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  • 1. Diabetes Healthy Schools, Healthy Families Mithila Jegathesan, M.D. Kate Avitabile, M.D.
  • 2. What is Diabetes?
    • A disease in which there are high levels of blood glucose in the body
    • Glucose is the medical term for sugar
    • It is the fuel the body uses to stay active, just like gas in a car
  • 3. Why does diabetes happen?
    • Normally, an organ called the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin
    • Insulin controls the level of sugar in the body
    • In diabetes the insulin does not control the sugar correctly
  • 4. Type 1 Diabetes
    • The body destroys the cells in the pancreas that usually make insulin
    • There is no insulin in the body to control the levels of sugar
    • Insulin must be injected into the person to control the levels of sugar
  • 5. Type 1 Diabetes
    • Usually happens in children and young adults
    • May be “in their genes”
    • No way to prevent or cure this type of diabetes yet
  • 6. Type 2 Diabetes
    • At the beginning the pancreas is able to produce insulin to control the sugar
    • But the other cells in the body, like the muscles, cannot respond to this insulin
    • The pancreas tries to produce more and more insulin but the organs cannot respond
    • This is called “insulin resistance”
  • 7. Type 2 Diabetes
    • The pancreas eventually gets tired out and cannot produce any more insulin
    • The body’s sugar levels are uncontrolled
    • Some people need medications to decrease the level of sugar in the body
    • Other people may eventually need insulin injections
  • 8. Who often gets Type 2 Diabetes?
    • Older age - adult and young adult cases
    • Overweight or obese people
    • Women who had diabetes during pregnancy
    • People who do not exercise often
    • Some races and ethnicities
      • African American
      • Hispanic/Latinos
      • Native Americans
      • Some Asians
    • May run in families
  • 9. Gestational Diabetes
    • Diabetes in pregnant women
    • May go away after the baby is born
    • But some women with this type of diabetes may be more likely to develop permanent diabetes after pregnancy
    • Can cause problems for the baby including heart and lung problems and problems with the baby’s sugar
  • 10. Who may get diabetes of pregnancy?
    • Obese women
    • Women with family members with diabetes
    • More common in African Americas, Hispanic/Latina Americans, and Native Americans
  • 11. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Eyes
      • Diabetes causes the blood vessels of the back of the eye called the retina to grow too much
      • This may cause the retina to separate from the back of the eye
      • This may lead to permanent blindness
      • Some people may have surgery to remove these blood vessels
  • 12. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Kidneys
      • Diabetes causes the blood vessels of the kidneys to become weak
      • This may lead to leaking of important proteins into the urine
      • These important proteins are lost from the body
  • 13. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Kidneys
      • Loss of proteins may lead to swelling of the feet and ankles
      • Kidney damage can also cause high blood pressure
      • Some people need kidney transplants
  • 14. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Heart
      • High sugar causes damage to the blood vessels that bring blood to the muscle of the heart
      • The vessels can become narrow
      • Blood cannot get to all parts of the heart
      • This may lead to chest pain, heart attacks, and possibly death
  • 15. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Other blood vessels
      • The vessels of the legs, ankles, and feet may be damaged by diabetes
      • This may lead to change in color, pain, and ulcers
      • Some diabetics need to have amputations
  • 16. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Nerves
      • The nerves of the feet are often damaged
      • This can cause changes in feeling as well as burning sensations in the feet
      • The nerves of the stomach and intestine can also be damaged and cause problems with digestion
  • 17. Body Parts Affected by Diabetes
    • Infections
      • Diabetics are more prone to getting infections
      • They may get very serious infections with fungi
      • The ulcers of the feet can become infected and spread to infection of the bone
  • 18. What is Pre-Diabetes?
    • A condition that may later develop into diabetes
    • The levels of sugar in the blood are higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes
  • 19. Who can get Pre-Diabetes?
    • Adults
    • Also children!
    • As more and more children are overweight, more and more children are getting pre-diabetes
  • 20. What are the signs of Pre-Diabetes?
    • A person with pre-diabetes has high sugar on a blood test taken first thing in the morning, before eating anything
    • The doctor may then test the blood after the person eats a sugary meal and the blood sugar is even higher
  • 21. What are the signs of Pre-Diabetes?
    • Acanthosis nigricans
      • Dark color of the skin on the back of the neck or under the armpits
      • May be seen in both light and dark skinned people
      • Sign of high levels of blood sugar
      • Especially important in finding children at risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes
  • 22. Now for some GOOD NEWS!!
  • 23. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • Exercise
      • 30 minutes per day or 3 times per week
      • Try walking more rather than taking the bus or subway
      • Take the stairs instead of the elevator
      • Try buying an exercise video to use at home
      • Find a friend to exercise with you!
  • 24. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • Eat healthy
      • Eat a diet low in fat, low in carbohydrates, and high in fiber
      • Limit fast food
      • Limit soda and juice
      • Parents’ examples help children form good habits!
  • 25. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • Lose weight
      • Obesity is a major risk factor for developing diabetes
      • Exercise and healthy eating can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your risk of developing diabetes
  • 26. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • Decrease screen time
      • Instead of watching TV or playing video games with your kids, go for a walk or go to the park together
      • Cutting down TV time from 4 hrs a day to 2 hrs a day can decrease children’s risk of being overweight and developing pre-diabetes
  • 27. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • See your doctor for regular check-ups
      • Follow advice on how to lower blood pressure and cholesterol
      • Having diabetes along with obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol increases your risk of heart and kidney disease
  • 28. How can I prevent diabetes in myself and my children?
    • Limit alcohol intake
    • Ask your doctor for information about how you can stop smoking
    • Dial 411 for other programs