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  1. 1. COUNTER and Article Download Metrics Presentation by Mark Robertson President Asia Blackwell Publishing Tokyo, January 2006
  2. 2. Founding sponsors <ul><li>AAP/PSP </li></ul><ul><li>ALPSP </li></ul><ul><li>ARL </li></ul><ul><li>Blackwell Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>EBSCO </li></ul><ul><li>Ingenta </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Physics Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>JISC </li></ul><ul><li>Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins </li></ul><ul><li>Nature Publishing Group </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>The Publishers Association </li></ul><ul><li>ProQuest </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor & Francis </li></ul><ul><li>STM </li></ul><ul><li>UKSG </li></ul>
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Credible, compatible, consistent publisher/vendor-generated statistics for the global information community </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries and consortia need online usage statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the value of different online products/services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To support collection development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To plan infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publishers need online usage statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To experiment with new pricing models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess the relative importance of the different channels by which information reaches the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide editorial support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To plan infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Codes of practice <ul><li>Definitions of terms used </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications for Usage Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and development of the Code of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of COUNTER </li></ul>
  5. 5. Current members <ul><li>Industry organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Library consortia </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors including the following publishers: </li></ul><ul><li>ACS Publications American Association for the Advancement of Science American Institute of Physics American Psychological Association American Society for Civil Engineers American Society for Hematology Annual Reviews Bentham Science Publishers Blackwell Publishing BMJ Publishing Group CABI International Cambridge University Press Casalini Libri East View Information Services EDP Sciences Elsevier Emerald Gale/Thomson Learning Greenwood Press H.W. Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>HighWire Press </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Physics Publishing Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Macmillan Publisher Services Technologies MarketPower Media Massachusetts Medical Society Nature Publishing Group OECD Oxford University Press Peeters Publishing Project MUSE ProQuest Royal Society of Chemistry S Karger AG Sage Publications Scholastic Inc. Semantico Ltd Society for Endocrinology & BioScientifica Ltd. Springer-Verlag Taylor & Francis Group The Scientific World Thieme Publishing Group Thomson ISI University of California Press University of Chicago Press USACO Corporation Wiley </li></ul>
  6. 6. Journals and databases <ul><li>Release 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Practice launched in January 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60%+ of Science Citation Index articles now covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A widely adopted standard by publishers and librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarians use in collection development decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers use in marketing to prove ‘value’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now being used to develop other metrics and monitor trends </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. JISC-Sponsored survey using JR1 <ul><li>17 UK Libraries; 4 STM Publishers for 2003 and 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in article downloads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher A: 12%- 208% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher B: 12%- 59% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher C: 23%- 154% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher D: 22%- 81% </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Journals and databases <ul><li>Release 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published April 2005; Effective January 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of the required usage reports in Excel and CSV formats, along with detailed display rules for each report to facilitate compliance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML DTDs for each report (optional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal Report 1 modified to include new columns that report pdf and html requests separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications for usage reports to be provided at the consortium level (Journal Report 1 and Database Report 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols to be used for recording and reporting usage when an intermediary aggregator or gateway is involved </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Release 2 usage report examples
  10. 10. Release 2 usage report examples
  11. 11. Release 2 usage report examples
  12. 12. Books and reference works <ul><li>Draft CoP published February 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Covers online books, encyclopaedias, reference works </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by a task force of publishers and librarians with expertise in online books </li></ul><ul><li>Comments on draft will be accepted through December 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group held at Charleston Conference on 3 November 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Final version will be published in early 2006 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Draft code of practice for books <ul><li>Unit of access may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter, entry (‘Section’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access depends on interface and organization of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire book may be one PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each chapter may have own PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference works may be organized by topic or section </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Audit <ul><li>Required within 18 months of compliance; annually thereafter </li></ul><ul><li>Independent auditor </li></ul><ul><li>Online audit </li></ul><ul><li>Audit will check each report for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout (correct rows, columns, headings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format (CSV or Excel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery (E-mail alert, access on password-controlled website) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy (Tolerance is -8% to +2%) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Looking ahead: other important metrics <ul><li>Link activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where users come from and go to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target and type of target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use and value of backfiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal article, book, chapter, video, soundtrack…… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article level data? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume versus value; applications of the data </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Understanding usage <ul><li>Usage statistics are an important tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If widely implemented by publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If widely adopted by customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A useful check on other approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Membership <ul><li>Member Categories and Annual Fees (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers/intermediaries: $775 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Consortia: $515 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries: $387 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry organization: $387 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library affiliate: $156 (non-voting member) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of full membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner of COUNTER with voting rights at annual general meeting, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular bulletins on progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to receive advice on implementation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. For more information………. <ul><li>http://www.projectcounter.org </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citation caveats <ul><li>Thomson Scientific (ISI) covers 8500 journals or so, indexes citations to and from these, and monitors candidate journals </li></ul><ul><li>In some fields there are many citations to non-ISI journals and other output types. </li></ul><ul><li>About 60% of citations in articles in indexed journals are also to ISI-indexed records </li></ul><ul><li>At least 75% of material cited in science UoAs is ISI-indexed journal article material </li></ul><ul><li>The average for the social science UoAs is for about one-quarter of the cited material to be in ISI journals, but less than 10% in e.g. Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Each field has a characteristic citation growth profile …. > </li></ul>(From Jonathon Adams, Evidence Ltd (consultants advising the DEST, UK)
  20. 20. Citation characteristics vary between fields
  21. 21. Citation rates vary by subfield and journals
  22. 22. International variations
  23. 23. Good use of impact factors <ul><li>Impact data are very useful for management purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, place and field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few data types offer such flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact in performance analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional profiles and comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large baskets of comparable data records </li></ul><ul><li>Like for like comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensible use of field aggregations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensible comparisons between entities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(From Jonathon Adams, Evidence Ltd (consultants advising the Dept Education Science, UK) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Abuse of impact factors <ul><li>JIF used without consideration of field characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff directed to ‘high impact’ publication channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment panels look for impact scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target setting focuses on impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual performance analysis - small samples </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured league tables – not like-for-like </li></ul><ul><li>Application of impact data to fields where this is not core </li></ul><ul><li>This abuses journals as codified channels for communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers and users understand ‘their’ journals and other output channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers select an optimal route for a specific report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data reflect only part of each output’s impact on users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole fields may be misunderstood </li></ul></ul>(From Jonathon Adams, Evidence Ltd (consultants advising the Dept Education Science, UK)
  25. 25. Reasons for choosing last journal Publishers’ Association and STM survey of leading authors, Nov 05, by CIBER
  26. 26. Growth in metrics <ul><li>Bibliometrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One data base – Thomson Scientific (ISI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaws in using Impact Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online subscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Table of Contents access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstracts access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full text access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF downloads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COUNTER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data relating citations to circulation to online usage </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Example of online usage statistics
  28. 28. Blackwell Publishing in Japan <ul><li>20+ staff in Tokyo offices </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing and production of Japanese language editions of major medical journals distributed by the pharmaceutical industry </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and support to pharmaceutical industry </li></ul><ul><li>Online sales and support to libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing of Blackwell books and journals at national and international conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing of journals to faculty and to subscriptions agents </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing Japanese English language journals internationally on behalf of and in association with national societies…> </li></ul>
  29. 29. Japanese English language journals from Blackwell <ul><li>Anatomical Science International, Animal Science Journal, Asian Economic Journal, Asian Economic Policy Review, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Cancer Science, Congenital Anomalies, The Developing Economies, Development Growth and Differentiation, Digestive Endoscopy, Entomological Science, Fisheries Science, Geriatrics and Gerontology International, Grassland Science, Human Cell, International Journal of Economic Theory, International Journal of Japanese Sociology, International Journal of Urology, Island Arc, Japan Journal of Nursing Science, The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Psychological Research, Journal of Dermatology, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, Neuropathology, Nursing and Health Sciences, Pacific Economic Research, Pathology International, Pediatrics International, Phycological Research, Plant Species Biology, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Psychogeriatrics, Reproductive Medicine and Biology, Respirology, Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Therapeutic Apheresis, Weed Biology and Management. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Japanese societies for which Blackwell publishes <ul><li>Japanese Association of Anatomists, Japanese Society of Animal Science, East Asian Economic Association, Japan Center of Economic Research, Asian Association of Social Psychology, Japanese Group Dynamics Association, Japanese Cancer Association, Japanese Teratology Society, Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO, Japanese Society for Developmental Biologists, Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society, Entomological Society of Japan, Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, Japanese Geriatrics Society, Japanese Society of Grassland Science, Japan Human Cell Society, International Association for Economic Theory, Japan Sociological Society, Japanese Urological Association, Geological Society of Japan, Japan Academy of Nursing Science, Japan Economic Association, Japanese Psychological Association, Japanese Dermatological Association, Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology; International Lake Environment Committee Foundation, Japanese Society of Neuropathology, Society for Nursing and Health Sciences, Nihon University Graduate School of Business, Japanese Society of Pathology, Japan Pediatric Society, Japanese Society of Phycology, Society for the Study of Species Biology, Folia Publishing Society, Japanese Psychogeriatric Society, Japanese Society of Fertility and Sterility; Japan Society of Fertilization and Implantation; Japan Society of Andrology, Japanese Respiratory Society, Tokyo International University, Showa Foundation for Economic Research, Japanese Society of Sleep Research, Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Japanese Society for Apheresis, Japan Society of Dialysis Therapy; Weed Science Society of Japan. </li></ul>
  31. 31. More information <ul><li>Any Questions ? </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.blackwellpublishing.com </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Shepherd (Project Director) [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.projectcounter.org </li></ul>

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