Slide 4. Hospitalization Costs for Chronic Complications of Diabetes in the US These data from the ADA emphasize that 1) type 2 diabetes is extremely costly, and 2) cardiovascular disease constitutes 64% of total costs. Reference: American Diabetes Association. Economic Consequences of Diabetes Mellitus in the US in 1997. Alexandria, Va: American Diabetes Association, 1998:1-14. [no PubMed link (book)] Keywords: complications, cost, diabetes Slide type: graph
Diabetes Guidelines Kevin H McKinney MD University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Division of Endocrinology/Stark Diabetes Center
High risk women should be screened at first prenatal visit
Low-risk women should be screened from 24 to 28 weeks of gestation
Hospitalization Costs for Chronic Complications of Diabetes in the US American Diabetes Association. Economic Consequences of Diabetes Mellitus in the US in 1997 . Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association, 1998:1-14.
The rates for myocardial infarction and stroke among African Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans are the same or lower than in Caucasians; however, the mortality from CAD is disproportionately high in minorities.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in individuals with diabetes, up to 70% of type 2 diabetes patients.
Pre-meal blood glucose in the range of 90 mg/dL to 130 mg/dL
Bedtime blood glucose in the range of 100 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL
A hemoglobin A 1c value from 6.5% to 7% over 3 months
Increased A 1c Raises Vascular Event Risk * Updated mean A 1c is adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group, expressed for white men aged 50-54 years at diagnosis and with mean duration of diabetes of 10 years. Stratton IM et al. BMJ. 2000;321:405-412. Myocardial Infarction Microvascular Complications Updated Mean A 1c (%)* Adjusted Incidence per 1000 Patient-Years (%) 0 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Established Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors In Type 2 Diabetes UKPDS 23 * Significant for CAD (n = 280). P values are significance of risk factors after controlling for all other risk factors in model. Adjusted for age and sex in 2693 white patients with type 2 diabetes with dependent variable as time to first event. Turner RC et al. BMJ. 1998;316:823-828.