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Endocrine
 

Endocrine

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    Endocrine Endocrine Presentation Transcript

    • Endocrine BIOL 242
    • Hormones
      • Classes (Chemical)
    • Hormones
      • Classes (Chemical)
      • Amines
    • Hormones
      • Classes (Chemical)
      • Peptides / proteins
    • Hormones
      • Classes (Chemical)
      • Lipid soluble/steroids
    • Hormones
      • Classes (Chemical)
      Prostaglandins and leukotrines Secreted by all cells except RBC’s
    • Hormones
      • Mechanisms of Action
    • Hormones
      • Mechanisms of Action
      • Steroids and Thyroid Hormone
    • Hormones
      • Hormone receptors
    • Hormones
      • Hormonal Interactions
    • Hormones
      • Tropic hormones
      • ANS input –
      • Humoral input
    • Hormones
      • Glands have a large blood supply
      • Glands are surrounded by connective tissue
      • May be paired glands or single structures
    • Hormones
      • Pathologies
      Describe 3 hormone pathologies….
    • Hormones
      • Overview of functions
      • regulate chemical composition and volume of internal environment: water and electrolytes
      • regulate metabolism and energy balance
      • regulate contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers
      • regulate homeostasis despite disruptions
      • regulate activities of immune system
      • integration of growth and development
      • contribute to basic processes of reproduction
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Location
      • hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcia, just above optic chiasma
      • pathology: tumor may cause visual problems
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Parts
      • pars distalis (anterior) - releases about 7 hormones
      • pars intermedia - unknown function in humans
      • pars nervosa (posterior) - releases but does not produce
        • ADH and oxytocin
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Regulated by neuron impulses & releasing factors originate in hypothalamus
      • hypophysis may also influence the hypothalamus
      • releasing factors (RF) - often tropins
      • inhibiting hormones - from the hypothalamus stops
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • hGH - human growth hormone = somatotropin
        • not fetal and early postnatal - rather children
        • adult aids in maintenance
        • periods of fasting or starvation
      • Functions - stimulate protein synthesis
        • inhibit protein breakdown
        • increases rate amino acids enter cell
        • stimulates triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
        • retards use glucose --> ATP production
        • structurally and functionally like insulin
        • causes the production of insulin -like growth factors (IGF’s)
        • formation of cartilage and bone -->epiphyseal plates
        • decreases fat production
        • hGH and IGF --> decrease glucose fro ATP in most cells
        • allows for neurons to use glucose in times of sparity
        • may stimulate liver to release glucose into blood = insulin antagonist
      • Pathologies = hyperglycemia - excess GH --> diabetes effect: high blood sugar
        • diabetes mellitus - lack of insulin activity
        • Pituitary dwarfism - hyposecretion or lack of receptors
        • Giantism - hypersecretion or in adults acromegaly
      • Controlled:
        • GH releasing hormone ( GHRH ) - low blood sugar
        • GHIH - inhibits GH, secreted w/high blood glucose
      • growing children - cyclic secretions - peaks early hrs of sleep cycle
    • Human Growth Hormone
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone = thyrotropin
      • Functions - stimulate secretion of T3 & T4 (produced by thyroid)
      • Controlled: by thyrotropin secreting hormone TRH from hypothalamus
        • release of TRH depends upon blood levels of TSH,T3 and blood glucose and metabolism - negative feed back system
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • FSH – Follicle Stimulating Hormone
        • from anterior pituitary to ovaries/testes
      • Functions - initiates dev of egg-containing follicles
        • influences estrogen secretions
        • Males - stimulates sperm production in testes
      • Controlled: Gonadotropin releasing hormone ( GnRH ) from hypothalamus  FSH release
        • FSH release suppressed by estrogen and testosterone - negative feed back system
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • LH – Leutinizing Hormone
      • Functions - w/FSH  estrogen and releases 2nd oocyte: ovulation
        • Form of corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone
        • Prepare uterus for egg implant and mammary glands for milk production
        • Male interstitial cells --> testosterone
      • Controlled: GnRH
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • PRL - Prolactin
      • Functions - initiate and maintain milk production
        • mammary glands are primed by estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids, hGH, T4, insulin
        • not ejection which is oxytocin
      • Controlled: hypothalamus - PIH or dopamine
        • as estrogen and progesterone fall --> dopamine secretion
        • just before menstruation
        • PRH - during pregnancy causes PRL release
        • nursing decreases PIH release
      • Pathologies
        • females - too much = loss of menstruation
        • males - too much = impotence
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
      • Functions - stimulates growth of adrenal cortex
        • stimulates release of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex
      • Controlled: CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus
        • stress related
        • low blood sugar, physical trauma, macrophage interleukin release
        • also negative feedback from blood levels of glucocorticoids
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • MSH - melanocyte stimulating hormone
      • Functions - increase in skin pigment – amphibians
        • humans - ? Appetite and sexual arousal?
        • does seem to darken human skin
      • Controlled: CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone
        • dopamine inhibits
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Posterior Pituitary Hormones - stores and releases does not make
        • made in cell bodies of neurosecretory cells - moved to axon terminals
      • ADH – antidiuretic hormone
      • Function - decreases urinary output, retain water
        • raise BP - constriction of arterioles = vasopressin
      • Controlled: osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
        • variety of factors affect blood levels of hormone
        • For example body level of hydration
      • Pathologies = Diabetes insidus
        • hyposecretion of ADH or kidneys do not respond to ADH = nephrogenic DI
        • treat with less salt in diet and some diuretics (?) work
        • large amount of urine, treat w/ADH
    •  
    • Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri
      • Posterior Pituitary Hormones - stores and releases does not make
        • made in cell bodies of neurosecretory cells - moved to axon terminals
      • Oxytocin -
      • Function - uterus and breasts during childbirth
        • Contraction of smooth muscles: delivery and milk let-down
        • maternal instincts in males and nonpregnant females
        • sexual pleasure
        • inhibits release of prolactin inhibiting hormone
      • Controlled
        • stretch receptors in cervix  hypothalamus
        • nursing infant
      • Given in synthetic form to induce labor or increase uterine tone
    •  
    • Thyroid
      • Location - neck between C5-C7
      • Parts: a. Two lateral lobes with a connecting isthmus
      • Regulated by TSH from pars distalis to produce thyroxin
      • pathologies - malignant and benign tumors
      • if removed need hormone supplements
      • Hormones - stored up in large amounts: up to a 100 day supply
      • Formation - thyroid cells trap iodine
        • I binds to tyrosine of thyroglobulin molecule (TGB)
        • I'd TGB forms T3 and T4
        • T3 and T4 are lipid soluble and enter blood
        • T3 < T4, but T3 more potent
        • T4 may  T3 (- one I)
      Thyroid – thyroid hormones
    • Thyroid – thyoid hormones
      • Functions
      • oxygen use and BMR
      • production of ATP from O2
      • increases body temperature
      • cellular metabolism: protein synthesis, lipolysis, use of ATP  glucos, lower cholesterol
      • all lead to heat production
      • growth development and maturation
      • especially Nerve tissue
      • modulate NS - receptors of NE and epi
      • receptors in nuclei of cells
      • T3 more affinity than T4
    • Thyroid – thyroid hormones
      • Controlled: level of iodine, blood levels of T3 and T4
        • negative feedback via hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
        • low T3 --> TRH secreted from ant pituitary --> TSH release
      • Pathologies
        • Cretinism - hyposecretion of T's – dwarfism
        • Grave's - hypersecretion, enlarges thyroid
        • autoimmune: body makes Ab that mimic TSH  edema behind eyes
        • Goiter - enlarged thyroid, symptoms of many thyroid problems
        • absence in early infancy  under dev NS: mental retard
        • absence in adults --> decrease alertness
      • Calcitonin - CT: produced by C cells
      • Functions - regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood
      • inhibits bone break down and uptake of Ca in bones
      • limits action of osteoclasts in bone
    • Thyroid – calcitonin
      • produced by C cells
      • Functions - regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood
        • inhibits bone break down and uptake of Ca in bones
        • limits action of osteoclasts in bone
    • Parathyroid
      • = 4 glands
      • Location
        • Within the fibrous capsule of the thyroid
        • Posterior surface of each lateral lobe - super and inferior parathyroid gland
      • Hormone = PTH
      • Functions
        • regulates calcium and phosphate levels
        • breakdown of Ca in bone and increases blood Ca
        • increases action of osteoclasts in bone
        • increases kidney release of Ca
      • Controlled: blood levels of Ca
      • Pathologies
        • Hyperparathyroidism - neurons depolarize w/o stimulus
          • due to Ca deficiency
          • causes tetany
    • Pancreas
      • Pancreas -exocrine and endocrine gland
      • Location - flattened, posterior and inferior stomach
        • Parts
          • Islets of Langerhans
          • Some cells in the parenchyma
    • Pancreas
      • Hormones
      • Glucagon - produced by A cells or alpha cells
        • post absorb state - prevents glu from falling too low
      • Function - raises blood sugar - target = liver
        • glycogen  glucose glycogenolysis
        • lactic acid and amino acids  glucose
        • promote Fatty Acids as alternate Energy source
        • production of Acetyl CoA and ketones
          • = glucose sparing
          • glucose --> blood
      • Controlled
        • negative feedback from blood glucose levels
        • inhibited by glucose levels of absorb state and high PS activity
        • inhibited when beta cells are active
    • Pancreas
      • Hormones
      • Insulin - produced by B cells or beta cells
        • absorptive state
      • Function - lowers blood sugar
        • transport of glucose from blood into cells especially muscles
        • glucose --> glycogen for storage
        • &quot;hormone of abundance&quot;
        • amino acids --> cells and protein synthesis
        • glucose --> fatty acids
        • slows gluconeogenesis
        • glucose into all cells except liver, brain, RBC's & renal medulla
      • Controlled: negative feedback from blood glucose
        • < 50 mg/dl --> stop insulin production
        • > 300 mg/dl = max secretion of insulin
        • release depends upon glucose receptors on beta cells
        • increase carbohydrates diet --> more glucose receptors on beta cells
        • decrease carbohydrate diet --> less glucose receptors
        • beta cells also stimulate by AA, gastric inhibiting hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), and increase PS activity
    •  
    • Pancreas
      • Hormones
      • Somatostatin (GHIH) - produced by Delta cells or D cells
      • Function - inhibits release of insulin and glucagon
        • decrease GI motility and secretion
        • decrease pancreatic secretion
        • slows all aspects of digestion and absorption
        • prolongs absorption - more time for body to handle incoming nutrients
      • Controlled
        • release increased by increase glucose and amino acids in plasma
        • inhibited by pancreatic polypeptide
      • Pathology
        • Hypersecretion --> diabetes mellitus eventually
    • Pancreas
      • Hormones
      • Pancreatic polypeptide
        • produced by F cells
      • Function
        • regulates release of pancreatic digestive enzymes
        • decreases somatostatin
      • Controlled
        • release: meals w/protein, fasting, exercise, hypoglycemi
        • inhibited: somatostatin, elevated blood glucose
    • Pancreas
      • Diabetes Mellitus - hormonal deficiency of the B cells to produce insulin
      • Cellular famine in the midst of plenty
        • blindness, atherosclerosis, poor circulation (gangrene)
        • glucose enters urine because too much, also urea and ketones
      • Type I - absolute deficiency of insulin - insulin dependent
        • 20% of infected autoimmune disorder
        • no glucose allowed to enter cells
          • ketoacidosis from fatty acids --> ATP
      • Type II - less sensitive to insulin - not insulin dependent
        • fewer receptors or receptors no longer sensitive
        • Juvenile or Adult onset 80% affected
        • Hyperglycemia
      • Gestational diabetes - gone after delivery
        • due to changes in glucose metabolism during pregnancy
        • may be hazardous to the fetus
    • Adrenal
      • Location:
        • above kidneys - no connection between kidneys and glands
      • Parts
        • Cortex - produces corticosteroids, small amts of male sex hormone
          • hormones are essential for life
    • Adrenal
      • Hormones - cortex
      • Mineralcorticoids - or Aldosterone is the main one
      • Functions - control water and electrolyte homeostasis (Na+ & K+)
        • reabsorption of Na+ in kidney, and K+ release in urine
        • --> more Na+ in blood --> water retention
        • also prevents acidosis by releasing H+ into urine
      • Controlled: renin-angiotensin pathway - detects decrease in blood volume from dehydration
        • concentration K+ increases --> aldosterone secreted
    • Adrenal
      • Hormones - cortex
      • Glucocorticoids - cortisol (mostly), corticosterone, and cortisone
      • Functions - regulate metabolism and resistance to stress
        • protein catabolism, lipolysis
        • make enough ATP – gluconeogenesis
        • anti-inflammatory, inhibit cells that aid immune responses
        • maintain blood glucose levels
      • Controlled - corticotropin releasing hormone  Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
        • released from anterior pituitary
    • Adrenal
      • Hormones - cortex
      • Gonadocorticoids - estrogens and androgens (testosterone)
      • Steroids are regulated by ACTH from the pars distalis
    • Adrenal
      • Parts: Medulla
      • produces catecholamines
      • epi and norepi
      • Sympthetic end organ w/sympathetic impulses cause release of hormones
    • Gonads
      • Locations
      • ovaries
      • testes
      • Hormones
      • Ovaries: estrogen and progesterones influenced by pars distalis
        • Functions - develop and maintain female sex characteristics
        • reproductive cycle, maintain preg, prepare lactation
      • Testes: testosterone an androgen
        • Functions - develop and maintain male sex characteristics
        • production of sperm
    • Pineal - epiphysis cerebri
      • Location - roof of third ventricle
      • covered w/pia mater and masses of neuroglia
      • Hormones
      • Melatonin - produced during darkness = biogenic amine
        • Functions: lack of sleepiness
          • diurnal: day/night cycle
        • Controlled: stops when light hits retina  hypothalamus  superior cervical ganglion
          • sympathetic postganglionic fibers end here
        • Pathologies - Seasonal affective disorder
    • Thymus
      • Hormones: thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor, thymopoietin
      • Functions: immunity T cells and B cells/lymphocytes
    •