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  1. 1. Reproductive Anatomy of Mares ABAS – 4090 Breeding Management
  2. 2. Mare reproduction topics <ul><li>Mare anatomy and physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrinology of the estrous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of the estrous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Mare management </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Management of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting fertility </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Hypothalamus <ul><li>Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH or LHRH) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Lutinizing Hormone (LH) </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin Release </li></ul>Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary
  5. 5. Ovarian Anatomy <ul><li>Suspended from broad ligament but separate from the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Bean shaped with ovulation fossa at the “eye” (ovulation site) </li></ul><ul><li>Varies greatly in size according to degree of activity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ovaries <ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibin </li></ul><ul><li>Activin </li></ul>Follicle Corpus Luteum
  7. 7. Ovarian Anatomy <ul><li>Follicles-- </li></ul><ul><li>1 o Source of Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Two cell types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>granulosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inhibit premature maturation of ova </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synthesize estrogen precursor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convert precursor to estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ovulation <ul><li>Corpus Hemorragicum </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Clot </li></ul><ul><li>Develops after about 50% of ovulations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ovarian Anatomy <ul><li>Corpus Luteum </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone source </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of differentiated thecal and granulosal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to regression by PGF 2   by 7 days after ovulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common Ovarian Problems <ul><li>Hemorrhagic Follicles </li></ul><ul><li>develops when follicle fails to luteinize </li></ul><ul><li>produces neither estrogen or progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>interferes with ovarian activity </li></ul><ul><li>no effective treatment </li></ul><ul><li>usually regresses after about 45-50 days </li></ul>
  11. 11. Common Ovarian Problems <ul><li>Persistent Corpus Luteum </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when CL fails to regress in an open mare </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosed with ultrasound by Day 14 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with palpation, around Day 35-45 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regresses with PGF 2  treatment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Common Ovarian Problems <ul><li>Granulosa Cell Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Produces testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Interferes with normal ovarian activity of either ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Normal cyclicity eventually resumes after removal of the affected ovary </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oviduct Anatomy <ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul><ul><li>Collects ova from ovulation fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Ampulla </li></ul><ul><li>Passage of ova to fertilization site </li></ul><ul><li>Isthmus </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitation of sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Passage of the EMBRYO to the uterus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Uterine Anatomy <ul><li>Broad Ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Suspends Uterus and Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood, Lymph, Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarges during Pregnancy </li></ul>
  15. 15. Uterine Anatomy <ul><li>Mesometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Support </li></ul><ul><li>Blood, Lymph, </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Perimetrium </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Support </li></ul><ul><li>Encases Uterus </li></ul>
  16. 16. Uterine Anatomy <ul><li>Myometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><li>Inner circular </li></ul><ul><li>Clearance of fluid during estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility and fixation of embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Expulsion of fetus </li></ul>
  17. 17. Uterine Anatomy <ul><li>Endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>histotrophe production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luminal Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prostaglandins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embryonic support </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Uterus/cervix <ul><li>Prostaglandin F 2  </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins </li></ul>Target organ for: Synthesis of:
  19. 19. Estrus Uterus/Cervix <ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Contractility </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Edematous (open) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Mucus Secretion </li></ul>
  20. 20. Diestrus Uterus/Cervix <ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Edema Subsides </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Contractility </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>non-edematous (closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Mucus Secretion </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cross Section of the Uterus
  22. 22. ESTRUS ENDOMETRIUM DIESTRUS ENDOMETRIUM
  23. 23. Vagina <ul><li>Region between the cervix and vulva </li></ul><ul><li>Middle of the three seals </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus- secretes slippery mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Diestrus- secretes sticky mucus </li></ul>
  24. 24. Vulva <ul><li>Conformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worsens with age and repeated pregnancies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May permit passage of air and feces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caslicks procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urethral position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine pooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clitoral fossa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horbors pathogens </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Gonadotropin Release <ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(+) LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(-) FSH </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Uterine Anatomy <ul><li>Endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>histotrophe production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luminal Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prostaglandin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embryonic support </li></ul></ul>

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