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  • 1. Medical Terminology Endocrine System Chapter 14
  • 2.
    • The functions of the endocrine system cover a broad range of action. Endocrine activity affects the entire body: growth and development, metabolism, sexual activity, and even mental ability and emotions.
    • The endocrine system is a means of communication between one body part and another.
  • 3. Anatomy and Physiology
    • Homeostasis
      • state of equilibrium
    • Hormones (chemical messengers)
    • Target Tissues or Target Organs
    • Hypersecretion
    • Hyposecretion
  • 4. Hormones
    • chemical substances produced by specialized cells (glands)
    • released slowly, minute amounts, circulate in blood
    • some hormones effect the entire body, some effect target organs
    • most hormones are inactivated or excreted by the liver and kidneys
  • 5.  
  • 6. Pituitary or Master Gland
    • posterior lobe
      • neurohypophysis
    • anterior lobe
      • adenohypophysis
  • 7. Anterior Lobe
    • growth hormone GH somatotropin
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH
    • lactogenic hormone Prolactin
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
    • follicle-stimulating hormone FSH
    • luteinizing hormone LH
  • 8. Posterior Lobe
    • antidiuretic hormone ADH
      • decrease ADH causes increase urine output
      • increase ADH causes decrease urine output
    • oxytocin
      • stimulates contraction of pregnant uterus, labor, and childbirth
      • stimulates milk secretion
  • 9. Thyroid Secretions
    • thyroxine, T4
    • triiodothytonine, T3
    • regulates rate of cellular metabolism
    • influences physical and mental development
    • euthyroidism
  • 10.
    • stimulates cellular metabolism by increasing the rate of oxygen use with subsequent energy and heat production
    • Faster cellular metabolism increases the cell’s demand for oxygen, so more O2 must be circulated.
    • Increase O2 demand leads to increase CO2
    • Increase demand on circulatory system leads to increase pulse rate and heart activity.
  • 11. Parathyroid Glands
    • four glands
    • parathyroid hormone PTH
    • regulates the level of circulating calcium and phosphate
    • target organs: bones, intestines, kidneys
  • 12.
    • Calcium is essential to blood-clotting mechanism
    • Calcium increases the tone of heart muscle
    • Calcium plays a significant role in muscle contraction
    • When blood calcium levels drop, PTH is secreted to increase calcium levels
  • 13. Adrenal Glands
    • suprarenal glands
    • adren/o or adrenal/o
    • adrenal cortex
    • adrenal medulla
  • 14. Adrenal Cortex
    • stimulated by ACTH from anterior pituitary
    • mineralocorticoids - regulates water & salts
      • aldosterone
    • glucocorticoids - regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism
      • cortisol
    • sex hormones
      • androgens - male
      • estrogen - female
  • 15. Adrenal Medulla
    • epinephrine or adrenaline
      • secreted in stress situations
      • stimulates sympathetic nervous system
      • increases HR, blood glucose, stimulates BP
      • vasoconstriction to shunt blood
    • norepinephrine or noradrenaline
      • powerful vasopressor to increase BP
  • 16. Pancreas
    • Endocrine and exocrine functions
    • islets of Langerhans
    • glucagon (Alpha cells)
      • stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose
    • insulin (Beta cells)
      • transports glucose into cells for metabolism and energy source
  • 17. Pineal Gland
    • melatonin -may control biological cycles
      • inhibit ovarian activity
    • serotonin -neurotransmitter, vasoconstrictor
      • stimulates smooth muscles and inhibits gastric secretion
  • 18. Pituitary Pathology
    • Growth Hormone GH
      • dwarfism - hyposecretion
      • giantism, acromegaly - hypersecretion
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH
      • cretinism (infants) - hyposecretion
      • myxedema (adults) - hyposecretion
      • Toxic goiter (adults - hypersecretion
        • exophthalmos
  • 19. Pathology of Thyroid Gland
    • anterior pituitary (TSH) controls circulating thyroxine level
    • thyroiditis
    • hypothroidism
    • Myxedema
    • cretinism
  • 20.
    • thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm
    • hyperthyroidism
    • goiter or thyromegaly
    • exophthalmos
  • 21. Procedures of thyroid gland
    • thyroidectomy
    • lobectomy
  • 22. Pathology of Parathyroid
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • hypocalcemia
      • lowers electrical threshold
      • causes neurons to depolarize easier
    • tetany
      • sustained muscular contraction
      • laryngeal muscle spasms leading to respiratory tract obstruction and death
      • sharp flexion of some skeletal muscles
  • 23. Parathyroid Disorders Hyperparathyroidism
    • hyperparathyroidism
      • often due to benign tumor
      • demineralization of bones (osteitis fibrosa cystica)
      • osteoporosis
  • 24. Pathology
    • pheochromocytoma
      • adrenal medulla tumor
      • increase BP due to release of catacholamines
    • Addison’s disease - decrease cortisol
      • hyponatremia, dehydration
      • hyperkalemia
    • Cushing’s disease - increase cortisol
      • moon face, hirsutism
  • 25. Diabetes Mellitus
    • inadequate amount of insulin secreted
    • in absence of insulin; glucose cannot enter the cells for normal metabolism
    • results in hyperglycemia
    • blood sugar may increase from 300 to 1200 mg/dl of blood and even higher
    • cells deprived of principal nutrient, glucose
    • glycosuria, diuresis, polydipsia, polyphagia
  • 26.
    • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM
      • Type I
      • Juvenile diabetes
      • destruction of Beta cells
      • more serious form
      • requires daily insulin injections
  • 27.
    • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
      • NIDDM
      • type II
      • maturity onset diabetes
      • less severe, often diet controlled
      • oral hypoglycemic agents
    • A prolonged, excessively high carbohydrate diet over time stimulates the beta cells to secrete insulin. Result: beta cells “burn out”.
  • 28.
    • diabetic ketoacidosis (acidosis)
      • due to insulin deficiency, stress
      • metabolic shift results in excessive accumulation of ketones
    • gestational diabetes mellitus
      • deficiency of insulin during pregnancy
  • 29.
    • Diabetes Insipidus
      • Insufficient ADH
      • Inability of kidneys to respond to ADH
    • extreme polydipsia and polyuria
  • 30. Oncology
    • Pancreatic Cancer
    • Pituitary Tumors
    • Thyroid Cancer
  • 31. End Chapter 14 Endocrine System

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