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  • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter 11
  • FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • FUNCTION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • Secretion of hormones or chemical messengers that coordinate and direct activities of target cells and organs
    • Major glands of endocrine system
      • pituitary - thyroid - thymus
      • pineal - parathyroid - adrenals
      • pancreas - gonads
  • HORMONAL CONTROL
    • Negative feedback
      • occurs when there is a drop in the level of a hormone
      • triggers a chain reaction of responses to increase hormones in the blood
  • PITUITARY GLAND
    • Located at the base of the brain and connected to the hypothalamus
    • Divided into anterior and posterior lobes
    • Known as the master gland because of its major influence in body’s activities
  • HORMONES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND
    • Divided into two lobes
      • anterior pituitary lobe is larger and produces seven hormones
      • posterior pituitary lobe is smaller and consists primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells
  • THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • Thyroid glands
      • Located in the anterior part of neck
      • Secretes 3 hormones:
        • Thyroxine
        • Triiodthyronine
        • Calcitonin
  • THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • Parathyroid glands
      • Four glands attached to posterior surface of thyroid
      • Stimulate an increase in number and size of osteoclasts (specialized bone cells)
  • THYMUS GLAND
    • The thymus gland is both an endocrine gland and lymphatic organ
    • The thymus secretes a large number of hormones
  • ADRENAL GLANDS
    • Two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney; each has two parts
      • Cortex - secretes 3 groups corticoids
        • Mineralocorticoids
        • Glucocorticoids
        • Sex hormones
      • Medulla - secretes
        • epinephrine
        • norepinephrine
  • GONADS
    • Gonads - sex organs
      • Ovaries - female sex organ
        • ova
        • estrogen and progesterone
      • Testes - male sex organ
        • sperm
        • testosterone
  • PANCREAS
    • Located behind stomach
    • Functions as:
      • Exocrine gland
        • Secretes pancreatic juices into small intestine to become digestive juices
      • Endocrine gland
        • Produces insulin and glucagon
  • PINEAL GLAND
    • Attached to the third ventricle of the brain
    • Produces the hormone melatonin
      • Amount of light affects the amount of melatonin secreted
      • Causes body temperature to drop
  • OTHER HORMONES PRODUCED IN THE BODY
    • There are many hormones produced throughout the body originating from many different glands and organs
    • Prostaglandins are hormones secreted in various tissues throughout the body
  • DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • Endocrine gland disturbances may be caused by:
      • Disease
      • Infection
      • Hyperactivity
      • Hypoactivity
  • PITUITARY DISORDERS
    • Hyperfunction of Pituitary
      • Gigantism
      • Acromegaly
    • Hypofunction of Pituitary
      • Dwarfism
    • Diabetes Insipidus
      • Caused by posterior lobe dysfunction
  • THYROID DISORDERS
    • Blood tests are done to diagnose
      • Hyperthyroidism
        • Due to overactivity of thyroid gland
        • Hypersecretion of thyroxin
      • Hypothyroidism
        • Due to inflammation of thyroid gland
        • Thyroid isn’t able to secrete enough thyroxin
  • PARATHYROID DISORDERS
    • The parathyroid glands regulate the use of calcium and phosphorus
    • Hyperfunctioning
      • Kidney stones
      • Calcium taken from bones
    • Hypofunctioning
      • Tetany - low levels of calcium affects the nerves
  • ADRENAL DISORDERS
    • Hyperfunction of the Adrenal
      • Cushing’s syndrome
    • Hypofunction of Adrenal Cortex
      • Addison’s disease
  • STEROID ABUSE IN SPORTS
    • Effects of steroid abuse:
      • Liver changes
      • Decreased spleen production
      • Atrophy of testicles
      • Breast enlargement
      • Cardiovascular disease
  • PANCREATIC DISORDERS
    • Diabetes mellitus
      • Ineffective secretion or use of insulin
      • Type I - juvenile diabetes
      • Type II - adult diabetes
    • Treatment
      • Glucose monitoring - Diet
      • Weight reduction - Medication
  • PANCREATIC DISORDERS
    • Tests for Diabetes Mellitus
      • Urine samples
      • Blood samples
        • glucometer (glucose monitor)
        • glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)