Endocrine system presentation


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Endocrine system presentation

  1. 1. The Endocrine System …….hormonal control of homeostasis
  2. 2. Compare Nervous /hormonal
  3. 3. Functions of Endocrine System
  4. 4. Mechanism of action
  5. 6. The Major Endocrine Glands Pineal Body Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroids Thymus Adrenals Pancreas Testes Ovaries
  6. 7. The Anterior Pituitary –Trophic Hormones <ul><li>Thyrotrophin (the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone -TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the activity of the thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the function of the adrenal cortex of the adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Gonadotrophins </li></ul><ul><li>a) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Lutenising Hormone (LH) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate the reproductive organs (gonads) </li></ul><ul><li>FSH ♀ </li></ul><ul><li>regulates the development of ovarian follicles and secretion of oestrogen </li></ul><ul><li>FSH ♂ </li></ul><ul><li>regulates the production of sperm in men </li></ul><ul><li>LH ♀ </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum that secretes oestrogen and progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>LH ♂ </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates testosterone secretion in the male </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Anterior Pituitary –Other Hormones <ul><li>Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates the production and release of melanin by melanocytes in skin (basal layer). </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - unnaturally dark skin </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - prone to sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarges the mammary glands and stimulates milk production </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - over production of milk and enlargement of breasts (also occurs in men) </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - under production or no production of milk </li></ul><ul><li>Human Growth Hormone (HGH) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates growth during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION causes gigantism </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION causes dwarfism </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Posterior Pituitary Hormones <ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the release of milk in lactating women </li></ul><ul><li>Induces uterine contractions in labour </li></ul><ul><li>Has a role in orgasm and inducing 'pair bonding'…ie. Love!) </li></ul>Vasopressin Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) Regulates the body fluids HYPERSECRETION - high blood pressure HYPOSECRETION- low blood pressure
  9. 10. The Thyroid Hormones <ul><li>Thyroxine </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - Hyperthyroidism - </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers blood calcium and phosphorus levels </li></ul><ul><li>maintains dense bones by inhibiting osteoclast activity. </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - leads to low blood calcium levels </li></ul><ul><li>Thyronine </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>Parathormone </li></ul><ul><li>Increases blood calcium and phosphorus levels by stimulating osteoclast activity, enhancing calcium reabsorption (kidneys) and enhances absorption of calcium in the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - Softened bones from lack of calcium </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - Low blood calcium levels </li></ul>The Parathyroid Hormones
  10. 11. <ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers blood glucose levels by increasing glucose transport into the body cells and increasing glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - Hypoglycaemia </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSSECRETION - Hyperglycaemia </li></ul><ul><li>low levels of insulin leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM), no insulin leads to diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM) </li></ul>The Pancreatic Hormones <ul><li>Glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>Raises blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake and liberating glucose stored as glycogen. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Thymus Hormones <ul><li>Thymic Factor (TF) & Thymic humoral factor (THF) </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in the activation of T lymphocytes (T-cells) </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - increased susceptibility to disease </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Adrenal Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Increase reabsorption of mineral salts (sodium etc) in the renal tubules </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - Addison's Syndrome (dehydration, weight loss, hypoglycaemia, hypotension) </li></ul>The Adrenal Hormones <ul><li>Adrenal Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenaline (aka epinephrine or nor-adrenaline) </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the heart; breathing centre of brain; arterioles of skin and digestive tract; muscles of the gut, muscles of the body, liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted during fear, fight, flight response to danger </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - stress / anxiety disorders, digestive disorders, CV disorders, skin disorders, immune weakening etc </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Pineal Hormones <ul><li>Seratonin </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates Mood, sexuality and body rhythms (responds to sunlight) </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERSECRETION - ecstasy </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOSECRETION - depression, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates sleep/wake or circadian rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Gonads <ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the production and maturation of sperm; </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the secondary male sexual characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares the endometrium for implantation and pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Matures the ovum for release; </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the secondary female characteristics </li></ul>