Endocrine

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Endocrine

  1. 1. Endocrine BIOL 242
  2. 2. Hormones <ul><li>Classes (Chemical) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hormones <ul><li>Classes (Chemical) </li></ul><ul><li>Amines </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hormones <ul><li>Classes (Chemical) </li></ul><ul><li>Peptides / proteins </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hormones <ul><li>Classes (Chemical) </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid soluble/steroids </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hormones <ul><li>Classes (Chemical) </li></ul>Prostaglandins and leukotrines Secreted by all cells except RBC’s
  7. 7. Hormones <ul><li>Mechanisms of Action </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hormones <ul><li>Mechanisms of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids and Thyroid Hormone </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hormones <ul><li>Hormone receptors </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hormones <ul><li>Hormonal Interactions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hormones <ul><li>Tropic hormones </li></ul><ul><li>ANS input – </li></ul><ul><li>Humoral input </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hormones <ul><li>Glands have a large blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>Glands are surrounded by connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>May be paired glands or single structures </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hormones <ul><li>Pathologies </li></ul>Describe 3 hormone pathologies….
  14. 14. Hormones <ul><li>Overview of functions </li></ul><ul><li>regulate chemical composition and volume of internal environment: water and electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>regulate metabolism and energy balance </li></ul><ul><li>regulate contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>regulate homeostasis despite disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>regulate activities of immune system </li></ul><ul><li>integration of growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>contribute to basic processes of reproduction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcia, just above optic chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>pathology: tumor may cause visual problems </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><li>pars distalis (anterior) - releases about 7 hormones </li></ul><ul><li>pars intermedia - unknown function in humans </li></ul><ul><li>pars nervosa (posterior) - releases but does not produce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH and oxytocin </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Regulated by neuron impulses & releasing factors originate in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>hypophysis may also influence the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>releasing factors (RF) - often tropins </li></ul><ul><li>inhibiting hormones - from the hypothalamus stops </li></ul>
  18. 19. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>hGH - human growth hormone = somatotropin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not fetal and early postnatal - rather children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adult aids in maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>periods of fasting or starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions - stimulate protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibit protein breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases rate amino acids enter cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retards use glucose --> ATP production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structurally and functionally like insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes the production of insulin -like growth factors (IGF’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of cartilage and bone -->epiphyseal plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases fat production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hGH and IGF --> decrease glucose fro ATP in most cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for neurons to use glucose in times of sparity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may stimulate liver to release glucose into blood = insulin antagonist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathologies = hyperglycemia - excess GH --> diabetes effect: high blood sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diabetes mellitus - lack of insulin activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary dwarfism - hyposecretion or lack of receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giantism - hypersecretion or in adults acromegaly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GH releasing hormone ( GHRH ) - low blood sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHIH - inhibits GH, secreted w/high blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>growing children - cyclic secretions - peaks early hrs of sleep cycle </li></ul>
  19. 20. Human Growth Hormone
  20. 21. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone = thyrotropin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - stimulate secretion of T3 & T4 (produced by thyroid) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled: by thyrotropin secreting hormone TRH from hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>release of TRH depends upon blood levels of TSH,T3 and blood glucose and metabolism - negative feed back system </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>FSH – Follicle Stimulating Hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from anterior pituitary to ovaries/testes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions - initiates dev of egg-containing follicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influences estrogen secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males - stimulates sperm production in testes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: Gonadotropin releasing hormone ( GnRH ) from hypothalamus  FSH release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH release suppressed by estrogen and testosterone - negative feed back system </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>LH – Leutinizing Hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - w/FSH  estrogen and releases 2nd oocyte: ovulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare uterus for egg implant and mammary glands for milk production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male interstitial cells --> testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: GnRH </li></ul>
  23. 27. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>PRL - Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - initiate and maintain milk production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mammary glands are primed by estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids, hGH, T4, insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not ejection which is oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: hypothalamus - PIH or dopamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as estrogen and progesterone fall --> dopamine secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>just before menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRH - during pregnancy causes PRL release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nursing decreases PIH release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>females - too much = loss of menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>males - too much = impotence </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - stimulates growth of adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates release of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stress related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low blood sugar, physical trauma, macrophage interleukin release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also negative feedback from blood levels of glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul>
  25. 31. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Anterior Pituitary Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>MSH - melanocyte stimulating hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - increase in skin pigment – amphibians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>humans - ? Appetite and sexual arousal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does seem to darken human skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dopamine inhibits </li></ul></ul>
  26. 33. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Posterior Pituitary Hormones - stores and releases does not make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made in cell bodies of neurosecretory cells - moved to axon terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADH – antidiuretic hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Function - decreases urinary output, retain water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>raise BP - constriction of arterioles = vasopressin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: osmoreceptors in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of factors affect blood levels of hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example body level of hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathologies = Diabetes insidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hyposecretion of ADH or kidneys do not respond to ADH = nephrogenic DI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treat with less salt in diet and some diuretics (?) work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large amount of urine, treat w/ADH </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. Pituitary - Hypophysis Cerebri <ul><li>Posterior Pituitary Hormones - stores and releases does not make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made in cell bodies of neurosecretory cells - moved to axon terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin - </li></ul><ul><li>Function - uterus and breasts during childbirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of smooth muscles: delivery and milk let-down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maternal instincts in males and nonpregnant females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibits release of prolactin inhibiting hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stretch receptors in cervix  hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nursing infant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Given in synthetic form to induce labor or increase uterine tone </li></ul>
  28. 37. Thyroid <ul><li>Location - neck between C5-C7 </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: a. Two lateral lobes with a connecting isthmus </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by TSH from pars distalis to produce thyroxin </li></ul><ul><li>pathologies - malignant and benign tumors </li></ul><ul><li>if removed need hormone supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones - stored up in large amounts: up to a 100 day supply </li></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><li>Formation - thyroid cells trap iodine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I binds to tyrosine of thyroglobulin molecule (TGB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I'd TGB forms T3 and T4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 and T4 are lipid soluble and enter blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 < T4, but T3 more potent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T4 may  T3 (- one I) </li></ul></ul>Thyroid – thyroid hormones
  30. 39. Thyroid – thyoid hormones <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen use and BMR </li></ul><ul><li>production of ATP from O2 </li></ul><ul><li>increases body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>cellular metabolism: protein synthesis, lipolysis, use of ATP  glucos, lower cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>all lead to heat production </li></ul><ul><li>growth development and maturation </li></ul><ul><li>especially Nerve tissue </li></ul><ul><li>modulate NS - receptors of NE and epi </li></ul><ul><li>receptors in nuclei of cells </li></ul><ul><li>T3 more affinity than T4 </li></ul>
  31. 40. Thyroid – thyroid hormones <ul><li>Controlled: level of iodine, blood levels of T3 and T4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative feedback via hypothalamus and anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low T3 --> TRH secreted from ant pituitary --> TSH release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cretinism - hyposecretion of T's – dwarfism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grave's - hypersecretion, enlarges thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>autoimmune: body makes Ab that mimic TSH  edema behind eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goiter - enlarged thyroid, symptoms of many thyroid problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absence in early infancy  under dev NS: mental retard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absence in adults --> decrease alertness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin - CT: produced by C cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood </li></ul><ul><li>inhibits bone break down and uptake of Ca in bones </li></ul><ul><li>limits action of osteoclasts in bone </li></ul>
  32. 41. Thyroid – calcitonin <ul><li>produced by C cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibits bone break down and uptake of Ca in bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limits action of osteoclasts in bone </li></ul></ul>
  33. 42. Parathyroid <ul><li>= 4 glands </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the fibrous capsule of the thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior surface of each lateral lobe - super and inferior parathyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormone = PTH </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates calcium and phosphate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown of Ca in bone and increases blood Ca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases action of osteoclasts in bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases kidney release of Ca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: blood levels of Ca </li></ul><ul><li>Pathologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperparathyroidism - neurons depolarize w/o stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>due to Ca deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>causes tetany </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 43. Pancreas <ul><li>Pancreas -exocrine and endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Location - flattened, posterior and inferior stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some cells in the parenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 44. Pancreas <ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon - produced by A cells or alpha cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>post absorb state - prevents glu from falling too low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function - raises blood sugar - target = liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen  glucose glycogenolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lactic acid and amino acids  glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote Fatty Acids as alternate Energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of Acetyl CoA and ketones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= glucose sparing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucose --> blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative feedback from blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibited by glucose levels of absorb state and high PS activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibited when beta cells are active </li></ul></ul>
  36. 45. Pancreas <ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin - produced by B cells or beta cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorptive state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function - lowers blood sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport of glucose from blood into cells especially muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose --> glycogen for storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;hormone of abundance&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids --> cells and protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose --> fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slows gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose into all cells except liver, brain, RBC's & renal medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: negative feedback from blood glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 50 mg/dl --> stop insulin production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 300 mg/dl = max secretion of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release depends upon glucose receptors on beta cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase carbohydrates diet --> more glucose receptors on beta cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease carbohydrate diet --> less glucose receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta cells also stimulate by AA, gastric inhibiting hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), and increase PS activity </li></ul></ul>
  37. 47. Pancreas <ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Somatostatin (GHIH) - produced by Delta cells or D cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function - inhibits release of insulin and glucagon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease GI motility and secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease pancreatic secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slows all aspects of digestion and absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prolongs absorption - more time for body to handle incoming nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>release increased by increase glucose and amino acids in plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibited by pancreatic polypeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersecretion --> diabetes mellitus eventually </li></ul></ul>
  38. 48. Pancreas <ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic polypeptide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produced by F cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates release of pancreatic digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases somatostatin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>release: meals w/protein, fasting, exercise, hypoglycemi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibited: somatostatin, elevated blood glucose </li></ul></ul>
  39. 49. Pancreas <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus - hormonal deficiency of the B cells to produce insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular famine in the midst of plenty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blindness, atherosclerosis, poor circulation (gangrene) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose enters urine because too much, also urea and ketones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type I - absolute deficiency of insulin - insulin dependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of infected autoimmune disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no glucose allowed to enter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ketoacidosis from fatty acids --> ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II - less sensitive to insulin - not insulin dependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer receptors or receptors no longer sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile or Adult onset 80% affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestational diabetes - gone after delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>due to changes in glucose metabolism during pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be hazardous to the fetus </li></ul></ul>
  40. 50. Adrenal <ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>above kidneys - no connection between kidneys and glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex - produces corticosteroids, small amts of male sex hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hormones are essential for life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 51. Adrenal <ul><li>Hormones - cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Mineralcorticoids - or Aldosterone is the main one </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - control water and electrolyte homeostasis (Na+ & K+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reabsorption of Na+ in kidney, and K+ release in urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--> more Na+ in blood --> water retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also prevents acidosis by releasing H+ into urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled: renin-angiotensin pathway - detects decrease in blood volume from dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentration K+ increases --> aldosterone secreted </li></ul></ul>
  42. 52. Adrenal <ul><li>Hormones - cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids - cortisol (mostly), corticosterone, and cortisone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - regulate metabolism and resistance to stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein catabolism, lipolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make enough ATP – gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anti-inflammatory, inhibit cells that aid immune responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled - corticotropin releasing hormone  Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released from anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul>
  43. 53. Adrenal <ul><li>Hormones - cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Gonadocorticoids - estrogens and androgens (testosterone) </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids are regulated by ACTH from the pars distalis </li></ul>
  44. 54. Adrenal <ul><li>Parts: Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>produces catecholamines </li></ul><ul><li>epi and norepi </li></ul><ul><li>Sympthetic end organ w/sympathetic impulses cause release of hormones </li></ul>
  45. 55. Gonads <ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><li>ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>testes </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries: estrogen and progesterones influenced by pars distalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions - develop and maintain female sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproductive cycle, maintain preg, prepare lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testes: testosterone an androgen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions - develop and maintain male sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of sperm </li></ul></ul>
  46. 56. Pineal - epiphysis cerebri <ul><li>Location - roof of third ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>covered w/pia mater and masses of neuroglia </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin - produced during darkness = biogenic amine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: lack of sleepiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diurnal: day/night cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled: stops when light hits retina  hypothalamus  superior cervical ganglion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sympathetic postganglionic fibers end here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathologies - Seasonal affective disorder </li></ul></ul>
  47. 57. Thymus <ul><li>Hormones: thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor, thymopoietin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: immunity T cells and B cells/lymphocytes </li></ul>

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