Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology Lecture 6 and 7:  Endocrinology
What is the function of the endocrine system?
Integration of Body Functions <ul><li>nervous and endocrine systems are similar </li></ul><ul><li>nervous system </li></ul...
Neuro-endocrine Response
Manipulation of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Hormones can be used to regulate body functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growth ...
Endocrine Gland <ul><li>A ductless gland </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes substances (hormones) into blood or lymph that affect ...
Exocrine Gland <ul><li>A gland with ducts that are used for secretion </li></ul>
Hormone <ul><li>Substance produced by endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Acts on cells, tissues or organs at a place other ...
Endocrine Glands Testes (in bull) Placenta Uterus Ovary Adrenal Pineal Hypothalamus Pituitary Pancreas Thyroid
Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><...
Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><...
Location of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Hypothalamus
Function of Hypothalamus <ul><li>appetite </li></ul><ul><li>thirst </li></ul><ul><li>body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>va...
Releasing Hormones of the Hypothalamus <ul><li>A. Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short chain polypeptides (3 - 44 amino a...
Releasing Hormones of the Hypothalamus <ul><li>C.Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) </li...
Hypothalamus
Cells of the Anterior Pituitary <ul><li>LH </li></ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>STH </li></...
 
Anterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>A. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>1. glycoproteins or proteins </li></ul><ul><li>B. Hormo...
Anterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>2.Other trophic hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal Corticotropin (ACTH) </li></ul>...
Structure of LH, FSH and TSH <ul><li>Made of 2 amino acid chains </li></ul><ul><li>  chains are the same </li></ul><ul><l...
Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus Nerve Cells Posterior pituitary <ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul>Paraventr...
Hypothalamus Nuclei that produce posterior pituitary hormones
Posterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>A.Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polypeptides (9 amino acids) </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Placental Hormones <ul><li>Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of accessory CL and maintai...
Gonadal Polypeptide Hormones <ul><li>Relaxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted by CL during pregnancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Gonadal Steroids <ul><li>A. General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin - ovary, testis, adrenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struc...
Steroid Synthesis OH HO Cholesterol Pregnenolone Estradiol Progesterone Testosterone 27-C 21-C 19-C 18-C 21-C
Gonadal Steroids Cont. <ul><li>General Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solubility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bound to a bi...
Steroid Synthesis OH HO Cholesterol Pregnenolone Estradiol Progesterone Testosterone Mitochondria Smooth ER
Other Hormones <ul><li>A. Prostaglandins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. PGF 2  </li></ul></ul>
Lipid Hormones - Prostaglandins Fatty Acids Prostaglandins 1. Produced by all tissues of body 2. Can have a local effect o...
Other Hormones <ul><li>B. Melatonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Secreted from the pineal gland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2....
Other Hormones <ul><li>C. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary gland </li></ul></u...
Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><...
Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>Chemical Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polypeptides  - hypothalamic </l...
Chemical Structure of Hormones polypeptide modified amino acid protein sex steroid fatty acid GnRh melatonin LH  Estradiol...
Chemical Structure of Hormones <ul><li>FSH 30,000 to 37,000 </li></ul><ul><li>LH 26,000 to 32,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Prolac...
Chemical Structure of Hormones Cont. <ul><li>Polypeptide and protein hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are made of peptide bo...
Chemical Structure of Hormones Cont. <ul><li>Steroids </li></ul>PROGESTERONE CORTISOL These hormones can be given orally!
Mechanism of Hormone Action
Mechanism of Hormone Action
Receptor Structure
Mechanism of Hormone Action phosphorylation of enzymes in steroid synthesis Protein synthesis that regulates steroid synth...
cAMP Second Messenger Hormones <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LH, FSH, Prolactin </li></ul></ul...
Protein Hormones  (Ca 2+  Second Messenger) Receptor GnRH Receptor G-protein Phosphotidyl  Inositol DAG Endoplasmic Reticu...
Calcium Second Messenger Hormones <ul><li>GnRH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers release of LH in anterior pituitary </li></u...
Steroid Hormone Action Uterine Growth
Feedback Loops Hypothalamus Releasing Hormones Neuro-secretory Cells Portal Vein Anterior Pituitary Gonadotropins:  FSH, L...
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Endocrinology of reproduction II (Lecture 6 and 7 combined)

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Endocrinology of reproduction II (Lecture 6 and 7 combined)

  1. 1. Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology Lecture 6 and 7: Endocrinology
  2. 2. What is the function of the endocrine system?
  3. 3. Integration of Body Functions <ul><li>nervous and endocrine systems are similar </li></ul><ul><li>nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>endocrine system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minutes and hours </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Neuro-endocrine Response
  5. 5. Manipulation of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Hormones can be used to regulate body functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growth (anabolic steroids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lactation (GH or STH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birth control (Estradiol, Progesterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estrous cycle (PGF 2  ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superovulation and embryo transplant (FSH,eCG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parturition (oxytocin) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Endocrine Gland <ul><li>A ductless gland </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes substances (hormones) into blood or lymph that affect cells elsewhere in the body </li></ul><ul><li>The secretion does not involve loss of tissue </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exocrine Gland <ul><li>A gland with ducts that are used for secretion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hormone <ul><li>Substance produced by endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Acts on cells, tissues or organs at a place other than where produced </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a catalyst. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Endocrine Glands Testes (in bull) Placenta Uterus Ovary Adrenal Pineal Hypothalamus Pituitary Pancreas Thyroid
  10. 10. Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary hormone of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Metabolic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>C. Chemical Structure </li></ul><ul><li>1. General structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins and polypeptides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modified amino acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Size </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary hormone of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Metabolic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>C. Chemical Structure </li></ul><ul><li>1. General structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins and polypeptides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modified amino acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Size </li></ul>
  12. 12. Location of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
  13. 13. Hypothalamus
  14. 14. Function of Hypothalamus <ul><li>appetite </li></ul><ul><li>thirst </li></ul><ul><li>body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>vasomotor activity </li></ul><ul><li>emotion </li></ul><ul><li>use of body nutrient reserves </li></ul><ul><li>activity of intestine </li></ul><ul><li>sleep </li></ul><ul><li>sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Production and release of releasing hormones </li></ul>
  15. 15. Releasing Hormones of the Hypothalamus <ul><li>A. Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short chain polypeptides (3 - 44 amino acids) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. General Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to cause the release of trophic hormones from the anterior pituitary gland </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Releasing Hormones of the Hypothalamus <ul><li>C.Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LH, FSH release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TSH and prolactin release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth hormone releasing hormone (GH-RH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatostatin (growth hormone inhibiting hormone) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hypothalamus
  18. 18. Cells of the Anterior Pituitary <ul><li>LH </li></ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>STH </li></ul><ul><li>TSH </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH </li></ul>Hypothalamus Nerve Cells Superior hypophyseal artery Hypophyseal portal vessels Capillary plexus Posterior pituitary Capillary plexus Preoptic nuclei cell
  19. 20. Anterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>A. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>1. glycoproteins or proteins </li></ul><ul><li>B. Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>1. gonadotropins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteinizing hormone (LH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Anterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>2.Other trophic hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal Corticotropin (ACTH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth hormone (GH or STH) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Structure of LH, FSH and TSH <ul><li>Made of 2 amino acid chains </li></ul><ul><li> chains are the same </li></ul><ul><li> chains differ and give specificity </li></ul>  S S
  22. 23. Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus Nerve Cells Posterior pituitary <ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul>Paraventricular nuclei cell Supraoptic nuclei cell Capillary plexus
  23. 24. Hypothalamus Nuclei that produce posterior pituitary hormones
  24. 25. Posterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>A.Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polypeptides (9 amino acids) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin - contraction of smooth muscle </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Placental Hormones <ul><li>Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of accessory CL and maintains pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains primate CL and pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placental Lactogen (PL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of the mammary gland in the mother </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steroids - Estrogen and Progesterone </li></ul>
  26. 27. Gonadal Polypeptide Hormones <ul><li>Relaxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted by CL during pregnancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parturition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhibin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits FSH release </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Gonadal Steroids <ul><li>A. General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin - ovary, testis, adrenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Steroid Synthesis OH HO Cholesterol Pregnenolone Estradiol Progesterone Testosterone 27-C 21-C 19-C 18-C 21-C
  29. 30. Gonadal Steroids Cont. <ul><li>General Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solubility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bound to a binding protein for transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of Steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens - Testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen - Estradiol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progestin - Progesterone </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Steroid Synthesis OH HO Cholesterol Pregnenolone Estradiol Progesterone Testosterone Mitochondria Smooth ER
  31. 32. Other Hormones <ul><li>A. Prostaglandins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. PGF 2  </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Lipid Hormones - Prostaglandins Fatty Acids Prostaglandins 1. Produced by all tissues of body 2. Can have a local effect on tissues (same tissue which produced it) 3. Rapidly degraded in lungs Phospholipids - Rate limiting (Phospholipase A 2 ) - Precursor to Prostaglandins Arachidonic Acid Cyclo-oxygenase PGE 2 PGF 2  <ul><li>Vasodilation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain CL </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Implantation </li></ul><ul><li>Vasoconstriction </li></ul><ul><li>CL regression </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Parturition </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm transport </li></ul>Aspirin inhibits
  33. 34. Other Hormones <ul><li>B. Melatonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Secreted from the pineal gland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Is a modified amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Functions to integrate effects of light on reproductive processes. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Other Hormones <ul><li>C. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted in menopause, FSH-like activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated from urine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perganol - superovulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>A. Site of Production </li></ul><ul><li>B. Type of action </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary hormone of reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Metabolic hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(thyroxin, insulin, STH) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Classification and Properties of Hormone <ul><li>Chemical Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polypeptides - hypothalamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein - pituitary, gonad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids - gonad, adrenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid - many sources, prostaglandins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified amino acid - pineal </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Chemical Structure of Hormones polypeptide modified amino acid protein sex steroid fatty acid GnRh melatonin LH Estradiol PGF TRH FSH Progesterone CRH Prolactin Testosterone GHRH ACTH Somatistatin TSH Oxytocin GH or STH Relaxin Inhibin 2 
  38. 39. Chemical Structure of Hormones <ul><li>FSH 30,000 to 37,000 </li></ul><ul><li>LH 26,000 to 32,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin 23,000 to 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>HCG 37,700 </li></ul><ul><li>eCG 28,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibin >10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxin 6,500 </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH 4,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin 1,007 </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH 1,200 </li></ul><ul><li>Estradiol 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone 300 </li></ul><ul><li>PGF 300 </li></ul>Molecular size of hormones that regulate reproduction Hormone Molecular Weight 2 
  39. 40. Chemical Structure of Hormones Cont. <ul><li>Polypeptide and protein hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are made of peptide bonds </li></ul></ul>These hormones can not be given orally!
  40. 41. Chemical Structure of Hormones Cont. <ul><li>Steroids </li></ul>PROGESTERONE CORTISOL These hormones can be given orally!
  41. 42. Mechanism of Hormone Action
  42. 43. Mechanism of Hormone Action
  43. 44. Receptor Structure
  44. 45. Mechanism of Hormone Action phosphorylation of enzymes in steroid synthesis Protein synthesis that regulates steroid synthesis (enzymes) Mitochondria Protein Hormones (cAMP second messenger) Adenylate cyclase Cholesterol G
  45. 46. cAMP Second Messenger Hormones <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LH, FSH, Prolactin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STH, ACTH, TSH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placental Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCG, eCG </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Protein Hormones (Ca 2+ Second Messenger) Receptor GnRH Receptor G-protein Phosphotidyl Inositol DAG Endoplasmic Reticulum R LH Secretory Granules Fusion Plasma Membrane Plasma Membrane GnRH PLC IP 3 Ca 2+ Ca 2+ PKC Ca 2+
  47. 48. Calcium Second Messenger Hormones <ul><li>GnRH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers release of LH in anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers contractions of smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PGF 2  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers apoptosis of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibition of progesterone synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Steroid Hormone Action Uterine Growth
  49. 50. Feedback Loops Hypothalamus Releasing Hormones Neuro-secretory Cells Portal Vein Anterior Pituitary Gonadotropins: FSH, LH Blood Stream Gonads Receptor on Cell Surface Cyclic AMP inside cell Steroid Hormone Production Blood Stream - - Polypeptides Proteins Why only effects on target organs [ ] { Testosterone Estradiol Progesterone Bound to Protein
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