, Academic Press New York and London 14. Roitt’s Essential Immunology – 10th Edn 2001 Ivan M Roitt, Blackwell Scientific, London 15. Essentials of Clinical Immunology –3rd Edn 1993 Helen Chapel, Mansel Haeney (Ed.) Blackwell Scientific, London 16. Cellular and Molecular Immunology- 5th Edn 2003 Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Saunders 17. Immunology, Immunopathology and Immunity –6th Edn 2001 Stewart Sell, ASM, Washinton.D.C 18. Immunology of Infectious Diseases –2002 Stefan HE Kaufmann (Edn.), ASM Press, washinton.D.C 19. Immunology –6th Edn 2001, Roitt, Brostoff, Male. Mosby 20. Kuby Immunology –4th Edn 2000, Richard A Golsby (Edn.) WH Freeman & Co 21. Immunology for Life Scientists –2nd Edn 2003, Lesley Jane Eales, Wiley, New York 22. Bailey and Scott's diagnostic microbiology. Forbe ,Betty A. London, Mosby. 2002 23. Microbiology: a laboratory manual. Cappuccino, James. Harlow,Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1999 24. Manual of clinical microbiology 2Vols. Murray,Patrick R. Baron. Jorgensen. Pfaller. Yolken, Robert H. Washington, ASM Press. 2003 25. Manual of commercial methods in clinical microbiology. Truant, Allan L. USA, ASM Press. 2002. IV SEMESTER BMS-C316 Medical Parasitology (Core 3 Credits) Includes the study of life cycle, pathogenesis, pathology, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, prevention etc of the following: Unit I Introduction to host parasite relationship Aerobic, Anareobic, Pathogenic & Non Pathogenic Amoebae (E.histolytica) Flagellates, ciliates, Haemoflagellates –I - Leishmania Haemoflagellates –II- Trypanosomes Unit II : Sporozoites- Plasmodium and others, Toxoplasma Parasites associated with AIDS Unit III : Cestodes infecting man, (Taenia, Echinococcus, Multiceps, Hymenolepis, Dipilidium, and others, Trematodes infecting man, (Schistosomes, Gastrodiscoides, Fasciola, Clonorchis, Opiarhoexhia, Hetwrophyes, Metagonimus, Paragonimus) Unit IV: Nematodes infecting man (ascaris, Ancylostoma, Necator, Strongyloides, Trichinella, Capillaria, Enterobius, Trichiuris, All filarial worms Unit V: Immunology of parasitic infections, Vaccine Strategies for Parasitic diseases Books: 1. Manson’s Tropical Diseases –20th Edn 1996, Cook GC (Edn.), WB Saunders 74
    • 2. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology –5th Edn 2001, Peters W, Pasvol.Wolfe. 3. Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology –1991, World Health Organization, WHO Geneva 4. Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology – 4th Edn 2000 Chiodini PL (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone, London 5. Parasitology –1980, Chatterjee, K.D., 12 Edn. Chatterjee Medical Publishers, Calcutta 6. Medical Parasitology,2 edn.Walter Beck, J.E.Davies, 1976,C.V Mosby Company, Saint Louis 7. Manual of clinical microbiology 2Vols. Murray, Patrick R. Baron. Jorgensen. Pfaller. Yolken, Robert H. Washington,ASM Press. 2003 8. Bailey and Scott's diagnostic microbiology. Betty A Forbes. 2002. Baltimore, Mosby. 9. Microbiology: a laboratory manual. Cappuccino, James. Harlow, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1999 10.Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases,1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer-Vertlag, New York. BMS-C 317 Medical Mycology Theory ( Core 3 Credits) Includes the study of general and growth characteristics , pathogenesis, pathology, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, prevention etc of the following: Unit I : Mycology Classification, Lab methods Etiopathogenesis, epidemiology and lab diagnosis of the following: Piedra, M.fur fur, exophiala, Dermatophytes-other superficial fungal infections Unit II : Subcutaneous mycosis-I Chromoblastomycosis Subcutaneous mycosis-II mycetoma Subcutaneous mycosis-III rhinosporidiosis and others Actinomycosis and actinomycetoma Unit III :Deep mycosis- I (Histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, Deep mycosis – II(paracoccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis ect) Candidiasis and cryptococcosis Unit IV : Opportunistic mycosis Unit V: Immunology of fungal infections Books: 1) Medical Mycology -1st edn. 1992, Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Lea & Febiger, New york 2) Fungal infection : Diagnosis and Management - 1993 Richardson MD, Warnock DW, Blackwell Scientific, London 3) Fungal infection in the compromised patient – 2nd Edn 1991 Warnock DW, Richardson MD, Wiley, New york 4) Medical Mycology: A practical approach –1989 Evans EGV, Richardson MD (Edn.), Oxford University Press 5) Principles and Practice of Clinical Mycology –1996 Kibbler CC. (Edn.) Wiley, New York 6) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8 th edn. Volume 2, PR Murray et al, 2003, ASM Press, Washinton,D.C. 7. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases,4th edn. 1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer-Vertlag, New York. BMS-C318 Practical IX Parasitology & Helminthology (Core 3 Credits) Microscopic examination of stool specimens for ova and parasites and determination of size by micrometry, Concentration techniques. Determination of Worm burden, Determination of Malarial filarial Parasites in blood, Special Staining techniques for Sporozoan parasites in Stool (AIDS),Cultivation of parasitesand their examinations BMS-C319 Practical X Medical Mycology ( Core 3 Credits) Collection of specimens for fungal identification Isolation and identification of common pathogenic fungi, Dermatophytes, Eumycotic agent, Actinomycotic agent, Fermentation and assimilation tests for yeasts Slide culture technique, Study of common laboratory contaminants Books: 1) Manson’s Tropical Diseases –20th Edn 1996, Cook GC (Edn.), WB Saunders 2) Tropical Medicine and Parasitology –5th Edn 2001, Peters W, Pasvol., Wolfe. 3) Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology –1991 World Health Organization, WHO, Geneva 4) Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology – 4th Edn 2000 Chiodini PL (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone, London 5) Medical Parasitology –1974, Chatterjee, Calcutta 6 ) Medical Mycology -1992, Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Lea & Febiger, New york 75
    • 7) Fungal infection : Diagnosis and Management - 1993 Richardson MD, Warnock DW, Blackwell Scientific 8) Fungal infection in the compromised patient – 2nd Edn 1991 Warnock DW, Richardson MD, Wiley, New York 9) Medical Mycology: A practical approach –1989 Evans EGV, Richardson MD (Edn.), Oxford University Press 10) Principles and Practice of Clinical Mycology –1996 Kibbler CC. (Edn.), Wiley New York 11) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8 th edn. Volume 2, PR Murray et al, 2003, ASM Press, Washinton,D.C. 12) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases,1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer- Vertlag, New York. YEAR -III V SEMESTER BMS-C320 Systematic Bacteriology ( Core 4 Credits) General characteristics, pathogenicity, pathology, infections caused, laboratory diagnosis and prevention of the following: Unit I : Staphylococcus, Streptococcus , Other Gram Positive Cocci ( both aerobic & anerobic) Neisseria and Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium – I M.tuberculosis Mycobacterium – II MOTT Bacilli, M.leprae Unit II : Salmonella , E.coli, Shigella, Neo enteric pathogens Pseudomonads, Other enterobacteriaceae, (kleb, proteus etc), Vibrios, Halophilic vibrios, Aeromonas, Non fermentors Unit III : Emerging pathogens, Brucella, Yersinia pestis Haemophilus, Bordetella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Unit IV: Spirochetes General features, Borrelia, Treponema, Leptospira and others Nonsporing anaerobes, Unit V: Mycoplasma and Miscellaneous organisms Rickettsiae, Ehrlichiae, Chlamydiae Books: 1. Review of Medical Microbiology, 2004, Jawetz and Melnick, Lange , New York 2. Notes on Medical Microbiology and Immunology 3rd edn. -2002, Morag C Timbury (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone, London 3. Medical Microbiology – 16th Edn 2002, David Greenwood, Richard Slack, John F Peutherer (Edn.)Churchill Livingstone, London 4. Essential of Diagnostic Microbiology 3rd edn.– 1999, Lisa Anne Shimeld, Delmar, Mosby, London 5. Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology –11th Edn 2002, Betty A Forbes (Edn.), Mosby, London, 6. Mackie and McCartney: Practical Medical Microbiology –14th edn 1996, JG Collee (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone, London 7. Sherris Medical Microbiology –4th edn 2004, Kenneth J Ryan, C. George Ray, McGraw Hill. 8. Medical Microbiology-2nd edn 1994, Patrick R Murray (edn.), Mosby 9. Medical Microbiology –2nd edn 1998, Mims, Playfair, Roitt (edn.), Mosby 10. Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th edn, Patrick R Murray (edn.), ASM Press, Washinton,D.C. BMS-C321 Practical XI Systematic Bacteriology ( Core 4 Credits) Pure culture study of pathogenic bacteria and their isolation and identification from clinical specimens – Salmonella, E.coli, Shigella, Other enterobacteriaceae, (kleb, proteus etc) Pseudomonads, Vibrios BMS-C322 Practical XII Clinical Bacteriology ( Core 4 Credits) Study of pathogenic bacteria and their isolation and identification from clinical specimens – Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Corynebacterium, M.tuberculosis enterobacteriaceae Text Books 1. Review of Medical Microbiology, 2002 Jawetz and Melnick, Lange, New York, 2. Notes on Medical Microbiology and Immunology -2002 Morag C Timbury (edn.), Churchill Livingstone, London 3. Medical Microbiology – 16th edn 2002 David Greenwood, Richard Slack, John F Peutherer (edn.), Churchill Livingstone,London 4. Essential of Diagnostic Microbiology – 1999 76
    • Lisa Anne Shimeld, Delmar(edn) , New York. 5. Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology –11th edn 2002 Betty A Forbes (edn.), Mosby, London 6. Mackie and McCartney: Practical Medical Microbiology –14th edn 1996 JG Collee (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone 7. Sherris Medical Microbiology –4th edn 2004 Kenneth J Ryan, C. George Ray, McGraw Hill, London 8. Medical Microbiology-2nd edn 1994 Patrick R Murray (Edn.), Mosby, London 9. Medical Microbiology –2nd edn 1998 Mims, Playfair, Roitt (Edn.), Mosby, London 10. Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th edn Patrick R Murray (Edn.), ASM Press., Washinton,D.C. 11. Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn: 2003 Sundararaj .T. Chennai 600096. VI SEMESTER BMS-C323 Virology I Theory ( Core 4 Credits) Unit I Viruses structure and composition, DNA viruses, RNA viruses, Viral replication Unit II Cultivation of viruses (cell cultures, animals, eggs), Virus cell interactions, CPE, inclusion bodies, Viral assays, Unit III Viral genetics, various types of mutants and their importance / General Characteristics & Non human Viruses Unit IV Pathogenesis,pathology, clinical manifestations,and lab diagnosis of: Adeno virus, Herpes virus, Unit V Pox virus, Papova Virus, Hepadna Virus, Parvo virus Books Text Books 1) Virology – 3rd edn 1996, Fields DN (edn.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia 2) Principles of Virology – 2nd Edn 2004, SJ Flint edn, ASM Press, washinton,D.C 3) Clinical Virology – 2nd Edn 2002, Douglas D Richman (edn.), ASM Press, Washinton D.C 4) Essentials of Diagnostic Virology 3rd edn, 2000, Gregory A Storch, Churchill Livingstone, London 5.) Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th edn, Patrick R Murray (edn.), ASM Press., Washinton,D.C. 6) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases, 1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer- Vertlag, New York BMS –C324 Virology II Theory ( Core 3 Credits) Unit I Picorna virus, Ortho and Paramyxo viruses, Arbo viruses – Alpha, Flavi and Bunya viruses Unit II Toga viruses and Hepaciviruses, Arenaviruses and Filoviruses, Reoviruses, Retroviruses Unit III Calciviruses and Astroviruses, Coronaviruses, Unit IV Rabdoviruses, Prion Diseases Unit V New Emerging Viral infections, Immunology of viral infections Books Text Books 1) Virology – 3rd Edn 1996, Fields DN (Edn.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia 2) Principles of Virology – 2nd Edn 2004, SJ Flint Edn, ASM Press,Washinton D.C 3) Clinical Virology – 2nd Edn 2002, Douglas D Richman (Edn.), ASM Press, Washinton D.C. 4) Essentials of Diagnostic Virology – 2000, Gregory A Storch, Churchill Livingstone 5) Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th Edn, Patrick R Murray (Edn.), ASM Press., Washinton,D.C. 6) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases,1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer- Vertlag, New York BMS-C325 Practical XIII Virology ( Core 3 Credits) Chick embryo inoculation techniques Tissue culture techniques Plaque Assay Preparation of Media for Vertebrate Cell culture Staining of Cell lines Giemsa Staining Observation of Different types of CPE’s Storage of cell lines in liquid Nitrogen. Inclusion bodies staining 77
    • Serological tests for diagnosis of viral infections Viral Haemagglutination test ELISA (bioelisa HbsAg) Bacteriophage - Assay Books 1) Virology – 3rd Edn 1996, Fields DN (Edn.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia 2) Principles of Virology – 2nd Edn 2004, SJ Flint Edn, ASM Press,Washinton D.C 3) Clinical Virology – 2nd Edn 2002, Douglas D Richman (Edn.), ASM Press, Washinton D.C. 4) Essentials of Diagnostic Virology – 2000, Gregory A Storch, Churchill Livingstone 5) Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th Edn, Patrick R Murray (Edn.), ASM Press., Washinton,D.C. 6) Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases,1988, Volume 1, A.Ballows et al, Springer- Vertlag, New York BMS-C326 Practical XIV Applied Immunology (Core 3 Credits) Agglutination tests- slide and tube tests Precipitation tests Serological tests for diagnosis for microbial infections – Widal, VDRL, Brucella, Paul Bunnell, Rose Waller, Latex agglutination, ELISA, Complement and amboceptor titration Text Books (for the above practicals) 1) Essentials of Diagnostic Virology – 2000, Gregory A Storch, Churchill Livingstone, London 2) Immunobiology –5th edn, 2001, Charles A Janeway (edn.), Churchill livingstone,London 3) Roitt’s Essential Immunology – 10th edn 2003, Ivan M Roitt, Blackwell Scientific 4) Essentials of Clinical Immunology –3rd edn 1993, Helen Chapel, Mansel Haeney (Edn.), Blackwell Scientific, London 5) Cellular and Molecular Immunology- 5th edn 2003 Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Saunders 6) Immunology, Immunopathology and Immunity –6th edn 2001 Stewart Sell, ASM, Washinton,D.C 7) Immunology of Infectious Diseases –2002, Stefan HE Kaufmann (edn.), ASM Press, Washinton D.C 8) Immunology –6th edn 2001, Roitt, Brostoff, Male., Mosby 9) Kuby Immunology –4th edn 2000, Richard A Golsby (Edn.), WH Freeman & Co 10) Immunology for Life Scientists –2nd edn 2003, Lesley Jane Eales, Wiley 11)Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th edn,2003, Patrick R Murray (edn.), ASM Press., Washinton,D.C. BMS – C327 Project with Dissertation (6 credits) To plan and design statistically, retrieve relevant literature, organized and conduct, process the data, photograph relevant observations, evaluate by statistical programmes, present the project in any regional/national conference/seminar during the third year of the course and submit for final semester examinations. The work has to be conducted in the department under the guidance of the project supervisor. Interdisciplinary collaborations from external departments/institutions can be organized only for certain essential areas of the project. The project will be evaluated based on CBCS norms. The project should be submitted at least 15 days prior to evaluation and will be sent to the members for them to read. 78
    • Electives offered in the department of Microbiology 1.Basic immunology (Elective3 ) 2.Handling and use of laboratory animals (elective 4 ) 3.Clinical bacteriology(elective 6) 4.Applied immunology(elective 8) 5.Molecular diagnostic methods (elective 9) BMS--------Elective3 ( Department of Microbiology) Basic Immunology Theory ( Elective 3 Credits) Unit I : Introduction to immunology, Organs and cells of the immune sysem, Unit II: Antigen, Hapten, Antigen processing and presentation , Unit III : Antibody structure, production, purification, function, Theories of antibody production. Unit IV: Antigen – antibody interactions- Agglutination, Precipitation Neutralization and Labeled antibody techniques ( immunofluorescence, ELISA, RIA etc) Unit V: Interleukins, Complement, c’ deficiency and CFT Books 1) Roitt’s Essential Immunology – 10th Edn 2001 Ivan M Roitt, Blackwell Scientific, London 2) Essentials of Clinical Immunology –3rd Edn 1993 Helen Chapel, Mansel Haeney (Edn.) Blackwell Scientific, London 3) Cellular and Molecular Immunology- 5th Edn 2003 Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Saunders 4) Immunology, Immunopathology and Immunity –6th Edn 2001 Stewart Sell, ASM, washinton D.C 5) Immunology of Infectious Diseases –2002 Stefan HE Kaufmann (Edn.) ASM Press, Washinton D.C 6) Immunology –6th Edn 2001 Roitt, Brostoff, Male. Mosby, London 7) Kuby Immunology –4th Edn 2000 Richard A Golsby (Edn.), WH Freeman & Co 8) Immunology for Life Scientists –2nd Edn 2003 Lesley Jane Eales, Wiley 9) Immunobiology –5th Edn, 2001 Charles A Janeway (Edn.) Churchill livingstone, london 79
    • BMS-------- Elective4 (Department of Microbiology, PGIBMS) Handling & use of Laboratory Animals (Elective 3 credits) Unit I: Animal house and the equipments, Feeding and breeding methods,Gnotobiotic, Germ free animals, Unit II. Handling of animals, Common diseases of the different species of laboratory animals like mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, monkeys. Unit III: germ free animals, Gnotobiotic animals, gene knock out animals, transgenic animals Unit IV: Microbiological animal experiments , LD-50 determination Unit V: Various use of different Lab, animals, post mortam examination and disposal of used animals .Books: 1) Laboratory Animals Some Basic Concepts and experiments Rajendran .P 2) Microbiology Laboratory Manual 1st edn: 2003 Sundararaj .A. Chennai 600096. 3) Handbook of experimental immunology Fourth Edition, 1986.DM Weir Volm 4 Blackwell Scientific Publications 4) The laboratory Mouse selection and management. ML Simo and J.O Brick.1970, Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey 5) Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry CA Williams, MW Chase, Volm 1,1967, Academic Press New York and London BMS-------- E Clinical Bacteriology Theory ( Elective6)( 3 Credits) Unit I : Collection Storage & Transport of Clinical Specimen Infection of the Urinary Tract Bacterial infection Salmonella, E.coli, Pseudomonads, Klebsialla, Proteus , Staphylococcus Streptococcus, Others Infection of the Central Nerves System Bacterial infection Neisseria, Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Spirochetes Others Viral infection Enteroviruses, Mumps, Herpes simplex viruses, Vericella zoster Arbo viruses, Others Fungal infection Cryptococcus neoformans Parasitic infection Acanthamoea naegleria, Toxoplasma gondii, Cysticercosis Others Unit II Infection of the Gastro Intestinal Tract Bacterial Infection Salmonella, E.coli, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium Vibrios, Campylobacter, others Viral infection Rotaviruses, Astro viruses, Caliciviruses Parasitic infection Protozoan infections, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia Metazoan infection Unit III Infection of the Genito Urinary Tract Bacterial Infection Neisseria, Treponema palladium, Ureaplasma Parasitic infection Trichomonas Viral infection HSV, HIV Infections of Skin Bacterial Infection Treponema pallidum, streptococcus, Staphylococcus and others Fungal infection Dermatophytes Infections of Eye 80
    • Bacterial Infection Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Nonhemolytic Streptococcus Moraxella,anaerobic organisms Viral infection HSV Unit IV Infections of Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infection Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Mycobacteria, Neisseria, Mycoplasma Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Chlamydiae, Bordetella, Others Fungal infection Candida, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, others, Pneumocystis Viral infection Adeno, Corona, Coxsackie, , HSV, Influenza, Myxo viruses Rhinoviruses, others Unit V Zoonotic Infections Bacterial zoonosis Bacillus, Brucella, Chlamydia, Coxiella, Francisella, Leptospira, Rickettsia Salmonella, Yersinia, others Fungal zoonosis Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton Parasitic zoonosis Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma other metazoan parasites Viral zoonosis Arboviruses, Influenza, Rhabdoviruses , others Food borne infections, food poisoning Water borne infections Air borne infections Text Books 1) Review of Medical Microbiology Jawetz and Melnick, Lange 2) Notes on Medical Microbiology and Immunology -2002 Morag C Timbury (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone 26. Medical Microbiology – 16th Edn 2002 David Greenwood, Richard Slack, John F Peutherer (Edn.) Churchill Livingstone 27. Essential of Diagnostic Microbiology – 1999 Lisa Anne Shimeld, Delmar 28. Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology –11th Edn 2002 Betty A Forbes (Edn.), Mosby 29. Mackie and McCartney: Practical Medical Microbiology –14th edn 1996 JG Collee (Edn.), Churchill Livingstone 30. Sherris Medical Microbiology –4th Edn 2004 Kenneth J Ryan, C. George Ray, McGraw Hill 31. Medical Microbiology-2nd Edn 1994 Patrick R Murray (Edn.), Mosby 32. Medical Microbiology –2nd Edn 1998 Mims, Playfair, Roitt (Edn.), Mosby 33. Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Vol.1&2)– 8th Edn Patrick R Murray (Edn.), ASM Press., washinton D.C BMS--------E Applied immunology Theory ( Elective8) ( 3 Credits) Unit I Hybridoma technology, Hypersensitivity I and II, Hypersensitivity III and IV Unit II Autoimmunity, Immunodeficiency Unit III Immunogenetics, IR genes, Regulation of immune Response Unit IV Tumor immunology, MHC and Transplantation Unit V. Vaccines, Immunizing agents, preparation, standardization, Vaccine strategy Books: 1 Immunobiology –5th Edn, 2001 81
    • Charles A Janeway (Edn.), Churchill livingstone 2.Roitt’s Essential Immunology – 10th Edn 2001 Ivan M Roitt, Blackwell Scientific 3.Essentials of Clinical Immunology –3rd Edn 1993 Helen Chapel, Mansel Haeney (Edn.), Blackwell Scientific 4.Cellular and Molecular Immunology- 5th Edn 2003 Abul K Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman, Saunders 5. Immunology, Immunopathology and Immunity –6th Edn 2001 Stewart Sell, ASM 6. Immunology of Infectious Diseases –2002 Stefan HE Kaufmann (Edn.), ASM Press 7.Immunology –6th Edn 2001 Roitt, Brostoff, Male., Mosby 8. Kuby Immunology –4th Edn 2000, Richard A Golsby (Edn.), WH Freeman & Co 9. Immunology for Life Scientists –2nd Edn 2003 Lesley Jane Eales, Wiley BMS--------E Molecular Diagnostic techniques (Elective9)( 3 credits) Unit I Electrophoretic technique, Ultracentrifugation Unit II Gene amplification, Hybridization Unit III Chromatographic technique Unit IV Restriction Analysis, Finger Printing Unit V Molecular epidemiology , DNA sequencing Books: 1. Molecular biotechnology, BR Glick and JJ Pasternak, 2 edn.1998.ASM press Washington. 2. Manual of Clinical Microbiology 8th edn. PR Murray,Volms 1,2, 2003, ASM Press, Washinton, D.C. 3. Molecular biology and genetic engineering , P.K Gupta,Rastogi Publications, 2005, Meerut India. 4. Molecular cloning, Sambrook,j 2001, Third edition, Cold Spring Harbor New York 82
    • DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS 1. Name of the Course : Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Faculty of Medicine 2. Nature of the Course : Inter Disciplinary under CBCS pattern with Semester System 3. Revision Number and Effect : With effect from 2007-2008 and thereafter 4. Course Content - M.Sc. Anatomy (Faculty of Medicine) SEM Course Theory / Practical Title Credits Code Core / Elective BMS Human Anatomy I Theory - Core 3 C 739 (upper limb, lower limb) BMS Human Anatomy II Theory –Core 3 C 740 (abdomen, pelvis and perineum) BMS Human Physiology I Theory - Core 4 C702 I BMS Practical I : Human Anatomy I Practical - Core 3 C 741 BMS Practical II Practical - Core 3 C704 Human Physiology I Elective* Theory - Elective 3 Elective* Theory - Elective 3 UOM Soft skill 2 S 001 Total 24 * Suggested Electives: BMS E001 – Principles of Biochemistry I - By: Dept of Bio Chem. 83
    • BMS E702 - Human Histology - By: Dept. of Anatomy SEM Course Theory / Practical Title Credits Code Core / Elective BMS Human Anatomy III Theory - Core 3 C 742 (Head and Neck & Thorax) BMS Theory- Neuro Anatomy- I 3 C 743 Core BMS Human Physiology II Theory - Core 4 C706 II BMS Practical III: Human Anatomy II Practical - Core 3 C 744 BMS Practical – IV Human Physiology II Practical - Core 3 C708 Elective* Theory - Elective 3 Elective* Theory - Elective 3 UOM Soft Skill 2 S 002 Total 24 * Suggested Electives: BMS E002 – Principles of Biochemistry I (By: Dept of Bio Chem) SEM Course Theory / Practical Title Credits Code Core / Elective BMS C709 Human Physiology III Theory – Core 4 BMS C710 Medical imaging and Radiology Theory – Core 2 Elective* Theory Elective 3 Elective* Practical Elective 3 III Elective* Theory Elective 3 Elective* Practical Elective 3 UOM Soft skill 2 S 003 20 * Suggested Elective Courses : BMS E703 - Research Methods in Neuroscience - By: Dept. of Anatomy BMS E705 - Practical : Research Methods in Neuroscience - By: Dept. of Anatomy BMS E706 - Research Methods in Anatomy - By: Dept. of Anatomy BMS E707 - Practical: Research Methods in Anatomy - By: Dept. of Anatomy SEM Course Theory / Practical Title Credits code Core / Elective BMS Theory Advanced Research Methods in Anatomy 4 C711 Core BMS C712 Animal Experimentation Theory Core 4 BMS C713 Practical: Advanced Research Methods in Anatomy Practical Core 3 BMS C714 Practical : Animal Experimentation Practical Core 4 IV Theory Elective* 3 Elective UOM Soft skill 2 S 004 20 • Suggested Elective Courses : BMS E402 – Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology – By: Dept. of Endocrinology 84
    • BMS E505 – Neurotoxicology – By: Dept. of Pharm. & Env. Toxicology BMS E301 – Basic Immunology – By: Dept. of Microbiology BMS E304 – Applied Immunology – By: Dept. of Microbiology 85
    • SEM Course Title Theory / Practical Credits code Core / Elective BMS Gross Anatomy – I Theory Core 3 C715 BMS Neuro Anatomy – II Theory Core 3 C745 V BMS Human Histology – General and Systemic Theory Core 3 C717 BMS Human Embryology – General and Systemic Theory Core 3 C718 BMS C719 Project Research Work and Dissertation Practical Core 6 UOM Soft skill 2 S 005 UOM Internship 2 I 001 22 SEM Course Theory / Practical Title Credits Code Core / Elective BMS Gross Anatomy – II Theory Core 3 C720 BMS Neuro Anatomy – III Theory Core 3 C746 VI BMS C722 Histopathology Theory Core 3 BMS C723 Surgical Anatomy & Operative Surgery Theory Core 3 BMS Anatomy Practical –Spotters and General Viva Voce Practical Core 3 C747 BMS C725 Anatomy Practical – Human Cadaver Dissection Practical Core 4 UOM Soft skill 2 S 006 21 Credits Distribution: Core Subjects - 90 Electives - 27 Soft skill - 12 Internship - 02 ---------------- Total - 131 ----------------- 86
    • 15. DETAILED SYLLABUS SEMESTER I BMS C739 Human Anatomy - I 2 1 0 3 Unit I : Introduction to Anatomy and Upper Limb Anatomical position – terms used in anatomy – bones and joints of upper limb – muscle groups of upper limb – arterial supply and venous drainage – lymphatic drainage - axilla – cubital fossa – carpel tunnel – brachial plexus – nerves of upper limb Unit II : Anatomy of Lower Limb Bones and joints of lower limb – muscle groups – arterial supply – venous drainage – lymphatic drainage - femoral triangle – popliteal fossa – sub-sortorial canal – anastamotic chain of thigh – arches of foot – layers of sole List of Reference Books 19. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 20. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 21. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ) 2004. 22. Reference Books: 23. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 39th Edn.) 2005. 24. Surface Anatomy, John, S. Lumley, (Churchill Livingstone) 2002. 25. Mc,Minn’s color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Ahrahams, Peter H, ( Mosby ) 2003. 26. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of limbs and Back, Jenkins David,B,( W.B. Saunders, 8th Edn.) 2002. 27. Viva Voce in Anatomy, Gangane, S.D. (Churchill Livingstone) 1999. 28. Viva in Anatomy, Yadav, A. (Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers) 1998. 29. Cunningham’s Text book of Anatomy, Romanse, G.J.( Oxford University Press. 12th Edn.) 30. Grant’s methods of Anatomy: A Clinical Problem solving approach. Basmajian, John, V. (Williams, & Wilkins, 10th Edn) 1989. 31. Anatomy regional and Applied, Last, R. J, (English Language Book Society) 1981. 32. Hollinshead’s Text book of Anatomy, Rosse, Cornelius, ( Lippincott 5th Edn.)1997. 33. Last Anatomy regional and applied, Sinnatamby, Chammys, (Churchill Livingstone) 2001. 34. Essential Anatomy dissector following grant’s method, Hansen, John,T. (Lippincott, Wiliams and Wilkins 5 th Edn.) 2002. 35. Text book of Human Anatomy, Hamilton, W. .J , (Macmillan publishing , 2nd Edn )1982. 36. Segmental Anatomy, Wagner, Marvin, (Williams and Wilkins) 1982. **** BMS Human Anatomy -II 2 1 0 3 C 740 Unit I : Anatomy of abdominal wall and abdominal viscera Abdominal wall – peritoneal reflection and cavity – anatomy of abdominal organs: stomach, duodenum, jejunum and Ileum, colon, liver, extrahepatic biliary apparatus, pancreas, spleen, kidney, ureter, supra-renal gland 87
    • Unit II : Anatomy of pelvis and pelvic organs Skeletal pelvis – divisions of pelvis – anatomy of pelvic and reproductive organs: bladder, uterus and fallopian tube, ovary, seminal vesicle, prostate, rectum, anal canal Unit III: Anatomy of Perineal Region Divisions of perineal region – external genitalia of male and female – scrotum – testis – anal sphincters – inguinal canal BMS C702 Human Physiology – I 3 1 0 4 Faculty, Dept. of Physiology For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** BMS C741 Practical I : Human Anatomy I 0 0 2 3 & II Anatomy cadever demonstration - spotter identification – viva voce from upper limb, lower limb, abdomen, pelvis and perineal regions of human cadaver. **** BMS C704 Practical II: Human Physiology – I 0 0 3 3 For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** SEMESTER II BMS C742 Human Anatomy –III 2 1 0 3 Unit I: Neck Region Muscle groups of neck region – cervical vertebrae – branches of carotid arteries – jugular veins – triangles of neck – mid line structures of neck: trachea, oesophagus, thyroid, parathyroid, larynx Unit II : Thorax region Thoracic vertebrae – ribs – sternum – thoracic cage – diaphragm – pleura – lungs – heart – thymus – thoracic duct – azygos system of veins - mediastinum Unit III: Head region Skull – norma, cranial fossae – facial muscles – muscles of mastigation – oral cavity & tongue – tonsils – pharynx – nasal cavity – eye ball – extraocular muscles – ear – salivary glands – paranasal sinuses. List of Reference Books 18. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 19. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 20. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ) 2004. 21. Reference Books: 22. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 39th Edn.) 2005. 23. Surface Anatomy, John, S. Lumley, (Churchill Livingstone) 2002. 24. Mc,Minn’s color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Ahrahams, Peter H, ( Mosby ) 2003. 25. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of limbs and Back, Jenkins David,B,( W.B. Saunders, 8th Edn.) 2002. 26. Viva Voce in Anatomy, Gangane, S.D. (Churchill Livingstone) 1999. 27. Viva in Anatomy, Yadav, A. (Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers) 1998. 28. Cunningham’s Text book of Anatomy, Romanse, G.J.( Oxford University Press. 12th Edn.) 29. Grant’s methods of Anatomy: A Clinical Problem solving approach. Basmajian, John, V. (Williams, & Wilkins, 10th Edn) 1989. 30. Anatomy regional and Applied, Last, R. J, (English Language Book Society) 1981. 31. Hollinshead’s Text book of Anatomy, Rosse, Cornelius, ( Lippincott 5th Edn.)1997. 32. Last Anatomy regional and applied, Sinnatamby, Chammys, (Churchill Livingstone) 2001. 33. Essential Anatomy dissector following grant’s method, Hansen, John,T. (Lippincott, Wiliams and Wilkins 5 th Edn.) 2002. 34. Text book of Human Anatomy, Hamilton, W. .J , (Macmillan publishing , 2nd Edn )1982. 35. Segmental Anatomy, Wagner, Marvin, (Williams and Wilkins) 1982. BMS C743 Neuro anatomy –I 2 1 0 3 Cranial cavity and CNS 88
    • Meninges – dural venous sinuses – cerebral cortex: structure, divisions, functional regions and connections – cerebellum: structure, divisions, functional regions and connections – Thalamus – hypothalamus – limbic system – mid brain – nuclei of mid brain – medulla – spinal cord. PNS and ANS Spinal nerve formation – spinal nerve plexuses – cranial nerves – sympathetic chain – sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation through various cranial and spinal nerves – autonomic nerve plexuses and their functions. 1. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (Williams & Wilkins, 5th Edn.)1999. 2. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone) 2005. 3. Neruo Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ) 2004. **** BMS C706 Human Physiology – II 3 1 0 4 Faculty Dept. of Physiology For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** BMS C744 Practical - III Human Anatomy- 0 0 2 2 III Anatomy cadever demonstration - spotter identification – viva voce from head, neck and thoracic regions of human cadaevar and from brain and spinal cord **** BMS C708 Practical IV: Human Physiology – 0 0 3 3 Faculty Dept. of Physiology II For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** SEMESTER III BMS Human Physiology – III 3 1 0 4 Faculty Dept. of Physiology C709 For detailed syllabus and references please refer the Department of Physiology’s detailed syllabus **** BMS C710 Medical Imaging and Radiology 1 1 0 2 Guest Faculty Unit I Principles of medical imaging and radiology: x-rays, angiograms, contrast x-rays, MRI, CT, ultrasound, echocardiogram Unit II Practical demonstration of performing various imaging techniques Unit III Medical Imaging and Radiology of limbs and thorax: features of normal study, signs of pathology in limbs and thoracic organs through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. Unit IV Medical Imaging and Radiology of abdomen and pelvis: features of normal study, signs of pathology in various abdominal and pelvic organs through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. Unit V Medical Imaging and Radiology of head, brain and spinal cord: features of normal study, signs of pathology in head, brain and spinal cord through medical imaging techniques mentioned above. List of Reference Books 1. Text book of radio Graphic Positioning and related Anatomy, Bontrager, Kenneth .L Mosby, 2001. 2. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound, Baxter, Grand, m. Allan, Paul LD, morley, Patricia,Blackwell, Scientific Publication,1999. 89
    • 3. Fundaments of medical Imaging. Sueters, Paul, Cambridge, University press, 2002. 4. Handbook radiology. Prasad, Kedar .N. (2nd Edn), CRC Press ,1995. 5. Fundamentals of medical Imaging . Suetens, Paul, Cambridge University Press, 2002. 6. Clinical diagnostic ultra sound. Baxter, Grant, (6th Edn), Blackwell scientific publication, 1999 SEMESTER IV BMS C711 Advanced Research Methods 3 1 0 4 in Anatomy Unit I Electro-neurophysiology: ECG - EMG – EEG – SEP – MEP Unit II Neuron Tracing: Use of fluorescent tracers – non-fluorescent tracers – theoretical background of neuron tracing mechanisms Unit III Estimation Techniques: Estimation of Neurotransmittors and others through HPLC – ELISA Blotting Techniques: southern, northern and western Unit IV Histochemistry: Histochemical procedures in quantifying substances such as alkaline phosphatase – histamine etc in tissue sections – special stains for neurohistology Unit V Immunohistology: Polyclonal –monoclonal antibody production – primary – secondary antibodies – antibody tagging – antigen retrivel – using different primary and secondary antibodies for selective staining of tissue components. **** BMS C712 Animal Experimentation 3 1 0 4 Unit I Introduction: Animal experimentation - need and importance – limitations – legal and ethical issues in animal experimentation – rules / orders pertaining to animal experimentation Unit II Animal Maintenance: Maintenance and breeding conditions for commonly used laboratory animals such as rats, mice, dogs, rabbits, and non-human primates Unit III Animal Anesthetic Techniques: Fundamentals of anesthesia – various anesthetic, analgesic medication for animals Animal Training and Behavior Study: Training animals for neurological testings – basis and fundamentals of animal behavior studies – objective scoring methods Unit IV Animal Surgery: Fundamentals of experimental animal surgery – surgical approaches such as laprotomy – craniotomy – laminectomy – vascular access – osmotic pump installation Unit V Animal Euthansia: Acceptable methods of animal euthanasia Alternate Methods to Animal Experimentation: Need to find alternate methods advantages and limitations **** BMS C713 Practical: Advanced Research 2 1 0 3 Methods in Anatomy Demonstration and actual hands-on training of techniques described in the paper BMS C711 **** BMS C714 Practical: Animal Experimentation 0 0 4 4 90
    • List of Practical 1. Maintenance practice of rats in the department’s animal house 2. Demonstration of animal anesthesia 3. Demonstration of animal surgeries / invasive procedures a. Venupunture and blood sampling b. Drug administration – oral, para entral c. Craniotomy d. Laminectomy e. Laprotomy f. Stereotaxic lesioning techniques 2. Training an animal for a particular motor / memory skill test 3. Animal behavior testing and scoring methods References for Research methods in Anatomy, Advanced Research Methods, Animal Experimentation 1. Stem cells Hand Book, Stewart sell, Humana Press Totowa, New Jersey, 2004. 2. Theory and practical of Histological Techniques. Bancroft, John D, (5th Edn), Churchill Livingstone , 2002. 3. Culture of animal cell a manual of basis Technique. Frshney Rian (4th Edn), Wiley- Liss, 2000. 4. Trobleshooling Histology stains. Horobin, Richard. W Churchill Livingstone, 1998. 5. Neural stem cells for brain and spinal cord. Zigova, Tanja, snyder, Evan Y, Totowa , Humana press, 2003. 6. Anatomy of the domestic animals, Getty, Robert, Macmillan publishing. 7. Neural stem cells Methods and Protocols, Zigova, Tanja, Humana press Totowa, 2002. 8. Modern Techniques in Neuro Science Reaserch. Windhor, st, springerverlag. New York,1999. 9. Viva Voce Hand book of Veterinary anaesthesia. Muir, William, W, Hubbell, Jaypee Brothers, 1991. 10. Darkroom Handbook. Langford, Miochael, Ebury press ,1981 **** 91
    • SEMESTER V BMS C715 Gross Anatomy – I 2 1 0 3 Syllabus shall be the as per the layout of BMS C701. Standard of teaching and learning shall be of “Gray’s Anatomy” standard and as per the standard laid by Prof.A.Krishnamurti committee formulated by Anatomical Society of India **** BMS C745 Neuro Anatomy – II 2 1 0 3 Unit I Meninges – CSF – Gross Anatomy of Brain Unit II Spinal Cord: Gross Anatomy – internal structure - tracts Unit III Medulla – Cranial nerves from Medulla Unit IV Pons – Cranial nerves from Pons Unit V Mid brain – Cranial nerves from mid brain **** BMS C717 Human Histology – General 2 1 0 3 and Systemic Unit I Cell structure and function - Cell cycle and application - Basic tissue types - Blood- - Connective tissue -Epithelial tissue Unit II Muscle - Circulatory system - Skin - Skeletal tissue Unit III Immune system - Respiratory system - Oral tissue - Gastro intestinal tract- Liver and pancreas Unit IV Urinary system - The endocrine glands - Male reproductive system - Female Reproductive system Unit V Central nervous system - Special sense organs 92
    • References 1. Atlas of Histology, Victor P. Eroschenko, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 2. Currar’s Atlas of Histology ,Curran’s, R.C , (4th Edn), Harvey Miller Publishers, 2000. 3. Wheater’s functional Histology, Burkitt, George, (3rd Edn), Churchill Livingstone, 1993. **** BMS C718 Human Embryology – 2 1 0 3 General and Systemic Unit I Gametogensis – ovulation – fertilization – implantation – placenta formation – bilaminar and trilaminar germ disc – teratogenic agents and their effects – oraganizers and inducers Unit II Development of integumentory – skeletal – muscular – systems Unit III Development of digestive and respiratory systems Unit IV Development of respiratory and urogenital systems Unit V Development of circulatory and nervous systems References 1. Human Embryology, William J. Larsen, Churchill Livingstone, 2001. 2. The Developing Human, Keith L. Moore, Saunders, 2003. 3. Langman’s Medical Embryology, T.W. Sadler, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004. 4. Clinical Embryology A color Atlas and Text, Brookes, (1st Edn), CRC Press,1998. 5. Developing Human Clinically oriented Embryology, Moore, Keith, L, Persaud;T.V.N, 1998. 6. Human Embryology, Larsen, William J., (2nd Edn), Churchill Livingstone, 1999. **** BMS C719 Research Project and Dissertation 0 0 6 6 All Faculty **** SEMESTER VI BMS C720 Gross Anatomy – II 2 1 0 3 Syllabus shall be the as per the layout of BMS C705. Standard of teaching and learning shall be of “Gray’s Anatomy” standard and as per the standard laid by Prof.A.Krishnamurti committee formulated by Anatomical Society of India 93
    • References for Gross Anatomy I & II 1. Grays Anatomy, Susan Standring, Elsevier Churchill Living stone, 39th Edn, 2005. 2. Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Richard L. Drake, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005. 3. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S.Snell, Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2004. 4. Surface Anatomy, John, S. Lumley, Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 5. Mc,Minn’s color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Ahrahams, Peter H, Mosby 2003. 6. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of limbs and Back, Jenkins David,B, 8th Edn.W.B. Saunders, 2002. 7. Viva Voce in Anatomy, Gangane, S.D. Churchill Livingstone Pvt. L.T.D, 1999. 8. Viva in Anatomy, Yadav, A. Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers, 1998. 9. Cunningham’s Text book of Anatomy, Romanse, G.J. 12th Edn, Oxford University Press. 10. Grant’s methods of Anatomy: A Clinical Problem solving approach. Basmajian, John, V. Williams, & Wilkins Company 10th Edn. 1989. 11. Anatomy regional and Applied, Last, R. J, English Language Book Society, 1981. 12. Clinically oriented Anatomy, Moore, Keith, (5th Edn) ,Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1999. 13. Hollinshead’s Text book of Anatomy, Rosse, Cornelius, (5th Edn), Lippincott ,1997. 14. Last , Anatomy regional and applied, Sinnatamby, Chammy s, Churchill Livingstone, 2001. 15. Essential Anatomy dissector following grant’s method, Hansen, John,T. (5th Edn). Lippincott Wiliams and Wilkins, 2002. 16. Text book of Human Anatomy, Hamilton, W. J , Macmillan publishing , (2nd Edn) 1982. Segmental Anatomy, Wagner, Marvin, Williams and Wilkins, 1982. **** BMS C746 Neuro Anatomy – III 2 1 0 3 Unit I Cerebellum – nuclei – connections – disorders Unit II Diencephalon: Epithalamus – thalamus – hypothalamus – visual pathway – hypophysis - disorders Unit III Corpus striatum and related nuclei – Olfactory pathways – hippocampus – amygdale - disorders Unit IV Cerebral cortex: layers – areas – higher nervous functions – disorders Unit V Blood supply of central nervous system – disorders 94
    • Reference for Neuro Anatomy I & II 1. Visceral Sensory Neuroscience, Oliver G. Cameron, Oxford University Press, 2002. 2. Functional Neuro Anatomy, Jeffrey T. Joseph,Wiley- Liss A John Wiley& Sons, Inc.,Publications. 3. Clinical Neuro Anatomy for medical Students, Richard & Snell , (5th Edn), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001. 4. Clinical Neuro Anatomy, M. J.T. Fitzgeralds & Jean folan- Curran, W. B. Saunders,2002. 5. Carpentei’s human Neuro Anatomy, Paremt, Andre, (9th Edn), Williams & Wilkins, 1996. 6. Neuro Anatomy, Crossmann, A. R , Churchill Livingstone , 2000 7. Clinical Neuro Anatomy and related Neuroscience, Fitzgerald, M.J.J, (4th Edn), W.B. Saunders , 2002. 8. Human brain :an introduction to its functional Anatomy, Nolte. John, (4th Edn), Mosby, 1999. **** BMS C722 Histopathology 2 1 0 3 Faculty, Dept. of Pathology Unit I Acute and Chronic inflammation - Tissue repair, Cellular growth, wound healing, Hemo dynamic disorder, thrombosis and shock Unit II Genetic diseases - Diseases of Immunity -Neoplasia Unit III Infectious Diseases - Environmental and Nutritional Pathology - Diseases of Infancy & Childhood Unit IV Slides of the Condition to be shown and explained - Relevant Specimens to be studied Relevant stains to be studied - Diseases of the specific organs. Unit V Ways of identifying healthy, sick and dead cells – Causes of cell death – Type of ulcers / wounds – Mechanisms and stages of wound healing – infiltrations – histology of cancers neuropathology. References 1. Cell tissue and disease the basis of pathology, Woolf, Nevile, ( WB Saunders) 2000. 2. Robin’s Pathologic’s basis of disease, Cotran, Ramzi’s (HAR Court basis Private L.T.D, 6th Edn.) 2000. **** 95
    • BMS C723 Surgical anatomy & 2 1 0 3 Operative surgery Unit I Patient preparation- anesthesia- fluid management- surgical incisions- sutures- wound care- Postoperative care – antibiotics- pain relief- special requirements- Fractures- dislocations and their management Unit II Wound management through skin grafting and flaps- Amputations- Vascular repair- Anterior abdominal wall – special reference to hernias Unit III Abdominal viscera – stomach- billiary system- excretory system- intestinal system- pancrease- spleen Unit IV Surgical and operative surgery aspects of cardiac problems- Surgical and operative surgery aspects of thoracic interventions- Principles of neurosurgery Unit V Surgical and operative surgery aspects of eye- ear- nose and throat- Organ transplantations and reconstructive surgery References 1. Applied Surgical Anatomy. M.A. Glasby ,Utterworth Einemann, 1998. 2. Essential Clinical Anatomy. Keith L. Moore, Fiac, Frsm, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002. 3. Operative Anatomy. Scott- Conner, Carol E.H.( 2nd, Edn) Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins,2003. 4. Oxford Textbook of Surgery V, Morris, Peter J.Oxford University press, 1999. **** BMS C747 Anatomy Practical –Spotters 0 0 2 2 and Viva Voce **** BMS C725 Anatomy Practical – Human 0 0 4 4 Cadaver Dissection 96
    • M.Phil ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY REGULATIONS 1. Duration of the program: One year M.Phil program in Environmental Toxicology (Faculty of Science), has two semesters under CBCS system 2. Distribution of credit points: The total credit point for one program is 36. Each credit is equivalent to 15 hrs of teaching. The distribution of credit point is given in the scheme of examinations. 3. Eligibility for admission: A Master Degree in Zoology, Special Zoology, M.Sc. Life Science of University of Madras or any other University recognized by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto, provided that those who have qualified for the Master’s Degree prior to 1st January, 1991 must have secured a minimum of 50 percent of marks and those who have qualified for the Master’s Degree on or after 1st January, 1991 must have secured a minimum of 55 percent of marks. For SC/ST and Disabled candidates who have qualified on or after 1st January, 1991, a concession of 5 percent of marks shall be given in the minimum eligibility marks. Candidates with a Master Degree in Botany/ Environmental Sciences/ Biochemistry with zoology as a subject in the undergraduate course are also eligible. 4. Total number of candidates to be admitted per year: 10 nos. 5. Fees: The course will be offered under regular mode with University approved fee structure for M.Phil course. M.Phil ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Course Title of the Course Code Core/ Credits Course Faculty Code Elective L T P C I – Semester BMS Principles of Environmental C 4 1 - 5 R. Venkatakrishna C 501 Toxicology Murali S.L.Maheswari M.P.Balasubramanian S.Karthikeyan Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Guest Faculty 97
    • BMS Research Methodology in C 4 1 - 5 R. Venkatakrishna C 502 Environmental Toxicology Murali S.L.Maheswari M.P.Balasubramanian S.Karthikeyan Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Guest Faculty BMS Haemopoeitic Cardiovas-cular E 4 1 - 5 R. Venkatakrishna E 501 and Renal Toxicology Murali BMS Neuro and Nano Toxicology E 4 1 - 5 S.L.Maheswari E 502 BMS Reproductive and Endocrine E 4 1 - 5 M.P.Balasubramanian E 503 Toxicology BMS Hepato Toxicology E 4 1 - 5 S.Karthikeyan E 504 BMS Immuno Toxicology E 4 1 - 5 Senthil Kumaran E 505 Palanimuthu II – Semester BMS Dissertation and C - - - 21 Supervisor and C 503 Viva-voce Dept. Faculty Members BMS C 4 1 0 5 All faculty and C 501 Principles of Environmental Guest faculty Toxicology Unit I Introduction – different areas of toxicology – classification of toxic agents – toxicity, hazard, risk. Routes of exposure – duration and frequency of exposure. Chemo-biokinetics –absorption– distribution – biotransformation – excretion. Chemo-biodynamics – mechanism of action –factors influencing toxicity. Spectrum of toxic effects. Unit II Regulatory toxicology - Toxicity testing –LC50 statistics, Interpretation of laboratory data. – Toxicoinformatics. General principles of aquatic toxicology – major issues – dose/concentration response, Chemical interactions - property of toxic chemicals that influence quality criteria and aquatic organisms - Toxicity testing on fresh water and marine organisms – Chronic, early life stage and whole life cycle test - Contaminants - sewage and effluents. Biological response of toxicants – behavioural, physiological, biochemical and toxicogenomics - Remote sensing techniques in assessment of aquatic pollutants - Environmental legislation related to toxicants. Human health and environmental risk assessments - Sources and uses of bioactive compounds on aquatic plants and animals. Unit III Classification of pesticides – (a) their target (b) by their chemical nature (c) by their physical state (d) by their mode of action. Mode of action of various groups of pesticides – mode of entry and metabolism of pesticides in mammals and anthropods – degradation and metabolism of pesticides – Pesticide interaction – resistant to pesticides - Human hazards in the use of pesticides and safety measures.Pesticides as pollutants in environment. Unit IV Naturally occurring food toxins – plant and animal sources - secondary toxicosis. Food allergens – toxicity and mechanisms of food allergy.Microbial food poisoning – through bacterial and fungal species. 98
    • Derived food toxins – nitrosamines – mechanism of food toxicity. Food additives – classification, utility – toxicity of food preservatives, flavouring agents, artificial sweeteners. Food adulterants and its toxicity.Toxicity of food packaging materials – plastics and plasticizers. Unit V Noise pollution – temporary and permanent effects of noise pollution. Radiation toxicology – ionizing and non-ionizing radiations - toxic effects of radiation. Heavy metal pollution – toxic effects in animals and human being. Environmental monitoring – sampling and surveillance techniques. Screening tests for common poisons – detection and estimation of metals, alcohols, insecticides, pesticides, glycosides and alkaloids. Methods of extraction and purification in toxicological analysis References: Levinton JS (Ed.). Marine biology function, biodiversity, ecology (2nd edn.). Oxford University press, Oxford, 2001. Verberg J, Calabrese A, Thurberg FP, Veraberg WB (Eds.). Biological monitoring of marine pollutants. Academic press, New York, 1981. Kudesia VP (Ed.). Water pollution. Pragati Prakasham, Meerut, India, 1998. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Eckenfelder Jr. WW (Ed.). Industrial water pollution control (3rd edn.). Mc raw Hill, New York, London, 2000. Marrrs TC, Ballantyne B. (Eds.). Pesticide toxicology and international regulation, Chichester John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Handa SK, (Ed.). Principles of pesticide chemistry, Jodhpur Agrobios, 2000. Marqquis JK (authour). Contemporary issues in pesticide toxicology and pharmacology. London S Karger, 1986. Kudesia VP, Charaya MU (Eds.). Pesticide pollution, Meerut pragati prakashan, 2000. Hayes WJ, Laws ER, (Eds.). Handbook of pesticide toxicology, New York Academic press, 1991. Concon JM (Ed.). Food toxicology; Part A and Part B. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, Bassel, 1988. Antony Tu T (Ed.). Food poisoning – Hand book of natural toxins. Marker Dekker Inc., New York, Basel, 1992. Thaukamma J (Ed.). Food adulteration. Mac Millan Co. and India Ltd., Madras, 19964. Gibson GG and Wakkaer R (Eds.). Food toxicology: real or imaginary problem? Taylor and Frnacis, London, Philadelphia, 1985. Mutherjea RN, Bhowal SK, Banerjee AR, Mukhopathay S (Eds.). Industrial pollution. techniques for operations and control. Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, Chennai, 2001. Cookerham LG, Shane BS (Eds.). Basic environmental toxicology. CRC press, London, 1994. BMS RESEARCH METHODOLOGY C 4 1 0 5 All Faculty and Guest C 502 IN ENVIRONMENTAL faculty. TOXICOLOGY Unit-I Principles and applications of spectrophotometry – UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, atomic absorption spectroscopy. Unit-II Chromatography – paper, thin layer, chromatography: high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, HPTLC. 99
    • Electrophoresis – Disc gel, SDS PAGE, Two-dimensional PAGE, isoelectric focusing – pulse radiation electrophoresis. Unit-III Microscopy – bright field, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence, DIC, Confocal, Scanning Electron Microscopy & Electron Microscopy. Unit-IV Molecular Biological Techniques – PCR, Reverse Transcriptase PCR, Genomic DNA, RNA extraction and western blot. Unit-V Micro Technique – Histology, Histochemistry, and Histotoxico pathology. Analytical Toxicology & Experimental Toxicology – Herbal products screening and toxicity. Unit-VI Good Laboratory Practice and Basic calculations. Biostatistics – Environmental Toxicology. References: Zar JH (Ed.). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall International Inc., Engkwood cliffs, New Jersy, 1984. Bancroft H (Ed.). Introduction to biostatistics. Harper & Row publications. New York, London, 1965. Varley H (Ed.). Practical clinical biochemistry (4th edn.). CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, 1988. Ghosh MN (Ed.). Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology (2nd edn.). Scientifica book agency, Calcutta, 1984. Bajpai S (Ed.). Biological instrumentation and methodology. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, 2006. Gupta SK, Uma S, Velpandian T (Eds.). Analytical toxicology for poisoning management and toxicovigilance. Nerosa publishing house, New Delhi, Chennai, 2002. BMS Haemopoietic Cardiovas-cular E 4 1 - 5 R. Venkatakrishna E 501 and Renal Toxicology Murali Unit I Components of haemopoietic system – Types of anemia – Iron – Folic acid and vitamin B12 – Haemopoietic growth factors. Coagulation of blood – drugs acting on coagulatiopn cascade4 – anticoagulants – anti-platelet drugs - fibrinolytic drugs. Unit II Cardiac rate and rhythm-action potential of cardiac muscle- disturbances of cardiac rhythm Cardiac Contraction – Coronary atherosclerosis and its Consequence - Drugs affecting cardiac function- cardiac glycosides – antidysrhythmic drugs – antianginal drugs. Unit III Control of vascular smooth muscle tone – structure and function of vascular endothelium – “Renin – Angiotensin” system – vasoconstrictor drugs – vasodilator drugs – Atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. Unit IV Structure and function of nephron – tubular function- Acid-Base balance – Diuretics – Drugs altering the pH of urine – Drugs altering the excretion of organic molecules – Renal toxicology. Unit V In vitro and in vivo experimental evaluation of drugs that affect blood formation – Evaluation of drugs acting on cardiovascular system – Evaluation of diuretics – Assessment of renal toxicity. 100
    • References: Miesink RJM., de Vries J, Hollinger MA.(Eds). Toxicology: principles and applications, CRC Press, New York. 1995. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: the basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Hardman JG, Limbrid LE (Eds.). Goodman & Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (10th edn.). Mc Graw Hill, New York, London, 2001. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM (Eds.). Pharmacology (4th edn.). Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1999. Tripathi KD (Ed.). Essentials of medical pharmacology (5th edn.). Jaypee Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2003. BMS Neuro and Nano Toxicology E 4 1 - 5 S.L.Maheswari E 502 Unit-I Cell and Molecular biology of Neuron – Evolution of neurons, cytology, ion channels, membrane potential and action potential. Synthesis of neuronal proteins. Unit-II Synaptic transmission – Evolution of synapses and overview, synaptic integration, modulation by second messengers and synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters- acetylcholine, biogenic amines, amino transmitters, ATP and adenosine, and neuroactive peptides. Unit-III Development of Nervous system - Comparative anatomy, structure and function of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system. Biochemical and physiological function of neurons and glial cells. Unit-IV Brain and Behaviour- Distinct functional regions of the brain, genes and behaviour. Neural basis of cognition. Definition and neural basis of short term and long-term memory. Unit-V Basic principles of toxicology and Toxicoinformatics – Regulatory toxicology. Major classes of toxic agents. Impact of environmental pollutants on nervous system. Toxicoinformatics - Neurodegenerative disorders. Xenobiotic effects on learning, memory, aging and behaviour. Unit-VI Nanotoxicology – Introduction. Concepts of Nanotoxicology. Mechanisms of Nano-sized particle toxicity. Nanopollution - Nanomaterials in the Environment.. Human exposure to nano sized materials. Portals of entry and target tissues. Risk assessment. Ethical, Legal and Societal implications. References: Kandal KR, Schwartzs JH, Jessell JM (Eds.). Principles of neural science (4th edn.). Mc Graw Hill, New York, London, 2000. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology:, The basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Hardman JG, Limbrid LE (Eds.). Goodman & Gilman’s: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (10 th edn.). Mc Graw Hill, New York, London, 2001. 101
    • Cooper JR, Bloom FE, Roth RH (Eds.). The biochemical basis of neuropharmacology (8th edn.). Oxford University Press, Chennai, 2003. Stryer L (Ed.). Biochemistry (4th edn.). Standard University, W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, 1995. Guyton AC, Hall JE (Eds.). Text book of medical physiology (9th edn.). Prism Books (P) Ltd., Bangalore, India, 1996. BMS REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDO-CRINE E 4 1 0 5 Dr. M.P. E 503 TOXICOLOGY Balasubramanian Unit-I Overview of reproductive physiology – gametogenesis – storage and transmission of genetic information by the generative cells. Unit-II Spermatogenesis – cells in seminiferous tubules – meiosis – differentiation of spermatozoa. Unit-III Oogenesis – growth of the oocyte – accumulation of food reserves of the oocyte – pattern of organization – maturation of the egg – developing egg – fertilization – embryonic development in the egg – cleavage – morphological aspects of gastrulation and primary organ formation – physiology of gastrulation Unit-IV Organogenesis – differentiation and growth – sexual maturation – asexual reproduction. Unit--VI Action of xenobiotics on reproductive process – hormonal controls – egg production – transfer of contaminants by eggs and sperms – embryo energy metabolism. Unit--VII Changes in pollutant sensitivity during embryonic development in lower vertebrates and invertebrates – hatching time – larvae – larval and juvenile growth. References: Mattison DR, (Ed.) Clinical manifestations of ovarian toxicology in reproductive toxicology, Dixon RL.Ed, Raven Press, New York, 1985. . National research council. Biologic markers in reproductive toxicity. National Academic press, Washington.D.C. 1989. Wilson JG and Fraser FC.(Eds.). Embryotoxicity of drugs in man, in handbook of teratology, Vol - I, Plenum press, New York 1977. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Miesink RJM., de Vries J, Hollinger MA.(Eds). Toxicology: principles and applications, CRC Press, New York. 1995. BMS HEPATOTOXICOLOGY E 4 1 0 5 Dr. S.Karthikeyan E 504 Unit-I Anatomy and function of the liver – Microscopic and functional aspects of liver cells – Overview of hepatic circulation – bile duct – elimination function of the liver – bile formation – enterohepatic circulation. Unit-II 102
    • Effects of chemicals on the liver – acute cytotoxic lesions – cholestatic lesions – chronic liver disorder – hepatovascular lesions - tumors – granulomatous lesions. Unit-III Mechanism of liver injury – hepatic necrosis – cirrhosis – Direct vs. indirect effects – biochemical, immunological, cholestatic mechanisms, Unit-IV Examples of hepatotoxic substances – acetaminophen. Carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, isoniazid, pyrolizidine alkaloids, environmental pollutants, food carcinogens. Unit-V Mechanism of hepatic steatosis – increased synthesis of fatty acids – reduced oxidation of fatty acids – decreased production of lipoproteins – interferences with mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids – Inhibition of protein synthesis. Unit-IV Evaluation of hepatotoxicity – hepatic necrosis, steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma – Liver function tests – Hepato protective agents mechanisms of hepatoprotection. References: Miesink RJM., de Vries J, Hollinger MA.(Eds). Toxicology: Principles and applications, CRC Press, New York. 1995. Adolph L, Lorenz R (Eds). Enzymic diagnosis in disease of the heart, liver and pancreas, Karger, New York. 1982. Poper H, Schaffner F (Eds). Progress in liver diseases, Vol. 2. Grune & Stratten, New York. 1965. Gazet JE (Ed.). Carcinoma of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas, Edward Arnold, London. 1983. Hall P (Ed.). Alcoholic liver disease: Pathology epidemiology and clinical aspects. Edward Arnold, London. 1985. Rana SVS, Taketa K.(Eds.). Liver and environmental xenobiotics, Narosa publishing house, New Delhi. 1997. Schrier RW, Gambertoglio JG. (Eds.). Handbook of drug therapy in liver and kidney disease. Little Brown & Co., London. 1991. Farber E, Fisher MM. (Eds.). Toxic injury of the liver. Part A. Marcel Dekker, New York. 1978. Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (Eds.). Hand book of toxicologic pathology (2 nd Edn., Vol-2). Academic Press, London, 2002. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Derelanko MJ, Hollinger MA. Hand book of toxicology (2nd Edn.). CRC Press, New York. 2002. Chatterjee MN, Rana S. Text book of medical biochemistry. Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi. 2002. BMS Immuno Toxicology E 4 1 - 5 Senthil Kumaran E 505 Palanimuthu Unit I Immune system – organization and functions – cell mediated immunity – humoral immunity – Types of allergic reactions Unit II Immunosuppressive agents – adrenalcortical steroids – antiproloiferative and antimetabolic drugs – antibodies – tolerance. 103
    • Unit III Immunostimulant drugs – immunostimulant drugs – vaccines – globulins. Unit IV Xnobiotics and their influence on immune system – immunotoxicity of organotin compounds – polychlorinated biphenyles – hexachlorobenzene – oxidizing gases. Unit V Tests of immune competence – Experimental evaluation of immunotoxicity – animal models used in the evaluation of immunotoxicity. References: Miesink RJM., de Vries J, Hollinger MA.(Eds). Toxicology: Principles and applications, CRC Press, New York. 1995. Klaassen CD (Eds.). Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, The basic science of poisons. Mc Graw-Hill, London. 2001. Hardman JG, Limbrid LE (Eds.). Goodman & Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (10th edn.). Mc Graw Hill, New York, London, 2001. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM (Eds.). Pharmacology (4th edn.). Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1999. Tripathi KD (Ed.). Essentials of medical pharmacology (5th edn.). Jaypee Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2003. 104
    • DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS 1. Name of the course: M.Sc. PHARMACOLOGY – Faculty of Medicine 2. Nature of the course: Inter Disciplinary under CBCS pattern with semester system 3. Revision Number and Effect: With effect from 2007 and thereafter 4. Course content – M.S.c. Pharmacology (Faculty of Medicine) Course Title of the Course Code Theory/Practical Credits Course Faculty Code Core/Elective I – SEMESTER BMS-C 901 Human Anatomy I * Theory –Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy (upper limb, lower limb ) BMS-C 902 Human Anatomy II * Theory –Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy (abdomen, pelvis and perineum ) BMS-C 903 Human Physiology I* Theory –Core 4 Dept. of Physiology BMS-C 904 Practical I : Human Anatomy I * Practical–Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy BMS-C 905 Practical II : Human Physiology I* Practical–Core 3 Dept. of Physiology BMS-E 901 Elective$ Theory –Elective 3 BMS-E902 Elective$ Theory –Elective 3 UOM-S 001 Soft skill 2 Total Credits for I Semester: (Core=16; Elec,=6; S.S-2) 24 * Offered by other departments. Syllabus is same as for other M.Sc. courses offered under faculty of Medicine. $ Suggested Electives: BMS E001 –Principles of Biochemistry I - By: Dept of Bio Chemistry BMS E702 –Human Histology - By: Dept of Anatomy II – SEMESTER BMS-C 906 Human Anatomy III * Theory –Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy (Head and neck and thorax) BMS-C 907 Neuro Anatomy I * Theory –Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy BMS-C 908 Human Physiology II* Theory –Core 4 Dept. of Physiology BMS-C 909 Practical III : Human Anatomy II * Practical –Core 3 Dept. of Anatomy BMS-C 910 Practical IV : Human Physiology II* Practical –Core 3 Dept. of Physiology BMS-E 903 Elective$ Theory –Elective 3 BMS-E 904 Elective$ Theory –Elective 3 UOM-S 002 Soft skill 2 Total Credits for II Semester: (Core=16; Elec,=6; S.S-2) 24 * Offered by other departments. Syllabus is same as for other M.Sc. courses offered under faculty of Medicine. $ Suggested Electives: BMS E002 – Principles of Biochemistry I - By: Dept of Bio Chemistry Course Title of the Course Code Core/ Credits Course Faculty Code Elective 105
    • III-SEMESTER BMS-C 911 General principles of pharmacology Theory –Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-C 912 Systemic pharmacology I Theory –Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali, Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Guest Faculty BMS-C 913 Practical V Practical-Core 3 R. Venkatakrishna Murali BMS-C 914 Practical VI Practical-Core 3 S.Karthikeyan BMS-E 905 Reproductive Endocrine Toxicology Theory Elective 3 M.P.Balasubramanian BMS-E 906 Hepatotoxicology Theory Elective 3 S.Karthikeyan UNOM-S 003 Soft skill 2 Total Credits for III Semester: (Core=14; Elec,=6; S.S-2) 22 IV – SEMESTER BMS-C 915 Systemic pharmacology II Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-C 916 Systemic pharmacology III Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-C 917 Practical VII Practical-Core 3 S.L.Maheswari BMS-C 918 Practical VIII Practical-Core 3 S.Karthikeyan BMS-E 907 Neuro and Nano Toxicology Elective 3 S.L.Maheswari BMS-E 908 Immunotoxicology Elective 3 Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu UNOM-S 004 Soft skill 2 Total Credits for IV Semester: (Core=14; Elec,=6; S.S-2) 22 V – Semester BMS-C 919 Systemic pharmacology IV Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-C 920 Bioactive compounds and Theory-Core 4 All faculty Phytopharmacology BMS-C 921 Practical IX Practical-Core 3 All faculty BMS-C 922 Experimental design and biostatistics Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali BMS-E 909 Environmental Toxicology Theory-Elective 3 Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-E 910 Haemopoietic Cardiovascular and Theory-Elective 3 R. Venkatakrishna Renal Toxicology Murali UNOM-S 005 Soft skill 2 UNOM-I 001 Internship 2 Total Credits for V Semester: (Core=15; Elec,=6; S.S-2; 25 (Intern=2) Course Title of the Course Code Core/ Credits Course Faculty Code Elective VI – SEMESTER BMS-C 923 Experimental pharmacology Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu BMS-C 924 Advances in pharmacology Theory-Core 4 R. Venkatakrishna Murali Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu 106
    • BMS-C 925 Practical X Practical-Core 3 All faculty BMS-C 926 Project with Dissertation Practical + 6 R. Venkatakrishna Theory Murali Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu UNOM-S 006 Soft skill 2 Total Credits for IV Semester: (Core=17; S.S-2) 19 Credit Distribution: Core Subjects : 92 Electives : 30 Soft skills : 12 Internship : 2 -------------- Total Credits : 136 --------------- SYLLABUS (M.Sc. Pharmacology): BMS-C 911 General principles of Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Pharmacology Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Definition and description of terms – drug nomenclature – routes of drug administration – dose determination – pediatric considerations – geriatric considerations- prescription of drugs. Unit II Pharmacokinetics – cell membrane structure and functions – mechanism of drug transport through membranes – membrane barriers – factors that determine drug absorption – drug distribution and volume of distribution – biotransformation phase I and phase II reactions – bioavailability – Excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Unit III Pharmacodynamics – Types of drug action – physical and chemical actions – Effect through enzymes – actions mediated through receptors- different types of receptors - drug interactions – combined effect of drugs – therapeutic application of the beneficial interactions. Unit IV Dose response relationship – qualitative responses – quantal dose response relationship – calculation of effective dose – modified response due to interaction between the drugs – Therapeutic window. Unit V Adverse effects of drugs – drug allergy – types of reactions – idiosyncrasy – tolerance and dependence – effect on blood forming organs – drug induced hepatic disorders – drug induced ocular manifestations – dermatological effects of drugs. BMS-C 912 Systemic pharmacology I Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system – organization and functions of autonomic nervous system – autonomic neurotransmitters – cholinoceptors classification – muscarinic receptor agonists – cholinomimetic esters and alkaloids – anticholinesterase agents – toxicological aspects of anticholinesterases – therapeutic uses of anticholinesterases. Unit II Muscarinic receptor antagonists – substitutes for belladonna alkaloids – uses of anticholinergic drugs – toxicity of anticholinergic drugs –Structure and function of the somatic nervous system - nicotinic receptors – ganglionic stimulants – ganglion blocking drugs – skeletal muscle relaxants – non depolarizing and depolarizing agents – centrally acting muscle relaxants. Unit III Adrenergic transmission – endogenous catecholamines – adrenergic receptors classification and functions – sympathomimetic drugs – therapeutic uses of adrenergic drugs – adrenergic receptor antagonists - α adrenergic blocking agents - β adrenergic blocking drugs. Unit IV 107
    • Local anesthetic agents – mechanism of action agents causing local anesthesia – prolonging the duration of the local anesthetic effects and precautions to be taken – Classification of the local anesthetics – systemic effects of local anesthetics –pharmacology of individual agents – adverse effects and clinical uses. Unit V Therapeutic gases – oxygen deprivation – oxygen administration – therapeutic uses of oxygen – toxicity of oxygen – carbon dioxide production and elimination – effects of carbon dioxide – endogenous production of nitric oxide – uses and toxicity of nitric oxide – uses of helium. BMS- C 915 Systemic pharmacology I I Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I General anesthetic agents – inhalational and intravascular agents used in general anesthesia –ethyl alcohol – pharmacological properties – acute intoxication – mechanism of CNS effects of ethanol – pharmacotherapy of alcoholism - methyl alcohol toxicity – toxic effects of other alcohols. Unit II Sedative – hypnotic agents - benzodiazipines – barbiturates – classification – management of insomnia – drugs used in epilepsies – nature and mechanisms of seizures and antiseizure drugs – general principles and choice of drugs for epilepsies. Unit III Drugs used in psychiatric ;disorders –antipsychotic agents – pharmacological properties and adverse effects of drugs used in the management of anxiety – antidepressant drugs – different classes of drugs used as antidepressants – anti manic mood stabilizing agents – hallucinogens. Unit IV Treatment of CNS degenerative disorders – mechanisms of selective neuronal vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases – Parkinsonism and drugs used in Parkinson’s disease – approaches to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease –symptomatic treatment of Huntington’s disease – Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and therapy of spasticity. Unit V Endogenous opioid peptides – opioid receptors – opioid analgesics – pharmacology of morphine and related opioid agonists – opioid toxicity – opioid antagonists – therapeutic uses of opioid analgesics – centrally acting antitussive agents – drug addiction and drug abuse – CNS stimulants BMS- C 916 Systemic pharmacology III Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Autacoids – endogenous histamine and its functions – H1 and H2 receptors - H1 receptor antagonists and therapeutic uses - H2 receptor mediated actions : agonists and antagonists – antagonists of bradykinin and kallidin – 5HT and receptors – antagonists of 5HT – lipid derived autacoids. Unit II Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – mechanism of action of NSAIDs- classification of analgesic, antipyretic and NSAIDs – therapeutic and side effects of NSAIDS – drug therapy of Rheumatoid arthritis – drugs used in the treatment gout – drug used as uricosuric agents. Unit III Drugs used in the treatment of asthma – drugs used for cough - ;agents used for control of gastric acid production and treatment of peptic ulcers – prokinetic agents – emetics and antiemetics –agents used for constipation , diarrhoea and inflammatory bowel disease. Unit IV Cardiac electrophysiology – the renin- angiotensin system – inhibitors of the rennin-angiotensin system – uses of ACE inhibitors – Angiotensin II receptor antagonists – drugs used in the myocardial ischemia – treatment of heart failure – antiarrhythmic drugs – antihypertensive agents. Unit V Fluid and electrolyte balance of the body – renal physiology – principles of diuretic action – pharmacology of different classes of diuretics – role of diuretics in clinical medicine – vasopressin and other agents affecting renal conservation of water BMS-C 919 Systemic pharmacology IV Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Plasma lipoprotein metabolism – drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia – drugs acting on blood and blood forming organs – hematopoietic agents: growth factors- agents used in hypochromic anemia – iron and iron salts – agents used in megaloblastic anemia – hemostasis – anticoagulants – thrombolytic agents Unit II 108
    • Hormones and hormone antagonists – anterior pituitary hormones –oxytocin and drugs acting on uterus – thyroid and antithyroid drugs – insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents – gonadal hormones and their antagonists – estrogens and progestins - androgens – adrenal cortical steroids – agents affecting calcium balance. Unit III The vitamins – water soluble vitamins – fat soluble vitamins – immunomodulators – immunosuppressive agents, tolerogens and immunostimulants – vaccines and globulins – metal toxicity and chelating agents – chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases – antineoplastic agents. Unit IV Antimicrobial agents – general considerations – sulfonamides – cotrimoxazole and quinolones – betalactam antibiotics – broad spectrum antibiotics – amionoglycosides – macrolid antibiotics – drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy – drugs used in urinary tract infections – antifungal drugs – antiviral drugs. Unit V Drugs used in protozoal infections – malaria – amoebiasis – giardiasis, trichomoniasis, trypnosomiasis, leishmaniasis – drugs used in the treatment of helminthiasis – drugs used sexually transmitted diseases – antiseptics – disinfectants and ectoparasiticides BMS-C 920 Bioactive compounds and phytopharmacology Theory-Core All faculty Unit I Identification of source – authentication of the specimen – collection of plant material – collection of aquatic specimens and organisms –initial processing procedures – precautions to be followed during processing – collection of relevant data Unit II Extraction procedures – precautions to be taken to preserve the biological activity – different types of solvent extraction procedures and selection of the extraction process – chromatographic separation of the extracts – identification of the chemical structure and correlation with the existing data.; Unit III Screening for toxicity – testing for acute effects - determination of toxic effects in higher doses – testing for long term effects – identification of the target of toxic effects. Unit IV Screening for specific pharmacological effects – identification of systemic effects – selection of experimental model for the systemic effect – identification direct and indirect effects – identification of the target at cellular or molecular level. Unit V Laboratory procedure for studying the mechanism of action of a bioactive compound – evaluation of the structure activity relationship – interpretation of the laboratory data. – identification of adverse effects. BMS-C 922 Experimental design and biostatistics Elective Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali Unit I Selection of the animal model for toxicity studies – grouping and allocation of the animals –determination of toxic dose – determination of tolerable dose – duration of the experiment – observations to be made during the experimental period – number of observations to be made. Unit II Selection of the animal for specific effects – reproducibility of the effect – decision regarding the number of repetitions – assessment of the results and interpretation of the laboratory data. Unit III Designing the experiment for in vitro assays – selection of the tissue – use of agonists and antagonists – qualitative response recording – determination of the concentration of unknown sample by using standards. Unit IV Types of measurements of biological data – tabular, numerical and graphical description of the data – Difference between adverse and non-adverse effects based on statistical descriptions and biological descriptions. Unit V Inferential statistics -testing for significance of difference – biological implications of the observations – planning of future experiments based on laboratory observations. BMS-C 923 Experimental pharmacology Theory- Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Muralim and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Different types of assay procedures – laboratory animals – selection of animals – breeding – housing and other requirements – handling of the laboratory animals – different routes of drug administration – techniques in blood collection and collection of other specimens. Unit II In vitro tissue experiments – requirements and laboratory set up – physiological solution composition and preparation – dissection and isolation of tissues –recording of the responses – use of tissue/ cell culture techniques – in vivo animal experiments – recording of the responses in anesthetized animals. 109
    • Unit III Toxicity testing – determination of median lethal dose – evaluation analgesics –local anesthetics –agents used in psychiatric illnesses – study of the hypnotic and general anesthetic effects – assessment of anticonvulasnt effect – screening of antiparkinsonian drugs. Unit IV Evaluation of the skeletal muscle relaxant property – assessment of cardiovascular effect – cardioactive agents and vascular dilating or constricting property – evaluation of anytihypertensive agents. Unit V Evaluation of histamine antagonists –testing of dermal toxicity –evaluation of agents acting on uterus – evaluation of anti- inflammatory agents and screening for the effect on learning and memory – interpretation of the laboratory data. BMS-C 924 Advances in Pharmacology Theory-Core Prof. R. Venkatakrishna Murali and Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Biotechnology in Drug Discovery and Development - Biotechnology drugs - recombinant DNA technology - Production of Recombinant Proteins - Pharmacology, Toxicology, Therapeutic Dosage Formulations, and Clinical Response. Introduction to Nanotechnology – application in diagnostic tools – nanotechnology and drug delivery. Unit II Biotechnology based therapeutics - Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Coagulation Factors - Interferons and Cytokines for Anti- infective and Cancer Therapy – Hormones- Protein Hormones as Therapeutics - Enzyme Therapies.- Antibodies and Derivatives. Pharmacogenomics and Proteomics -Discovery and Development of Therapeutic agents - Proteomic and Genomic Tools - Issues related to the use of protein based drugs – Antigenicity, Stability, Drug Delivery Unit III Pharmacogenetics – introduction - Individualization of Drug Regimens - Integration of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Principles in Drug Therapy - Factors Governing individual Variations - Pharmacogenetics: Drug Metabolism and Transport - Pharmacogenetics: Therapeutic Response - Individualized Gene-Based Medicine - Gene and Cell Therapy. Unit IV Molecular Pharmacology - Glutamate Receptors - Ligand–Receptor Interactions - Molecular Pharmacology of Gaba Receptors - Molecular Pharmacology of Transmitter Transporters - Glutamate Transporters - Substrate-Binding Site in GABA Transporters - Monoamine Transporters - Neurotransmitter Transporter Function - Functional Mechanisms of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Unit V Computational techniques - Pharmacoinformatics - traditional drug discovery - biological target-based drug discovery - biomedical computing – role of bioinformatics in providing genomic databases for an optimal target – computational techniques in determination of the structure of the target macromolecule or modeling - lead compound isolation – determination of the structure of the target-compound complex. BMS-E 905 Reproductive and Endocrine toxicology Elective Prof. Dr. M.P.Balasubramanian Unit-I Overview of reproductive physiology – gametogenesis – storage and transmission of genetic information by the generative cells. Unit-II Spermatogenesis – cells in seminiferous tubules – meiosis – differentiation of spermatozoa. Unit-III Oogenesis – growth of the oocyte – accumulation of food reserves of the oocyte – pattern of organization – maturation of the egg – developing egg – fertilization – embryonic development in the egg – cleavage – morphological aspects of gastrulation and primary organ formation – physiology of gastrulation Unit-IV Organogenesis – differentiation and growth – sexual maturation – asexual reproduction. Unit--VI Action of xenobiotics on reproductive process – hormonal controls – egg production – transfer of contaminants by eggs and sperms – embryo energy metabolism. Unit--VII Changes in pollutant sensitivity during embryonic development in lower vertebrates and invertebrates – hatching time – larvae – larval and juvenile growth. BMS-E 906 Hepatotoxicology Elective Dr. S.Karthikeyan Unit-I Anatomy and function of the liver – Microscopic and functional aspects of liver cells – Overview of hepatic circulation – bile duct – elimination function of the liver – bile formation – enterohepatic circulation. Unit-II 110
    • Effects of chemicals on the liver – acute cytotoxic lesions – cholestatic lesions – chronic liver disorder – hepatovascular lesions - tumors – granulomatous lesions. Unit-III Mechanism of liver injury – hepatic necrosis – cirrhosis – Direct vs. indirect effects – biochemical, immunological, cholestatic mechanisms, Unit-IV Examples of hepatotoxic substances – acetaminophen. Carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, isoniazid, pyrolizidine alkaloids, environmental pollutants, food carcinogens. Unit-V Mechanism of hepatic steatosis – increased synthesis of fatty acids – reduced oxidation of fatty acids – decreased production of lipoproteins – interferences with mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids – Inhibition of protein synthesis. Unit-IV Evaluation of hepatotoxicity – hepatic necrosis, steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma – Liver function tests – Hepato protective agents mechanisms of hepatoprotection. BMS Neuro and Nano Toxicology Elective Prof. S.L.Maheswari E907 Unit-I Cell and Molecular biology of Neuron – Evolution of neurons, cytology, ion channels, membrane potential and action potential. Synthesis of neuronal proteins. Unit-II Synaptic transmission – Evolution of synapses and overview, synaptic integration, modulation by second messengers and synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters- acetylcholine, biogenic amines, amino transmitters, ATP and adenosine, and neuroactive peptides. Unit-III Development of Nervous system - Comparative anatomy, structure and function of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system. Biochemical and physiological function of neurons and glial cells. Unit-IV Brain and Behaviour- Distinct functional regions of the brain, genes and behaviour. Neural basis of cognition. Definition and neural basis of short term and long-term memory. Unit-V Basic principles of toxicology and Toxicoinformatics – Regulatory toxicology. Major classes of toxic agents. Impact of environmental pollutants on nervous system. Toxicoinformatics - Neurodegenerative disorders. Xenobiotic effects on learning, memory, aging and behaviour. Unit-VI Nanotoxicology – Introduction. Concepts of Nanotoxicology. Mechanisms of Nano-sized particle toxicity. Nanopollution - Nanomaterials in the Environment.. Human exposure to nano sized materials. Portals of entry and target tissues. Risk assessment. Ethical, Legal and Societal implications. BMS-E908 Immunotoxicology Elective Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Immune system – organization and functions – cell mediated immunity – humoral immunity – Types of allergic reactions Unit II Immunosuppressive agents – adrenalcortical steroids – antiproliferative and antimetabolic drugs – antibodies – tolerance. Unit III Immunostimulant drugs – immunostimulant drugs – vaccines – globulins. Unit IV Xenobiotics and their influence on immune system – immunotoxicity of organotin compounds – polychlorinated biphenyles – hexachlorobenzene – oxidizing gases. Unit V Tests of immune competence – Experimental evaluation of immunotoxicity – animal models used in the evaluation of immunotoxicity. BMS-E909 Environmental Toxicology Elective Dr. Senthil Kumaran Palanimuthu Unit I Introduction – Description of essential terms - routes of exposure/ administration- absorption –distribution – biotransformation – excretion - effects of xenobiotics - interaction between xenobiotics Unit II Toxicity testing –Laboratory animals – toxicity testing in animals - toxicological field studies- priorities in the selection of chemicals for testing- the extent of toxicity testing required. Unit III 111
    • Interpretation of laboratory data – distinction between adverse and non-adverse effects, threshold, theoretical and practical considerations - extrapolation of animal data to man. Unit IV Human data – ethical considerations, need for human investigations. Clinical toxicology- the role of laboratory in acute human poisoning. Unit V Environmental health standards- use of toxicological data in establishing environmental health standards –an example of toxicological information used in standard setting - limitations of safety evaluation BMS-E 910 Haemopoietic Cardiovascular and Elective Prof R. Venkatakrishna Murali Renal Toxicology Unit I Components of haemopoietic system – Types of anemia – Iron – Folic acid and vitamin B12 – Haemopoietic growth factors. Coagulation of blood – drugs acting on coagulation cascade4 – anticoagulants – anti-platelet drugs - fibrinolytic drugs. Unit II Cardiac rate and rhythm-action potential of cardiac muscle- disturbances of cardiac rhythm Cardiac Contraction – Coronary atherosclerosis and its Consequence - Drugs affecting cardiac function- cardiac glycosides – antidysrhythmic drugs – antianginal drugs. Unit III Control of vascular smooth muscle tone – structure and function of vascular endothelium – “Renin – Angiotensin” system – vasoconstrictor drugs – vasodilator drugs – Atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. Unit IV Structure and function of nephron – tubular function- Acid-Base balance – Diuretics – Drugs altering the pH of urine – Drugs altering the excretion of organic molecules – Renal toxicology. Unit V In vitro and in vivo experimental evaluation of drugs that affect blood formation – Evaluation of drugs acting on cardiovascular system – Evaluation of diuretics – Assessment of renal toxicity. 112