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  1. 1. Endocrine System: Endocrinology: science of studying endocrine glands and diagnosing/treating disorders of endocrine system Endocrine Glands: secrete products (hormones) into the blood (not through ducts like exocrine glands) Endocrine Gland Anatomy: (worksheet)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nervous and Endocrine systems coordinate functions of all body systems </li></ul><ul><li>- nerve impulses are more rapid in producing results than hormones </li></ul><ul><li>- effects of nervous system are brief while those of hormones last longer </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Functions of Hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>1. regulate metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>2. regulate smooth and cardiac muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>3. integrate growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>4. maintain homeostasis during emergency disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>5. contribute to basic processes of reproduction </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Hormones only affect specific target cells that have receptors for that specific hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating Hormones: act on distant target cells </li></ul><ul><li>Local Hormones: act on target cells close to the release site or the cell that secretes it </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, hormonal actions are negative feedback. Exceptions: Oxytocin and Luteinizing Hormone </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>too little of hormone produced </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>too much of hormone produced </li></ul>
  6. 6. PITUITARY GLAND HGH – human growth hormone TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone ACTH – adreno-cortico tropic hormone FSH – follicle stimulating homrone LH – luteinizing hormone ICSH – interstitual cell stimulating hormone PRL - prolactin MSH – melanocyte stimulating hormone OT - oxytocin ADH – antidiuretic hormone
  7. 7. HGH: - growth of body cells - elevates blood glucose levels Hyposecretion: dwarfism: -slow body growth
  8. 8. <ul><li>HGH </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood – giantism </li></ul><ul><li>-abnormal overall </li></ul><ul><li>body growth </li></ul><ul><li>Adult – Acromegaly and </li></ul><ul><li>hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>-extremety and face </li></ul><ul><li>bones thicken along with </li></ul><ul><li>other tissue enlargement </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>TSH: </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates Thyroid to release its hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Grave’s Disease: enlarged thyroid, exophthalmos, </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Cretinism (child)- severe mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema (adult)- swollen/puffy face, lethargy, can gain weight easily </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>ACTH: </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates adrenal cortex to release its hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s Disease – lethargy, anorexia, nausea, bronzing of skin </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>FSH: </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates ova development </li></ul><ul><li>- estrogen secretion (female) </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm production (male) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>sterility </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>LH: </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulated ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>- estrogen and progesterone secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>sterility </li></ul><ul><li>ICSH: also called Luteinizing hormone in males </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates testosterone secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>sterility </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>PRL: </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates milk secretion from mammary gland (female) </li></ul><ul><li>- role not known for male </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>- no menstrual cycle (female) </li></ul><ul><li>- impotence (male) </li></ul><ul><li>MSH: </li></ul><ul><li>- dispersion of melanin granules (darken skin) </li></ul><ul><li>(role in humans not known) may influence brain activity </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>OT: </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterus during labor </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates milk ejection from mammary </li></ul><ul><li>- role in males not known </li></ul><ul><li>ADH: </li></ul><ul><li>- decreases urine volume by retaining water in kidney, sweat gland, and artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes insipidus: </li></ul><ul><li>-excessive urine output causing dehydration </li></ul>
  15. 16. Located below larynx Hormones are made from iodine and tyrosine THYROID GLAND T4 THYROXINE T3 TRI-IODO THYRONINE CALCITONIN
  16. 17. <ul><li>T4 and T3: </li></ul><ul><li>- increase metabolism, growth, development, and regulates </li></ul><ul><li>nervous sys. </li></ul><ul><li>- stimulates protein syn. </li></ul><ul><li>- increases use of glucose and fat for ATP </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Hyposecretion: T3 and T4 </li></ul><ul><li>Cretinism (child): </li></ul><ul><li>-severe mental retardation </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Hyposecretion: T3 and T4 </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema (adult): </li></ul><ul><li>-edema (swelling of tissues – face) </li></ul><ul><li>-lethargy, easy weight gain </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Hypersecretion: T3 and T4 </li></ul><ul><li>Grave’s Disease: </li></ul><ul><li>- enlarged thyroid (goiter) </li></ul><ul><li>- due to low Iodine intake </li></ul><ul><li>causing over-production of TSH </li></ul><ul><li>- exophthalmos – swelling behind </li></ul><ul><li>eyes (protruding eyes) </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>Thyroid (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin: </li></ul><ul><li>- lowers blood levels of calcium and phosphates by causing uptake in bones. </li></ul><ul><li>No disorders </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Parathyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>PTH: </li></ul><ul><li>Increases blood Ca and Mg levels </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases blood phosphate levels </li></ul><ul><li>Increases bone resorption by osteoclasts </li></ul><ul><li>Increases rate of dietary Ca and Mg absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Osteitis fibrosa Cystica: bones become soft and easily fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Tetany: spontaneous nerve impulses in muscles </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Pancrease: </li></ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans- cells in pancrease that make hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon: alpha cells </li></ul><ul><li>- increase blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>- converts glycogen to glucose in liver </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>Pancrease </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin: Beta cells </li></ul><ul><li>- decrease blood sugar levels </li></ul><ul><li>- converts glucose to glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>- antagonists to glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus: (Juvenile onset) </li></ul><ul><li>Type I – (Insulin Dependent) </li></ul><ul><li>- deficiency of insulin </li></ul><ul><li>- must take insulin </li></ul><ul><li>- makes person hyperglycemic </li></ul><ul><li>Type II - (Non-insulin dependent) (90% of adults) </li></ul><ul><li>- due mostly to obesity </li></ul><ul><li>- inability to respond to insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Gestational Diabetes: (during pregnancy only) </li></ul><ul><li>- disappears after delivery </li></ul><ul><li>- caused by weight gain during pregnancy </li></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>Pancrease (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-insulinism </li></ul><ul><li>- causes hypoglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>- Insulin Shock (sugar pulled out of blood) </li></ul><ul><li>-convulsions, unconscious, can cause death quickly </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Pancreas (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>Somatostatin: Delta Cells </li></ul><ul><li>- inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Cortex: </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone </li></ul><ul><li>- increases blood levels of Na and water </li></ul><ul><li>- decreases K levels </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosteronism: </li></ul><ul><li>- excess Na and water in blood </li></ul><ul><li>- leads to hypertension (high BP) </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>Adrenal Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>- helps regulate metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>- resists stress </li></ul><ul><li>Hyposecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Addisons Disease: discussed previously </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>Cortisol (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing’s Syndrom </li></ul><ul><li>- breakdown of muscle proteins </li></ul><ul><li>- redistribution of fat (face, back, abdomen) </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Adrenal Cortex: </li></ul><ul><li>Androgens: </li></ul><ul><li>- contribute to growth spurt, sex drive </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion: </li></ul><ul><li>-Over masculinization </li></ul><ul><li>Female: beard growth </li></ul><ul><li>Male: deeper voice, baldness </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Adrenal Medulla: </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine (Adrenaline) </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) </li></ul><ul><li>- both enhance the effects of the Sympathetic Nervous System during emergency </li></ul><ul><li>- speeding heart rate and other functions needed </li></ul>
  30. 37. <ul><li>Estrogen: from ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>- secondary sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone: from ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>- pregnancy promoting hormone </li></ul><ul><li>- increased amounts made when pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone: from testes </li></ul><ul><li>- growth and maintanance of male sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm production </li></ul><ul><li>- regulated by LH levels in blood </li></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>Pineal Gland: </li></ul><ul><li>melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>- may have a role in setting our night time and daytime cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus: </li></ul><ul><li>(thymosin, thymic factor, thymic hormonal factor, thymopoietin) </li></ul><ul><li>- promotes development of T-cells (White Blood Cells) to fight infections </li></ul>