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  1. 1. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter 11
  2. 2. FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  3. 3. FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM <ul><li>Secretion of hormones or chemical messengers that coordinate and direct activities of target cells and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Major glands of endocrine system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pituitary - thyroid - thymus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pineal - parathyroid - adrenals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas - gonads </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. HORMONAL CONTROL <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when there is a drop in the level of a hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers a chain reaction of responses to increase hormones in the blood </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. PITUITARY GLAND <ul><li>Located at the base of the brain and connected to the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into anterior and posterior lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the master gland because of its major influence in body’s activities </li></ul>
  6. 6. HORMONES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND <ul><li>Divided into two lobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anterior pituitary lobe is larger and produces seven hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posterior pituitary lobe is smaller and consists primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS <ul><li>Thyroid glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the anterior part of neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes 3 hormones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroxine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triiodthyronine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS <ul><li>Parathyroid glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four glands attached to posterior surface of thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate an increase in number and size of osteoclasts (specialized bone cells) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. THYMUS GLAND <ul><li>The thymus gland is both an endocrine gland and lymphatic organ </li></ul><ul><li>The thymus secretes a large number of hormones </li></ul>
  10. 10. ADRENAL GLANDS <ul><li>Two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney; each has two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex - secretes 3 groups corticoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralocorticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla - secretes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>epinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>norepinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. GONADS <ul><li>Gonads - sex organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries - female sex organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ova </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen and progesterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes - male sex organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PANCREAS <ul><li>Located behind stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes pancreatic juices into small intestine to become digestive juices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces insulin and glucagon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. PINEAL GLAND <ul><li>Attached to the third ventricle of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the hormone melatonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of light affects the amount of melatonin secreted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes body temperature to drop </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. OTHER HORMONES PRODUCED IN THE BODY <ul><li>There are many hormones produced throughout the body originating from many different glands and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins are hormones secreted in various tissues throughout the body </li></ul>
  15. 15. DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM <ul><li>Endocrine gland disturbances may be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoactivity </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PITUITARY DISORDERS <ul><li>Hyperfunction of Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acromegaly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypofunction of Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwarfism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetes Insipidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by posterior lobe dysfunction </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. THYROID DISORDERS <ul><li>Blood tests are done to diagnose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to overactivity of thyroid gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion of thyroxin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to inflammation of thyroid gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid isn’t able to secrete enough thyroxin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PARATHYROID DISORDERS <ul><li>The parathyroid glands regulate the use of calcium and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperfunctioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium taken from bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypofunctioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetany - low levels of calcium affects the nerves </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. ADRENAL DISORDERS <ul><li>Hyperfunction of the Adrenal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushing’s syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypofunction of Adrenal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addison’s disease </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. STEROID ABUSE IN SPORTS <ul><li>Effects of steroid abuse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased spleen production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrophy of testicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast enlargement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PANCREATIC DISORDERS <ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective secretion or use of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I - juvenile diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II - adult diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose monitoring - Diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight reduction - Medication </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. PANCREATIC DISORDERS <ul><li>Tests for Diabetes Mellitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucometer (glucose monitor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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