Relation between The level & the cause: > 100 ng/ml: 60% pituitary tumor. > 300 ng/ml: 100% pituitary tumor Modest elevation can be associated with pituitary tumor
Clinical conditions associate with hyperprolactinaemia 1. Galactorrhea. 2. Oligomenorhea 3. Hirsutism 4. Anovulation 5. Corpus luteum deficiency 6. Infertility
Hyperprolactinaemia without galactorrhea : 66% 1. Inadequate detection 2. Hypoestrogenic state. 3. Inadequate estrogenic or progetational priming of the breast 4. High PRL does interact with the breast receptors
Diagnostic evaluation History & Examination: Exclude : Recent pregnancy, breast stimulation Drugs, Breast or chest lesion Prolactin >20 ng/ml <20 ng/ml TSH Normal High (hypothyroidism) MRI or CT ( Normal or hyperplasia, Microadenoma or Macroadenoma)
It is secreted by the thyrotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary . It stimulates the growth of the thyroid follicular cells & every step in thyroid hormone synthesis
Reference values: Conventional immunoassay: useful in diagnosis of hypothyroidism.can not dd between normal values & subnormal values in hyperthyroidism Sensitive Immunoassay: can dd Subclinical hypothyroidism: Increase TSH & normal free T4
They are secreted by the anterior pituitary. The alpha subunit is identical for all glycoprotein hormones (TSH, HCG, LH & FSH), but the beta subunit differs. The peak of FSH is coincident with the peak of LH, but it is of lesser magnitude & briefer duration. Following the midcycle surge of LH & FSH, there is drop in both.
Normal values: FSH LH Adult 5-10 mIU/ml 5-20 mIU/ml Mid cycle peak 2 times the basal level 3 times the basal level
Clinical uses: FSH LH 1. Hypogonadotrophic < 5 mIU/ml < 5 IU/ml state e.g. prepubertal & pituitary disorders 2. Hypergonadotropic > 40 mIU/ml >40 mIU/ml state e.g.postmenopuse Ovarian failure 3. PCOS normal or decreased high Follicular phase ratio 1 2
4. Testing for ovarian function: a. Day 3 FSH < 10 IU/L = normal < 15 IU/L : conception rate is twice when FSH 15-25 IU/L > 25 IU/L ( or age >44) is independently associated with near zero chance of pregnancy
b.Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT) CC 100 mg /day from D5-9 Check FSH on D3 & 10 Sum of FSH >26 IU/L = poor responder LH can be used for assessment of ovarian reserve but FSH is better. FSH rises sooner & more dramatically than LH.
5. Detection of ovulation LH surge: Follicular rupture occurs 36 h after the onset of serum LH surge & 12 H after LH peak. A positive urine result is often found only 12 h after the onset of serum LH. (around the point of LH peak). So ovulation is expected to occur 24 h after the urine LH surge
LH surge in urine: Quick, sensitive, relatively inexpensive, pinpoint the day of ovulation & has reduced the uncertainty in interpretation of progesterone levels by better-identifying the time of peak progestrone secretion at which to obtain serum
6. Diagnosis of the cause of precocious puberty: (Breast development <8 y or menstruation <9 y.)
X ray of the lower ends of radius & ulna:bone age a. Retarded: hypothyroidism b. Normal: Partial c. Advanced: FSH : <2 IU/ml) ---- pseudo > 2 mIU/ml) ----- true: CT or MRI -------- Normal (idiopathic) Abnormal (CNS lesion)
<ul><li>7. Diagnosis of the cause of amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Primary A.: </li></ul><ul><li>absence of menstruation by the age of 16 yr regardless of SSC or by the age of 14 yr in absence of SSC </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary A.: </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of menstruation > 6 months </li></ul>
More than 30 estrogens have been identified, but only 3 estrogens are used in clinical practice: estrone (E!), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3). In contrast to E2 which is secreted almost entirely by the ovary, most E1 is derived from peripheral conversion of androstenedione & from E2 metabolism.
E2 is the most abundant E in premenopausal females, while E1 is the E in highest concentration in postmenopausal females. E2 is the most potent E E1, E2 & E3 are bound to SHBG. E2 & not total E is used for clinical purposes.
Normal values of E2 (pg/ml) Follicular phase: 25-27 Midcycle peak: 200-600 Luteal phase: 100-300 Postmenopausal: 5-25
E2 rises during the 2nd half of the follicular phase & reach a peak 24 h before LH surge & 36 h before ovulation. Following LH surge E2 drops to preovulatory levels, but then rises slightly to 100-300 pg/ml during luteal phase
Clinical applications: 1. E increases in E secreting tumors e.g. granulosa theca cell tumors 2. To classify hypogonadism : E is usually interpreted with gonadotropin measurements
3. Test for ovarian reserve: Low D3 E2 (<75 pg/ml) combined with normal FSH: good ovarian reserve Evaluation of both E2 & FSH is better predictor of ovarian reserve than using either measurement alone.
4. An indication of down regulation in the long protocol for superovulation in ART. E2: < 50 pg/ml 5. Monitoring Superovulation in ART: The goal is an E2 level of 200 pg/ml per large (>14 mm) follicle The risk of OHSS is significant if E2 is >4000 pg/ml ( Sperof,2002) The number of follicles & the type of patient should be considered.
6. Monitoring of induction of ovulation with HMG (Sperof,2002). E2 1000-1500 pg/ml is optimal 1500-2000 pg/ml: increase risk of OHSS >2000 pg/ml: high risk of OHSS, consider cycle cancellation
In the serum: 18% is bound to cortisol binding globulin 79% is bound to albumin 3% is free
Normal values (ng/ml): P level is low prior to the mid cycle gonadotrophin surge. Shortly after that, P begin to rise rapidly reaching peak levels during the middle of the luteal phase (8 days after LH peak). Thereafter, a progressive fall occurs with barely detectable P levels reached prior to menses. Follicular phase: <1 Luteal phase: 5-20 Post menopause: <1
Clinical applications 1. Diagnosis of ovulation: in cases of infertility & DUB a midluteal phase serum level of 5 ng/ml 2. Diagnosis of corpus luteal dysfunction : Midluteal phase level of 10 ng/ml. Sum of 3 progesterone levels from D11-4 before menses: 15 ng/ml
<ul><li>It is an intermediate metabolite in steroidogenesis in the adrenals </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for diagnosis of enzymatic deficiency in the adrenals. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased 17 OH progesterone indicates congenital adrenal hyperplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical application </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsutism </li></ul><ul><li>Ambigous genitalia </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>17 oh P(ng/dl) morning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>< 200 > 200 </li></ul><ul><li>Rules out adrenal hyperplasia ACTH stimulation test (0.25 </li></ul><ul><li>21-hydroxylase defiency mg ACTH I.V.& 17 oh P at time </li></ul><ul><li>zero & after 1 hour) </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Rules out adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal hyperplasia </li></ul>
<ul><li>Free testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Good correlation with total production rate (= secretion rate + peripheral conversion rate) which correlate well with degree of virilization </li></ul><ul><li>Normal level: 1.5-11.4 pg/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Not done routinely in presence of hirsutism </li></ul><ul><li>Free androgen index (FAI)= TX 100 / SHBG if > 4.5 : PCOS </li></ul>
<ul><li>Dehydoepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) </li></ul><ul><li>The principal contribution of 17 ketosteroids (KS) is from DHES. </li></ul><ul><li>It correlates with urinary 17 KS. It is more reliable indicator of adrenal androgen than 24 h 17 KS. </li></ul>
Clinical application In PCOS: DHEAS > 2ug/ml CC + Corticosteroid (ACOG,2002) In hirsutism: DHEAS: >2 ug/ml COCs + Corticosteroids DHEAS: not essential (Sperof,2002)
DHES is not essential (Speroff,2002) 1. If 17 OHP is normal: adrenal enzyme defect can be excluded . 2. Moderate elevations of DHES can be suppressed by suppression of ovulation. 3. DHES > 700 ug/dl is rare & is associated with high levels of testosterone 4. Imaging of the adrenals is more cost-effective than measuring DHES. N.B:Hyperprolactinaemia can cause an increase in DHEAS. Treatment with Bromocriptin will decrease prolactin & DHEAS
<ul><li>Total teststerone </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical application: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Initial laboratory investigation of hirsutism </li></ul><ul><li>Total testosterone: measures the ovarian & adrenal activity. </li></ul>
Testosterone (ng/dl) >200 <200 U/S of the ovary Anovulation ( FG/I. PRL, endom biopsy) Adenxal mass Nothing Laparotomy CT of the adrenala & ovaries Laparotomy
2. Evaluation of infant with ambiguous genitalia
Karyotype, Androgens, 17OHP XX Y-containing abnormal karyotype Elevated androgens Normal androgen Elevated 17OHP Normal 17OHP CAH Elevated maternal True H.phrodite (21OH androgen Gonadal dysgenesis 11BOH ) Gonadectomy
Karyotype, Androgens, 17 OHP XY Normal androgens Normal androgens signs of adrenal failure Normal 17OHP normal 17 OHP CAH with 3B IAIS, 5 reductase def, true hph, . Dehydogenase mixed gonadal dysgenesis, block in male. abnormal androgen synthesis Gonadectomy
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