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  • 1. Endocrine System: Endocrinology: science of studying endocrine glands and diagnosing/treating disorders of endocrine system Endocrine Glands: secrete products (hormones) into the blood (not through ducts like exocrine glands) Endocrine Gland Anatomy: (worksheet)
  • 2.
    • Nervous and Endocrine systems coordinate functions of all body systems
    • - nerve impulses are more rapid in producing results than hormones
    • - effects of nervous system are brief while those of hormones last longer
  • 3.
    • Functions of Hormones:
    • 1. regulate metabolism
    • 2. regulate smooth and cardiac muscle contraction
    • 3. integrate growth and development
    • 4. maintain homeostasis during emergency disruptions
    • 5. contribute to basic processes of reproduction
  • 4.
    • Hormones only affect specific target cells that have receptors for that specific hormone
    • Circulating Hormones: act on distant target cells
    • Local Hormones: act on target cells close to the release site or the cell that secretes it
    • Typically, hormonal actions are negative feedback. Exceptions: Oxytocin and Luteinizing Hormone
  • 5.
    • Disorders:
    • Hyposecretion:
    • too little of hormone produced
    • Hypersecretion:
    • too much of hormone produced
  • 6. PITUITARY GLAND HGH – human growth hormone TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone ACTH – adreno-cortico tropic hormone FSH – follicle stimulating homrone LH – luteinizing hormone ICSH – interstitual cell stimulating hormone PRL - prolactin MSH – melanocyte stimulating hormone OT - oxytocin ADH – antidiuretic hormone
  • 7. HGH: - growth of body cells - elevates blood glucose levels Hyposecretion: dwarfism: -slow body growth
  • 8.
    • HGH
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Childhood – giantism
    • -abnormal overall
    • body growth
    • Adult – Acromegaly and
    • hyperglycemia
    • -extremety and face
    • bones thicken along with
    • other tissue enlargement
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • TSH:
    • Stimulates Thyroid to release its hormones
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Grave’s Disease: enlarged thyroid, exophthalmos,
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Cretinism (child)- severe mental retardation
    • Myxedema (adult)- swollen/puffy face, lethargy, can gain weight easily
  • 11.
    • ACTH:
    • - stimulates adrenal cortex to release its hormones
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Addison’s Disease – lethargy, anorexia, nausea, bronzing of skin
  • 12.
    • FSH:
    • - stimulates ova development
    • - estrogen secretion (female)
    • - sperm production (male)
    • Hyposecretion:
    • sterility
  • 13.
    • LH:
    • - stimulated ovulation
    • - estrogen and progesterone secretion
    • Hyposecretion:
    • sterility
    • ICSH: also called Luteinizing hormone in males
    • - stimulates testosterone secretion
    • Hyposecretion:
    • sterility
  • 14.
    • PRL:
    • - stimulates milk secretion from mammary gland (female)
    • - role not known for male
    • Hypersecretion:
    • - no menstrual cycle (female)
    • - impotence (male)
    • MSH:
    • - dispersion of melanin granules (darken skin)
    • (role in humans not known) may influence brain activity
  • 15.
    • OT:
    • - stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterus during labor
    • - stimulates milk ejection from mammary
    • - role in males not known
    • ADH:
    • - decreases urine volume by retaining water in kidney, sweat gland, and artery.
    • Hyposecretion:
    • diabetes insipidus:
    • -excessive urine output causing dehydration
  • 16. Located below larynx Hormones are made from iodine and tyrosine THYROID GLAND T4 THYROXINE T3 TRI-IODO THYRONINE CALCITONIN
  • 17.
    • T4 and T3:
    • - increase metabolism, growth, development, and regulates
    • nervous sys.
    • - stimulates protein syn.
    • - increases use of glucose and fat for ATP
  • 18.
    • Hyposecretion: T3 and T4
    • Cretinism (child):
    • -severe mental retardation
  • 19.
    • Hyposecretion: T3 and T4
    • Myxedema (adult):
    • -edema (swelling of tissues – face)
    • -lethargy, easy weight gain
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Hypersecretion: T3 and T4
    • Grave’s Disease:
    • - enlarged thyroid (goiter)
    • - due to low Iodine intake
    • causing over-production of TSH
    • - exophthalmos – swelling behind
    • eyes (protruding eyes)
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Thyroid (continued)
    • Calcitonin:
    • - lowers blood levels of calcium and phosphates by causing uptake in bones.
    • No disorders
  • 25.
    • Parathyroid Gland
    • PTH:
    • Increases blood Ca and Mg levels
    • Decreases blood phosphate levels
    • Increases bone resorption by osteoclasts
    • Increases rate of dietary Ca and Mg absorption
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Osteitis fibrosa Cystica: bones become soft and easily fracture
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Tetany: spontaneous nerve impulses in muscles
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • Pancrease:
    • Islets of Langerhans- cells in pancrease that make hormones.
    • Glucagon: alpha cells
    • - increase blood glucose levels
    • - converts glycogen to glucose in liver
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar
  • 28.
    • Pancrease
    • Insulin: Beta cells
    • - decrease blood sugar levels
    • - converts glucose to glycogen
    • - antagonists to glucagon
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Diabetes Mellitus: (Juvenile onset)
    • Type I – (Insulin Dependent)
    • - deficiency of insulin
    • - must take insulin
    • - makes person hyperglycemic
    • Type II - (Non-insulin dependent) (90% of adults)
    • - due mostly to obesity
    • - inability to respond to insulin
    • Gestational Diabetes: (during pregnancy only)
    • - disappears after delivery
    • - caused by weight gain during pregnancy
  • 29.
    • Pancrease (cont.)
    • Insulin (cont.)
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Hyper-insulinism
    • - causes hypoglycemia
    • - Insulin Shock (sugar pulled out of blood)
    • -convulsions, unconscious, can cause death quickly
  • 30.
    • Pancreas (cont)
    • Somatostatin: Delta Cells
    • - inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon
    • Adrenal Cortex:
    • Aldosterone
    • - increases blood levels of Na and water
    • - decreases K levels
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Aldosteronism:
    • - excess Na and water in blood
    • - leads to hypertension (high BP)
  • 31.
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Cortisol
    • - helps regulate metabolism
    • - resists stress
    • Hyposecretion:
    • Addisons Disease: discussed previously
  • 32.  
  • 33.
    • Cortisol (cont)
    • Hypersecretion:
    • Cushing’s Syndrom
    • - breakdown of muscle proteins
    • - redistribution of fat (face, back, abdomen)
  • 34.  
  • 35.
    • Adrenal Cortex:
    • Androgens:
    • - contribute to growth spurt, sex drive
    • Hypersecretion:
    • -Over masculinization
    • Female: beard growth
    • Male: deeper voice, baldness
  • 36.
    • Adrenal Medulla:
    • Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
    • Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline)
    • - both enhance the effects of the Sympathetic Nervous System during emergency
    • - speeding heart rate and other functions needed
  • 37.
    • Estrogen: from ovaries
    • - secondary sex characteristics
    • Progesterone: from ovaries
    • - pregnancy promoting hormone
    • - increased amounts made when pregnant
    • Testosterone: from testes
    • - growth and maintanance of male sex characteristics
    • - sperm production
    • - regulated by LH levels in blood
  • 38.
    • Pineal Gland:
    • melatonin
    • - may have a role in setting our night time and daytime cycles
    • Thymus:
    • (thymosin, thymic factor, thymic hormonal factor, thymopoietin)
    • - promotes development of T-cells (White Blood Cells) to fight infections