What you eat makes a difference in your health. Nutrition ch.16 s.1
Explain the relationship between diet and health.
Distinguish among the six classes of nutrients.
Identify the importance of each type of nutrient.
Your body needs nutrients found in foods.
Nutrients provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair.
2. You need energy for every activity and to maintain a steady internal temperature.
Classes of Nutrients
a. Used for replacement and repair of body cells and for growth
b. Made up of amino acids
c. Found in eggs, milk, cheese, and meat
d. Essential amino acids must be supplied by food.
a. The main source of energy for your body
b. Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; energy holds these atoms together
c. Sugars are simple carbohydrates; starch and fiber are complex carbohydrates.
d. Sugars are found in fruits, honey, and milk.
e. Starches are found in potatoes and pasta.
f. Fiber is found in whole-grain breads, beans, and peas.
a. Also called lipids
b. Provide energy and help your body absorb vitamins
c. Because fat is a good storage unit for energy, any excess energy is converted to fat.
d. Classified as unsaturated or saturated based on their chemical structure
e. Saturated fats are associated with high cholesterol.
a. Needed for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing disease
b. A well-balanced diet usually gives your body all the vitamins it needs.
c. Two groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble
a. Are inorganic nutrients
b. Regulate many chemical reactions in your body
c. Calcium and phosphorous are used most by the body.
a. Required for survival.
b. Cells need water to carry out their work.
c. Most nutrients your body needs must be dissolved in water.
d. The human body is about 60 percent water.
e. You lose water each day when you perspire, exhale, and get rid of wastes.
1. Because no food has every nutrient, you should eat a variety of foods.
2. The food pyramid helps people select foods that supply all the nutrients they need.
3. Foods that contain the same nutrients belong to a food group.
4. Five food groups:
a. Bread and cereal
who created this model?
How can the food pyramid help you maintain good health?
The food pyramid tells you how many servings of each food group to eat every day. The recommended daily amount for each food group will supply your body with the nutrients it needs.
Do we have an appropriate metaphor for today’s industrial food system?
In addition to obesity and diabetes explosion, we are seeing nutrient dilution
Nutrient Dilution Effect
Yield enhancing methods tend to decrease nutrient density
Recent studies of fruits, vegetables and wheat show a 5 to 35 percent decline in nutrient density during past fifty years
A few nutrients in meat and milk have decreased by as much as 60 percent
---Donald R. Davis University of Texas
Cost per nutrient value?
What we need is a food system that calculates the cost of food by its health and nutrient value.
A sobering thought: During the same time that we have reduced the percent of our earned income spent on food to less than 10 percent, we have also increased the percent of our income spent on health care to 16 percent!
---Gary Schwartz MD, Mayo Clinic
This is absolutely a must watch by every person who eats at fast-food restaurants. In this documentary one of the most amazing things was examined. What if a person ate only McDonald's food for thirty days? What would happen? Could just thirty days of eating McDonald's food cause any medical problem? Could just thirty days of eating McDonald's food cause a massive weight gain? Could just thirty days of eating McDonald's food cause disease and illness? Certainly no doctor would believe that simply eating McDonald's food for thirty days would cause any medical or health problems. This documentary shows the truth. The man had his blood work tested before, during, and after his experiment. He had his weight checked. In just thirty days, the medical doctors were dumbfounded and astonished by what happened to this man's body. In just thirty days of eating McDonald's food this man gained twentyfive pounds. In just thirty days! But it's worse than that. He started at only 185 pounds, so he gained almost 20 percent of his original body weight. No doctor could believe it.
Are fast food places purposely putting ingredients in the food to get you physically addicted to the food, increase your appetite, and make you fat?
From a health standpoint, the doctors were again astonished. His liver virtually turned to fat. His cholesterol shot up sixty-five points. His body-fat percentage went from 11 to over 18 percent. He nearly doubled his risk of coronary heart disease. He felt depressed and exhausted most of the time. His moods swung on a dime. He craved this McDonald's food more and more when he ate it, and he got massive headaches when he didn't! The doctor said if kept on this diet, he would definitely develop coronary artery disease, inflammation and hardening of the liver, probably develop dozens of various illnesses and diseases, and would certainly die an early death.
The doctors who did the blood work could not believe how this man was, in effect, dying in just thirty days! They couldn't believe it because they were only looking at calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sodium. They weren't considering the "trans fats." They weren't considering how the food has been genetically produced. They weren't considering how the food was energetically destroyed and was toxic to the body. They weren't considering all the food processing chemicals and additives used in this food.
Production: Organic vs. Conventional
As you can imagine, organic agricultural practices are quite distinct from those of "conventional" farming.
apply chemical fertilizers to the soil to grow their crops
spray with insecticides to protect crops from pests and disease
use synthetic herbicides to control weed growth
feed soil and build soil matter with natural fertilizer to grow their crops
use insect predators, mating disruption, traps and barriers to protect crops from pests and disease
make use of crop rotation, mechanical tillage and hand-weeding, as well as cover crops, mulches, flame weeding and other management methods to control weed growth
As a last resort, organic farmers may apply certain botanical or other non-synthetic pesticides (for example, rotenone and pyrethrins, both of which are from plants).
The meat, dairy products and eggs that organic farmers produce are from animals that are fed organic feed and allowed access to the outdoors.
Unlike conventionally raised livestock, organic livestock must be kept in living conditions that accommodate the natural behavior of the animals. For instance, ruminants (including cows, sheep and goats) must have access to pasture. Although they may be vaccinated against disease, organic livestock and poultry may not be given antibiotics, hormones or medications in the absence of illness. Instead, livestock diseases and parasites are controlled largely through preventive measures such as rotational grazing, balanced diet, sanitary housing and stress reduction.
Conventional foods today
The chemical fertilizers used in the food,
the pesticides used in the food
food is picked early and then gassed,
food is genetically modified and manufactured in an unnatural way,
the processing methods that are used,
the irradiation that was used,
the actual thousands of chemicals that are put in processed food to make it taste better and give it certain textures, preserve it, or specifically designed to get you chemically and physically addicted to the food, increase your appetite and leads to weight gain.
Cheap raw materials and labor policy
Cheap raw materials and labor lead to cheap ingredients.
Cheap ingredients lead to adding value by providing volume.
we promote “all you can eat” fare
put lots of cheap ingredients (like high fructose corn syrup) into our food.
emphasis on quantity dilutes nutrient density
That combination may have deleterious health effects.
Rex Russell, M.D. states the following:
It has been reported that in the early twentieth century, a people in the Himalayas called the Hunzas had an average life span of 90 years, and often over 120 years.
When a medical team led by Dr. Robert Garrison studied the Hunzas in the 1940s, the physicians did not find a single case of cancer, ulcers, appendicitis or colitis. Heart disease and hypertension were unknown among them. The medical experts also found that the Hunza people ate nuts, grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes.
The team could only conclude that the Hunza’s life expectancy was based on clean water and exercise ...” In 1949, the Hunzas were incorporated into Pakistan, and their life span has since been shortened because of changes in diet.
Proper diet is imperative for extraordinary health, but since the mid-20th century, the standard American diet has lost its nutritional power due to factors such as:
Commercial farming methods resulting in mineral-deficient soil; an over-reliance on pesticides, antibiotics, hormones, and other drugs used in raising livestock.
The popularity of fast-food, processed foods, and “junk foods” with chemical additives, unhealthy fats and trans-fatty oils, white flour and refined starches—all with no to low nutritional value.
Environmental pollutants which poison our air, land, water, and food.
Emphasize a whole-foods diet rich in the highest quality proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
These are best found in organic fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, nuts, seeds, fiber, pure water, and organic, free-range meat and poultry products.
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
Macronutrients are nutrients required in the highest amounts; micronutrients are essential dietary elements required in only small quantities. Our bodies require the three macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, and fats.
Proteins supply energy and provide the structural components necessary for growth and repair of tissue.
Carbohydrates and fats function to supply energy.
Vitamins and minerals are needed in small quantities (micronutrients), but are essential for normal growth, muscle response, health of the nervous system, digestion, production of hormones, and metabolism of nutrients.
Simple rule: Since our bodies are from nature we should Eat What Is From Nature!
Eat Whole, Organic Foods
Consuming whole foods (unprocessed foods) is key. Organic foods are recommended--foods lacking commercial pesticides, fungicides, antibiotics, and preservatives. This includes food (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) in its most natural and whole organic state.
Include healthy proteins--the building blocks of organs, muscles, nerves, enzymes and hormones. Only animal proteins – meat, eggs and dairy, which contain all eight of the essential amino acids--are complete protein sources. Recommended animal proteins are properly raised beef, lamb, buffalo, venison, elk, and other clean red meats; fish with fins and scales from oceans and rivers; chicken, turkey, and other poultry raised in a free-range setting.
Carbohydrates provide energy needed to drive bodily chemical processes. The simple sugars eaten in Biblical times were highly nutritious fruits and vegetables, raw honey, and sprouted/germinated grains. (Sprouting and germination allows grains to come alive, making nutrition within the seed available.)
Healthy fats are necessary. Here’s why:
Fats are building blocks for cell membranes, hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters (messages from your brain to your body that make you think, feel and move).
Fats slow down food absorption so you can go longer without feeling hungry.
Fats are needed to absorb and use vitamins A, D, E & K.
Fats help to keep us warm and cushion organs.
The brain is 60% fat, and needs fat for connecting brain cells and making sure signals get through.
It is important to get healthy fats, so include foods such as ocean-caught fish, cod liver oil, and omega-3 eggs. Recommended are ocean-caught fish with fins and scales such as salmon, tuna and sardines, ‘fatty’ fish with high omega-3 levels. Choose grass-fed, free range or organic meats; when animals graze on their natural diet of greens, their diet is automatically rich in these essential fats.
Eat Food in a Form that is Healthy for the Body
Eat Foods in a Form that is Healthy for the Body
The second rule of eating a healthy diet is to eat foods in a form that is healthy, useable, and health-promoting for the body—natural, organic, unprocessed, and properly prepared—thus, receiving food that is high in nutrients, easily digestible, and free of chemicals and additives. Our bodies were not designed to thrive on anything less.
The Perils of Modern Processing, Additives, etc.
Since the early 1900s whole grains have been routinely processed, removing most of their nutritional content, and the average diet has been comprised of processed foods rather than fresh foods. The past two generations have literally grown up on highly-processed fast foods, leading to diets of:
Increased sugar, refined grains and flour
Pasteurized, homogenized, skimmed dairy products from antibiotic and hormone-laden cows
Unhealthy fats (such as trans-fatty-acid laden hydrogenated oils)
Soda (America’s most popular beverage)
Junk foods—with little or no complex carbohydrates, fiber, essential vitamins and minerals, and never meant for human consumption.
Whole Foods and Organic Foods
Remember, consuming whole foods (unprocessed) is key to eating the healthiest way, and organic foods—foods lacking commercial pesticides, fungicides, antibiotics, hormones, preservatives—are recommended. Whole foods contain all the essential nutrients and other important natural compounds, and have not been highly processed or loaded with man-made chemicals. Unfortunately, our modern way of growing, harvesting, and preparing food (all designed for convenience and long shelf life) has stripped food of its nutritional value.
The “dirty dozen.”
These are some of the most popular and widespread food products and are the least healthy items you can put into your mouth. Try to avoid them.
Shellfish and fish without fins and scales (catfish, shark, eel)
Big agribusiness is a major lobbyist. They want to keep corn cheap and plentiful because they value it as an inexpensive industrial raw material.
Not only does it fatten up a beef steer more quickly than pasture does (though at a cost to ourselves and cattle, which don’t digest corn very well, and are therefore pre-emptively fed antibiotics to offset the stresses caused by their unnatural diet); once milled, refined and recompounded, corn can become any number of things, from ethanol for the gas tank to dozens of edible, if not nutritious, products, like the thickener in a milkshake, the hydrogenated oil in margarine, the modified cornstarch that binds the pulverized meat in a McNugget and, most disastrously, the ubiquitous sweetener known as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
High Fructose Corn Syrup: Bad, Good, or in Between?
It’s sweeter than sweet and inexpensive to boot, so food and beverage manufacturers use high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in virtually everything they make––from soft drinks (including “fruit” drinks) to jams, crackers, bread, yogurt, salad dressing, and even soup. Some research has suggested that fructose is not metabolized in the same way other sugars are, and that the proliferation of HFCS may be a contributing factor in our country’s obesity problem. But many experts believe it is no worse than any other sweetener; in fact, last July The New York Times called it “a sweetener with a bad rap.” So is this syrup the demon culprit behind obesity or wrongly accused?
Sweet and Evil In 2004, researchers published an article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , concluding “there is a distinct likelihood that the increased consumption of HFCS in beverages may be linked to the increase in obesity.” In this article, they explain that fructose does not stimulate the pancreas to release insulin and, in turn, does not trigger the secretion of the hormone leptin, which is instrumental in making us feel satiated. These researchers also point to the fact that the increased use of HFCS in the United States mirrors the dramatic increase in obesity. HFCS now accounts for more than 40 percent of the caloric sweeteners added to food and drinks.
HFCS Defense This and other attacks on HFCS prompted the Corn Refiners Association to create a website, “HFCS Facts,” debunking myths and defending the sweetener. One point they make is that HFCS is not actually “high” in fructose. It contains either 42 or 55 percent fructose and the rest is mostly glucose. The proportions are roughly equivalent to table sugar, which is 50 percent fructose and 50 percent glucose. The Times article quotes two gurus in the field of nutrition both saying they do not believe there is evidence to support the idea that HFCS has uniquely contributed to the obesity epidemic. And when the Times reporter interviewed one of the authors of the 2004 journal article, the researcher said the idea of a unique link between HFCS and obesity was just a theory and that it could well be proved wrong with future science.
Diabetes and Fructose What about those with diabetes? On the surface, it would seem that a sugar that doesn’t raise blood glucose and insulin would be a godsend for people with diabetes. However, like most things, it’s not that simple. First, fructose is combined with glucose and other sugars to make HFCS. Second, in animal studies, rodents fed large amounts of fructose became insulin resistant (a precursor to diabetes) and developed high triglycerides. Combine this with the idea that fructose may suppress the release of the appetite-regulating hormone leptin and you’ve got a prescription for upping obesity and diabetes risks.
The bottom line: Whether it’s table sugar, honey, or a highly processed sweetener like HFCS, added sugar is something we’re better off without––no matter what your health status. Get your sugars from natural, healthy sources and you can’t go wrong.
Since 1980, HFCS has insinuated itself into every nook and cranny of the food industry—McDonald's meal, there's HFCS not only in his 32-ounce soda, but in the ketchup and the bun of his cheeseburger — and some think it as the prime culprit in the nation's obesity epidemic.
Soft Drinks Cause Weight Gain in Several Ways Some nutritionists say that consuming high-fructose corn syrup causes weight gain by interfering with the body’s natural ability to suppress hunger feelings. Currently, 64.5 percent of adults over the age of 20 are overweight, 30.5 percent are obese and 4.7 percent are severely obese. According to Dr. Sonia Caprio, a Yale University professor of pediatric endocrinology, “The reality is that there is epidemiological work done in children as well as adults that links obesity and Type 2 diabetes with the consumption of sodas.”
Health eating tips
Stay away from sodas
Stay away from hfcs
Stay away from processed foods
Stay away from saturated / trans fats
Natural fats not bad - Mono- and poly un saturated fats have health benefits and are the preferred dietary fats
Stay away from hydrogenated products
Try to eat as fresh as possible
All natural / organic best choices – usually have no hormones/toxins
Eat to live, not live to eat – never stuff yourself
General health tips
Eat right (natural / fresh)
Exercise (being active)
(if you do these, you have no need for “fad” diets)
Food for thought
We do live longer, but need the aid of expensive manufactured drugs – usually producing an uncomfortable and prolonged life
Varying genetics plays a role in how different people process things
Read the Nutrition Facts Label For Total Sugars Plain Yogurt Fruit Yogurt
Look at the Ingredient List for Added Sugars Plain Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED PASTEURIZED GRADE A NONFAT MILK, WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE, PECTIN, CARRAGEENAN. Fruit Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED GRADE A REDUCED FAT MILK, APPLES, HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CINNAMON, NUTMEG, NATURAL FLAVORS, AND PECTIN. CONTAINS ACTIVE YOGURT AND L. ACIDOPHILUS CULTURES