powerpoint: hormones and endocrine

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powerpoint: hormones and endocrine

  1. 1. brain (hypothalamus) pituitary (pituitary level) endocrine organs (body-level) tissues levels of hormones
  2. 2. levels of hormones brain (hypothalamus) pituitary (pituitary level) endocrine organs (body-level) tissues
  3. 3. brain (hypothalamus) pituitary (pituitary level) endocrine organs (body-level) tissues
  4. 4. brain (hypothalamus) pituitary (pituitary level) endocrine organs (body-level) tissues Thyrotropin- releasing hormone (T RH ) Corticotropin- releasing hormone (C RH ) Gonadotropin- releasing hormone (Gn RH ) Growth hormone- releasing hormone (GH RH )
  5. 6. FSH – Follicle-stimulating hormone LH – luteinizing hormone ACTH – Adrenocorticotropic hormone TSH – Thyroid-stimulating hormone GH – growth hormone PRL -- prolactin OT -- oxytocin ADH – antidiuretic hormone
  6. 7. FSH – Follicle-stimulating hormone LH – luteinizing hormone ACTH – Adrenocorticotropic hormone TSH – Thyroid-stimulating hormone GH – growth hormone PRL – prolactin OT -- oxytocin ADH – antidiuretic hormone TROPIC hormones (they activate some other endocrine gland have effect on other body tissues (not directly on other endocrine glands from the posterior pituitary
  7. 8. brain (hypothalamus) pituitary (pituitary level) endocrine organs (body-level) tissues
  8. 10. <ul><li>thyroid gland releases thyroxin </li></ul><ul><li>thyroxin causes most tissues to increase their metabolic rate </li></ul>thyroxin
  9. 11. <ul><li>to make this happen, ant.pit. releases TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone </li></ul>TSH
  10. 12. to make this happen, the hypothalamus releases TRH
  11. 13. what induces the hypothalmus to release TRH?
  12. 15. calcium in bones calcium in bloodstream needed for strong and resilient bones, joints, teeth needed for muscle contraction, fluid balance, many reactions all over body
  13. 16. calcium in bones calcium in bloodstream needed for strong and resilient bones, joints, teeth needed for muscle contraction, fluid balance, many reactions all over body <ul><li>skeleton is like a bank </li></ul><ul><li>when more calcium is needed in bloodstream, some bone is dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>this calcium circulates through the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>BALANCED against each other </li></ul><ul><li>homeostasis – NOT constant! </li></ul><ul><li>too much: bone overgrowth, bone spurs </li></ul><ul><li>too little: osteoporosis, brittle and fragile bones </li></ul><ul><li>too much: kidney stones, fluid imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>too little: weakness, unable to do muscular actions, shock and possible coma </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>PTH (parathyroid hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>from para thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>in response to low blood Ca 2+ levels </li></ul><ul><li>(“get some Ca 2+ from the bank”) </li></ul><ul><li>calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li>from thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>in response to HIGH blood Ca 2+ levels </li></ul><ul><li>(“put some Ca 2+ IN the bank.”) </li></ul>bones blood bones blood
  15. 19. two very different parts of the adrenal gland adrenal cortex (outside) secretes cortisol, aldosterone, other hormones adrenal medulla (inside) connected directly to nerve fibers from the hypothalamus secretes adrenalin and noradrenalin
  16. 25. <ul><li>acromegaly </li></ul><ul><li>due to excess GH production </li></ul><ul><li>when that GH overproduction begins AFTER adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>disproportionate growth of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skull (mostly jaw) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fingers + hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feet + toes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>not much in the long bones </li></ul>
  17. 27. exophthalmia protruding eyes hypersecretion of thyroxine increased pressure on eyes note neck scar from thyroidectomy
  18. 28. <ul><li>hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>increased pulse </li></ul><ul><li>excess perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>high BMR </li></ul><ul><li>shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>flushed appearance </li></ul><ul><li>exophthalmia </li></ul><ul><li>nervous, anxious, restless </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>tremors </li></ul>
  19. 29. <ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>aka myxedema </li></ul><ul><li>if low thyroxin in adult </li></ul><ul><li>low BMR </li></ul><ul><li>lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>dry brittle hair </li></ul><ul><li>impaired memory </li></ul><ul><li>thick tongue </li></ul><ul><li>slow speech </li></ul><ul><li>voice deep and coarese </li></ul><ul><li>diminshished perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>reddened cheeks </li></ul><ul><li>megaloglossia </li></ul><ul><li>increased pigment elbows/knees </li></ul>
  20. 30. <ul><li>usually .... </li></ul><ul><li>thyroid makes thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>when thyroxine level too low, body signals thyroid gland to make more </li></ul><ul><li>but with goiter </li></ul><ul><li>thyroid can’t make thyroxine for some reason </li></ul><ul><li>but body is still telling thyroid to make more </li></ul><ul><li>therefore thyroid enlarges </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>cretinism </li></ul><ul><li>lack of thyroxine from birth </li></ul><ul><li>or before birth </li></ul><ul><li>could be from lack of thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>or lack of iodine in mother </li></ul><ul><li>severe and irreparable mental defects </li></ul><ul><li>stunted growth </li></ul><ul><li>reduced growth and function of many organs </li></ul>
  22. 34. Three different control mechanisms for Hormones A B C “ A” leads to “B” which leads to “C” “ C” inhibits “A” A B C A C 1. feedback inhibition 3. pulsed release 2. releasing/inhibiting A releases C B inhibits C A pulses out hormone hormone naturally breaks down over time then A pulses out more hormone A C A C

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