Endocrine System (FINAL)

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  • This knee shows thick growth plates that appear fuzzy. The bone near the joint is too wide. Here is an x-ray showing a pseudofracture (red arrow) from an adult who has x-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. This sign is seen only in osteomalacia, but not in many of the cases.
  • The screen illustration demonstrates one of the manifestations of acromegaly, a prominent, thickened heel pad.
  • Hypothyroidism is a condition of insufficient thyroid hormone and may be congenital or acquired. If the congenital form remains undetected for a few weeks after birth, cretinism is the result. Characteristic features of cretinism are short stature with a protruding abdomen, sparse hair, and coarse facial features with wide-set eyes, broad nose, and protruding tongue. The screen illustration is a lateral skull radiograph demonstrating cretinism.
  • The screen illustration is a CT image of the abdomen. The kidneys are labeled as "K" bilaterally. The white arrows point to a large adrenal adenoma, in this case, a functioning adenoma causing excess glucocorticoid hormones. The white arrowhead is pointing to the normal adrenal gland on the patient's right side. Other radiographic evidence of Cushing's syndrome is generalized osteoporosis, which can increase the risk of fractures, particularly vertebral body collapse
  • Inadequate secretion of insulin Most common type of DM Risk for developing it increase with age More common in women than me Diabetes and treatment is similar to DM 1
  • Autoimmune disorder most often caused by Graves’ Disease Thyroid gland secretes excess amounts of TSH Enlarged thyroid and protruding eyes Hyper and nervous Treatment includes medical management, surgical resection Administration of radioactive iodine
  • TH deficiency Primarily affects women over the age of 60 Commonly seen in PT’s with Hashimoto’s syndrome May be caused by iodine insufficiency Symptoms decreased energy levels, hot & cold intolerance, personality changes, weight gain Treatment is hormone replacement therapy
  • The screen illustration is a lateral projection of the lumbar spine. Note the striped appearance caused by sclerotic changes at the endplates of the vertebrae. This radiographic sign is termed "rugger jersey spine" and is indicative of hyperparathyroidism, especially in persons with associated renal failure.
  • Endocrine System (FINAL)

    1. 1. Endocrine System Spring 2009 FINAL
    2. 2. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul>
    3. 3. Osteomalacia <ul><li>Lack of __________ in the tissues & a failure of the bone tissue to _________ </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by ___________ of fats </li></ul><ul><li>If it occurs after growth plate closure it is called ________ </li></ul>
    4. 4. Osteomalacia Demonstrates as osteopenia on x-ray. Appears similar to osteoporosis Except for the presence of bands Of radiolucency within the bone
    5. 5. Paget’s Disease X-ray of affected bones show Cortical thickening with a coarse Thickened trabecular pattern Often called “cotton wool” Appearance Mixed areas of radiolucency & radiopaque areas
    6. 6. Paget’s Disease <ul><li>_______________ disorder of unknown cause </li></ul><ul><li>Has two stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fairly common in elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Affects men twice as frequently as women </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pituitary Gland Disorders
    8. 8. Acromegaly X-ray demonstrates an enlarged sella Turcica and changes in the skull Obliterates diploe found between inner & outer tables of the cortical bone
    9. 9. Acromegaly <ul><li>_____________ disorder caused by a disturbance of the __________ gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily affects skeletal system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have a prominent forehead & jaw, widened teeth, abnormally large hands, coarsening of facial features </li></ul>
    10. 10. Hypopituitarism <ul><li>Decreased levels of pituitary hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause is pituitary infarction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by ischemic pituitary necrosis, postpartum hemorrhage, shock, sickle cell disease, meningitis, shock, syphilis, and head trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CT, MRI and angiography can be used for radiographic evaluation </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hypopituitarism <ul><li>_______ stature with protruding abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ hair </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse facial features with wide-set eyes, broad nose and _____________ tongue </li></ul>
    12. 12. Adrenal Gland Disorders
    13. 13. Cushing’s Syndrome http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxSAhLyKVqw
    14. 14. Cushing’s Syndrome <ul><li>Have a “_________” face with excess fat deposits in neck and trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is _______ and does not heal well </li></ul><ul><li>CT and MRI demonstrates pituitary adenomas </li></ul>
    15. 15. Addison’s Syndrome
    16. 16. Addison’s Syndrome
    17. 17. Pancreatic Disorders
    18. 18. Pancreas Anatomy
    19. 19. Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia is combination with glucose intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Alteration is metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins </li></ul>
    20. 20. Type 1 <ul><li>Produce little to no ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Increase ____________, excessive thirsty & increase in appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>
    21. 21. Type 2 <ul><li>Inadequate secretion of insulin </li></ul><ul><li>More common in women than men </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is similar to DM 1 </li></ul>
    22. 22. Thyroid and Parathryroid Gland Disorders
    23. 23. Thyroid Anatomy
    24. 24. Hyperthyroidism
    25. 25. Hyperthyroidism <ul><li>_____________ disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland secretes excess amounts of ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged ____________ and ____________ eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper and nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes: </li></ul>
    26. 26. Hypothyroidism <ul><li>___________ deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly seen in PT’s with Hashimoto’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>May be caused by _________ insufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>hot & cold intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>5. Treatment: </li></ul>
    27. 27. Thyroid Cancers
    28. 28. Parathyroid Glands
    29. 29. Hyperparathyroidism X-ray demonstrates osteopenia, especially in the diaphyses of the phalanges and clavicles Pathologic fractures may exist as a consequence of the softened bony matrix
    30. 30. Hyperparathyroidism
    31. 31. Nephrocalcinosis Tiny deposits of calcium dispersed through renal parenchyma Can be seen on an IVU and plain radiographs
    32. 32. Radiography <ul><li>Useful in diagnosing some disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic diseases of the skeletal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cushing's’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in CA in osteomalacia & osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders of pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in sella turcica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acromegaly </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Bone Mineral Densitometry <ul><li>Determines mineral and calcium content in bone </li></ul><ul><li>Can assist in the diagnosis of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteomalacia </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. MRI <ul><li>Useful in evaluating pituitary disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary adenomas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With Gadolinium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microadenomas </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. CT <ul><li>Useful in diagnosis and follow-up of pituitary disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Neoplastic diseases of thyroid , adrenal glands & parathyroid glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlargement of adrenal glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biopsies frequently performed under CT </li></ul>
    36. 36. Nuclear Medicine <ul><li>Diagnosing thyroid function </li></ul><ul><li>Detecting nonpalpable nodules </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate remaining thyroid tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After surgical resection or ablation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Localize medullary tumors of adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Using radioisotopes to treat this tumor of the medullary portion of the adrenal glands </li></ul>

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