Endocrine system presentation
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Endocrine system presentation






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Endocrine system presentation Endocrine system presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Endocrine System …….hormonal control of homeostasis
  • Compare Nervous /hormonal
  • Functions of Endocrine System
  • Mechanism of action
  • The Major Endocrine Glands Pineal Body Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroids Thymus Adrenals Pancreas Testes Ovaries
  • The Anterior Pituitary –Trophic Hormones
    • Thyrotrophin (the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone -TSH)
    • Regulates the activity of the thyroid gland
    • Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)
    • Regulates the function of the adrenal cortex of the adrenal glands
    • Gonadotrophins
    • a) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Lutenising Hormone (LH)
    • Regulate the reproductive organs (gonads)
    • FSH ♀
    • regulates the development of ovarian follicles and secretion of oestrogen
    • FSH ♂
    • regulates the production of sperm in men
    • LH ♀
    • stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum that secretes oestrogen and progesterone.
    • LH ♂
    • Stimulates testosterone secretion in the male
  • The Anterior Pituitary –Other Hormones
    • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
    • Stimulates the production and release of melanin by melanocytes in skin (basal layer).
    • HYPERSECRETION - unnaturally dark skin
    • HYPOSECRETION - prone to sunburn
    • Prolactin
    • Enlarges the mammary glands and stimulates milk production
    • HYPERSECRETION - over production of milk and enlargement of breasts (also occurs in men)
    • HYPOSECRETION - under production or no production of milk
    • Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
    • Regulates growth during pregnancy.
    • HYPERSECRETION causes gigantism
    • HYPOSECRETION causes dwarfism
  • The Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Oxytocin
    • Regulates the release of milk in lactating women
    • Induces uterine contractions in labour
    • Has a role in orgasm and inducing 'pair bonding'…ie. Love!)
    Vasopressin Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) Regulates the body fluids HYPERSECRETION - high blood pressure HYPOSECRETION- low blood pressure
  • The Thyroid Hormones
    • Thyroxine
    • Increases the metabolic rate
    • HYPERSECRETION - Hyperthyroidism -
    • HYPOSECRETION - Hypothyroidism
    • Calcitonin
    • Lowers blood calcium and phosphorus levels
    • maintains dense bones by inhibiting osteoclast activity.
    • HYPERSECRETION - leads to low blood calcium levels
    • Thyronine
    • Reduces the metabolic rate
    • Parathormone
    • Increases blood calcium and phosphorus levels by stimulating osteoclast activity, enhancing calcium reabsorption (kidneys) and enhances absorption of calcium in the intestines
    • HYPERSECRETION - Softened bones from lack of calcium
    • HYPOSECRETION - Low blood calcium levels
    The Parathyroid Hormones
    • Insulin
    • Lowers blood glucose levels by increasing glucose transport into the body cells and increasing glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle cells
    • HYPERSECRETION - Hypoglycaemia
    • HYPOSSECRETION - Hyperglycaemia
    • low levels of insulin leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM), no insulin leads to diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM)
    The Pancreatic Hormones
    • Glucagon
    • Raises blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake and liberating glucose stored as glycogen.
  • The Thymus Hormones
    • Thymic Factor (TF) & Thymic humoral factor (THF)
    • Involved in the activation of T lymphocytes (T-cells)
    • HYPOSECRETION - increased susceptibility to disease
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Aldosterone
    • Increase reabsorption of mineral salts (sodium etc) in the renal tubules
    • HYPOSECRETION - Addison's Syndrome (dehydration, weight loss, hypoglycaemia, hypotension)
    The Adrenal Hormones
    • Adrenal Medulla
    • Adrenaline (aka epinephrine or nor-adrenaline)
    • Affects the heart; breathing centre of brain; arterioles of skin and digestive tract; muscles of the gut, muscles of the body, liver.
    • Secreted during fear, fight, flight response to danger
    • HYPERSECRETION - stress / anxiety disorders, digestive disorders, CV disorders, skin disorders, immune weakening etc
  • The Pineal Hormones
    • Seratonin
    • Regulates Mood, sexuality and body rhythms (responds to sunlight)
    • HYPERSECRETION - ecstasy
    • HYPOSECRETION - depression, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    • Melatonin
    • Regulates sleep/wake or circadian rhythms
    • Stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light
  • The Gonads
    • Testes
    • Testosterone
    • Regulates the production and maturation of sperm;
    • Responsible for the secondary male sexual characteristics
    • Ovaries
    • Progesterone
    • Prepares the endometrium for implantation and pregnancy
    • Oestrogen
    • Matures the ovum for release;
    • Responsible for the secondary female characteristics