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DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
DIABETES
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DIABETES

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  • 1. DIABETES: Type 2 and You? Module Developed by Steve Koteff John Kinzie Elementary Chicago Public School IIT Research Mentor Ali Cinar
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULE..............................................................................3 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES..........................................................................................................4 VOCABULARY..............................................................................................................................5 ILLINOIS STANDARDS................................................................................................................6 ASSUMED PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE...............................................................................7 ACTIVITY # 1: RESEARCH..........................................................................................................8 INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES MELLITUS............................................................................9 ACTIVITY # 2 BROCHURE......................................................................................................11 ACTIVITY # 3 24 HOURS OF MEAL PLANNING.................................................................12 ETHICS STATEMENT................................................................................................................13 Scientific Method v. Engineering Process.....................................................................................14 DESIGN.........................................................................................................................................15 ENGINEERING AND SOCIETY.................................................................................................16 OBESITY.......................................................................................................................................17 STATEMENT ON ENERGY USAGE .......................................................................................18 ACTIVITY # 4: MEASURING ENERGY USE...........................................................................19 PRETEST and POST TEST..........................................................................................................20 PRETEST and POST TEST – Answer Sheet................................................................................21 Rubric # 2: Measuring Energy Use................................................................................................23 RESOURCES................................................................................................................................24 2
  • 3. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MODULE  A SEVENTH GRADE TEACHING MODULE  FOUR CLASS PERIODS, 40 MINUTES EACH, WITH OPTIONAL ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES The module is designed to be the seventh grade student’s first learning experience in Diabetes, concentrating on Type 2 Diabetes. This form of the illness is sometimes known as Adult Onset Diabetes, or Non-Insulin Dependant Diabetes. The student will learn the disease’s symptoms, causes, risk factors, treatment and prevention. This curriculum includes lectures, handouts, and research via internet sources and tools. One activity will require the student to create an informational brochure to describe the disease and thus demonstrate their knowledge of Diabetes. Thus design principals are utilized. One module activity calls for a student-generated 24 hour menu designed so that food choices will maintain the blood glucose levels within a normal range. The module provides a prototype, if you will, to assist design. This is provided on two interactive web sights, called meal planner, and glucosim. Students will choose foods using the food pyramid, enter them into the meal planner program and continually self assess by monitoring the glucose levels. The activity will be assessed by rubric created specifically for this activity. Several activities will strengthen the concept of scientific inquiry, ethical behavior, and the basic understanding of design from an engineering aspect. A written pretest and post-test will be administered to monitor student progress. The same tools will assist the teacher in designing the module, and future modules, to her specific needs. 3
  • 4. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  Students work will acquire following knowledge of Diabetes: o Causes of disease o Risk Factors o Symptoms of disease o Diagnosis of disease o Treatment and management o Complications which arise when disease is not controlled.  Students will use scientific inquiry methods and technology to life/health issues in addition to class projects.  Students will understand that a healthy lifestyle requires exercise and the proper diet.  Students will demonstrate their growth in knowledge via pretest, post test, and accumulation of projects (as assessed by rubric and answer key). 4
  • 5. VOCABULARY This sheet is optional, and at the teachers discretion. Going over this may increase the unit by enough time to add another day to it. Diabetes Mellitus: the literal translation from Latin is honey passing through which is a reference to the sweetness of the urine from the excess glucose. Diabetes Type 1: A disease caused when the pancreas fails to produce insulin, or the insulin is mistakenly destroyed by the immune system. The insulin controls the amount of glucose, and allows it to be absorbed by the cells. Diabetics must monitor their glucose levels frequently and inject insulin when needed. This type has early onset, and has been called Juvenile Diabetes. Diabetes Type 2: A disease caused by insufficient amounts of insulin produced in the pancreas, or something blocking the access to the cells such as cholesterol deposits. GLUCOSE: A naturally occurring sugar form carbohydrates broken down in metabolizing food. The proper amount of glucose in the blood is necessary for normal bodily function. Hypoglycemia: a condition caused by insufficient levels of glucose in the blood Hyperglycemia: A condition of having to much glucose in the blood Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin controls glucose levels in the blood and aids in cell absorption of the glucose. Insulin can also be injected by the type 1 diabetic when needed 5
  • 6. ILLINOIS STANDARDS • 11 B 5 : Use conceptual, mathematical, and or physical models to predict change ( e. g. computer simulation, solar system model, atomic and molecular models ). • 12 A 7 : Describe how physiological systems carry out vital functions, including movement, transport, respiration, digestion, reproduction, photosynthesis, excretion, and temperature regulation. • 12 A 9 : Describe symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention of disease • 13 A 1 : Demonstrate the use of scientific instruments and technology for various purposes and levels of precision ( e. g. balances, graduated cylinders, calculators and computers). 6
  • 7. ASSUMED PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE Students will know the following concepts prior to module:  Diseases are caused by a variety of factors: o The Germ Theory: that single celled organisms from outside the body cause illness; o Hereditary predisposition; o Environmental conditions; o Poor nutrition; o Unhealthy lifestyle.  Poor nutrition alone can be a risk factor for some diseases. 7
  • 8. ACTIVITY # 1: RESEARCH OPENING QUESTION To facilitate inquiry and engage the student, I pose the question: Is it possible to find enough information on your own about diabetes to be able to put together in a paper (with your partner) enough information to explanin the disease to others? What would you want to know what would you need to know? Diabetes Want to know (think of any disease) 1. 2. 3. 4. How do I find out? (where do I get my information) 1. 2. 3. Materials: computer, printer, paper, internet 8
  • 9. INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus is a disease usually divided into two types: Type 1 and Type 2. Diabetes is considered a metabolic disorder which is characterized by the body not being able to control the amount of sugar ( glucose) in the blood. Sugar is the cells fuel use for energy. Diabetics can vary between high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low levels called (hypoglycemia) each causing problems. The name Diabetes is from ancient Greek and means passing through. This is an obvious reference to one of the symptoms of the disease: frequent urination which can lead to another symptom polydipsia which is the increase in thirst. Mellitus was added to the name in 1675 and means honey referring to the sweet taste of diabetic urine. • Type 1 Diabetes has been known by the names insulin dependent diabetes, and juvenile diabetes ( because of its onset in childhood). Type 1 is the result of the pancreas (organ that aids in digestion, and secretes insulin into the body) not producing insulin (hormone that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood), or the immune system destroying the insulin causing a lack of Beta cells ( found in the pancreas in the area known as the islets of Langerhans). Insulin therefore must be periodically injected into the type 1 diabetic. • Type 2 Diabetes is different from type 1 in that the pancreas does produce insulin yet the regulation of blood sugar is not automatically controlled as in a healthy person. There may be other factors in the blood that prevent the insulin from working efficiently such as cholesterol which blocks some of the insulin from metabolizing the glucose correctly. Glucose levels may fluctuate but rarely (if ever) need injected insulin usually pills are introduced to aid in lowering glucose levels. o Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are:  increased thirst  increased urination  increased appetite  slow healing of infections  tiredness  loss of weight Weight is a factor, obesity especially around the waist can cause the body to secrete a hormone (adipokines) that impairs glucose tolerance. Heredity is a contributing factor if a parent or sibling has the disease your chances increase. Problems with uncontrolled long term diabetes are cardiovascular disease ( the heart and blood vessels) which can result in heart failure, and or loss of limbs from poor circulation, kidney disease or total failure of the kidneys. 9
  • 10. There is good news- type 2 diabetes can be avoided in most cases and controlled if it is contracted. Healthy individuals are able to completely avoid the onset of type 2 diabetes by controlling blood sugar levels through exercise and diet. We will learn about the dietary requirements needed to keep glucose levels in a safety zone by using two interactive web programs ( meal planner, and glucosim) both put together by Dr. Cinar of IIT ( Illinois Institute of Technology). We will plan 24 hours worth of meals and snacks, and the times we ingest them. We will check the glucose levels after each meal, and make adjustments. 10
  • 11. ACTIVITY # 2 BROCHURE Materials: colored pencils, handouts of Intro to Diabetes, copy paper, internet, computers printer Brochure Designing the trifold brochure is (I believe) a great way to demonstrate knowledge.I give very few instructions-just the must include categories: Topic Diabetes: type 2 and You. Symptoms Treatment Problems associated with Reasons for onset Graded by Rubric 11
  • 12. ACTIVITY # 3 24 HOURS OF MEAL PLANNING Question: Is it possible to control the amount of glucose in your system ( healthy individual) to within 20 mg / dl ( milligrams per deciliter) ? Materials: computer, internet access, printer, paper, web site addresses for two interactive programs glucosim, and meal planner. Meal planner is accessed first at http://216.47.139.196/meals/. After modeling an activity of a meal (i.e. breakfast) they continue by continuing on automatically to glucosim which will illustrate on a graph the level of glucose after your meal for a period of time. Glucosim can be accessed by itself by going to http://216.47.139,196/glucosim/index.html The student should be aware of the time involved where the glucose level begins to dip, and through trial and error be able to select meals for a 24 hr. period keeping the glucose level under 120 mg/ dl, and over 100 mg / dl. They will print out this meal from both areas ( the items from meal planner, and the glucose graph from glucosim. There are several items from the glucoSim home page such as a slide show on diabetes, an animation, and an interview with Dr. Manni Opara on diabetes. This may last two days without rushing, you may add or subtract from this module at will. Assessment will be on the rubric at the back of the module. 12
  • 13. ETHICS STATEMENT Why can’t I copy my neighbor’s answers on a test? Why is it wrong? Who says it is not acceptable? We live by a code of morally permissible standards we call ethics. Within a group every member of that group is expected to follow those rules. As students you are expected to follow a student set of ethics which include : doing your own work, doing your fair share in a group project, not downloading papers from the internet and passing them off as yours, not picking on others, not being violent, and not stealing from each other. These ethics have been explained to many classrooms, and are generally codes of behavior which would be known by the majority of the members of the group known as students. Did I mention treating your elders ( especially teachers) with respect.? Adults have to follow similar standards of conduct which at times change, and change from one job to another. Research scientists for example must consider the health and well being of their subjects. Experimenting is done on animals before it can be done on people. These tests are conducted with concerns about pain and injury which unfortunately can not be avoided. Certain groups of animal rights proponents think no experimenting should be done on animals. They have their set of ethics, and researchers have theirs. How do we address this conflict of standards? We at times must enact laws to solve these problems. Researchers have organizations which monitor the conditions of the test subjects which may have to be sedated. At the Illinois Institute of Technology they have a person on staff who is I believe on the fast track to solving the problem of insulin production in type 1 diabetics. The solution to this problem would free millions from constant monitoring of glucose levels, daily insulin injections, and a myriad of health related risk factors. The question is : if this person has to experiment on animals knowing that some will undoubtedly die is this ethical? Everyone must come up with their own decisions, I consider this man a great humanitarian. 13
  • 14. SCIENTIFIC METHOD V. ENGINEERING PROCESS COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Versus THE ENGINEERING PROCESS State the question Define a need Do Background Research Do Background Research Formulate hypothesis Establish design criteria. i.e., size, function, cost, weight Design experiment, establish Prepare several preliminary designs, procedure evaluate tradeoffs Analyze results; draw conclusions Test and resign as needed Present results Present results 14
  • 15. DESIGN • Design skills are critical: “… to seek a creative solution, to synthesize, to be imaginative…” [David E. Newland, Head of Engineering, University of Cambridge] • Blend of analysis and synthesis o First, choose a measure of success o Second, build a model (synthesis) o Third, test the model (analysis) o Fourth, repeat steps 2 & 3 until satisfied 15
  • 16. ENGINEERING AND SOCIETY How can we measure the amount of energy used by a non living thing like a car for instance? What do we use as a measure? Gas consumption can be used to find the miles per gallon of a car but this is not an accurate indicator since weight, speed, and windows being open or shut alter the results. In order to find a way to solve this problem we do not use science alone. We need the help of a person who defines a need, does research, designs and tests solutions until the problem is resolved. Does anyone know the name of this technician? These people are concerned with everyone’s safety and welfare. Through the treatment of water for instance, these people have saved more lives than all the doctors who ever lived! Who are these supermen? They are called engineers! I’m sure you have heard of them before after all they drive the trains! I am kidding. While some engineers do control trains I am referring to a group of people whose fields include, building engineers, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, and many more. I will talk about this later in this activity but I wanted you to be aware of some of the many engineering opportunities out there. Today we will approach the problem of measuring energy usage from the viewpoint of a scientist, and an engineer. 16
  • 17. OBESITY Obesity: is fast becoming a major national health issue as well as a specific factor in the onset of Type 2 diabetes. The physics are simple – burn more energy (calories) than you take in (calories from food) and you lose weight. Why then are we becoming a society of obese people? Mega calorie meals especially from prepared foods-or high calorie snack items are a huge contributor. Some foods have been designed to: contain less fat, less cholesterol, no saturated fats, no trans fatty acids. Foods such as Olesterol have been hyped as the next thin pill or the new appetite suppressant pill to tell people when they are full. These all have some benefits but have not so far stemmed the tide of obesity- side effects not withstanding, Less energy burning, because of playing video games, or being a couch potato (sedentary) lifestyles are also a major part of the problem. 17
  • 18. STATEMENT ON ENERGY USAGE How can we measure the amount of energy used by a non living thing like a car for instance? What do we use as a measure? Gas consumption can be used to find the miles per gallon of a car but this is not an accurate indicator since weight, speed, and windows being open or shut alter the results. In order to find a way to solve this problem we do not use science alone. We need the help of a person who defines a need, does research, designs and tests solutions until the problem is resolved. Does anyone know the name of this technician? These people are concerned with everyone’s safety and welfare. Through the treatment of water for instance, these people have saved more lives than all the doctors who ever lived! Who are these supermen? They are called engineers! I’m sure you have heard of them before after all they drive the trains! I am kidding. While some engineers do control trains I am referring to a group of people whose fields include, building engineers, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, and many more. I will talk about this later in this activity but I wanted you to be aware of some of the many engineering opportunities out there. Today we will approach the problem of measuring energy usage from the viewpoint of a scientist, and an engineer. If this trend continues the incidence of type 2 diabetes will continue to increase. In order to combat this problem I want the students to be aware of their energy usage. An enlightened diet in conjunction with the food pyramid and daily exercise can help to reverse this trend and spare people from getting diabetes. 18
  • 19. ACTIVITY # 4: MEASURING ENERGY USE INTRODUCTION Question Today we will explore what happens to the energy consumed by yeast in the process called respiration. All living organisms take in energy, and use it to transport food to cells. These cells will then oxidize or process the nutritional energy. The used nutrients do not go away. What happens to them? Materials Quick rising powdered yeast, resealable plastic sandwich bags(one per group), Graduated 100 ml cylinder (one per group), funnel, marker, 20ml per group of warm water, temperature 80 degree-100 Fahrenheit, 1 box Trix breakfast cereal, measuring cup and spoons. Learning Strategies Hands On: Why are we doing this, what will it tell us? Can we show energy use in yeast? Design: Can we solve the problem of producing an ordered amount of gas and try to do it at the cheapest price after assigning dollar values to the yeast and cereal. Complete instructions will be in the Appendix. 19
  • 20. PRETEST and POST TEST Fill in the blank with the correct word or words 1. A hormone secreted by the body to control the blood sugar level is _______________. 2. Diabetes mellitus means __ __________________________. 3. Name 2 factors which contribute to contracting diabetes type 2 _______________ and ________________. 4. Moral standards of behavior in a society are called _______________. 5. Diabetes type 2 is treated by ___________________________________________. 6. High levels of blood sugar are condition called __________________________. 7. Low levels of blood sugar are a condition called __________________________. 8. Insulin is produced in what organ? ______________________. Circle the correct answer for each statement 9. True False If left untreated type 2 diabetes can do damage to many different areas of the body. 10. True False Type 2 diabetes can not be controlled. 11. True False Type 2 diabetics rarely if ever need insulin injections. 12. True False Type 2 diabetics would benefit from exercise. 13. True False Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes 14. Name 2 types of engineers and one thing they each do. 20
  • 21. PRETEST and POST TEST – Answer Sheet Fill in the blank with the correct word or words 1. A hormone secreted by the body to control the blood sugar level is _____insulin__________. 2. Diabetes mellitus means __ passing through__________________________. 3. Name 2 factors which contribute to contracting diabetes type 2 _____weight_____ and _____heredity_____, or environmental factors or diet, ( any two). 4. Moral standards of behavior in a society are called _____ethics_____. 5. Diabetes type 2 is treated by ___healthy diet, losing weight, exercise, prescription medications____. 6. High levels of blood sugar are condition called ______hyperglycemia_______. 7. Low levels of blood sugar are a condition called _____hypoglycemia________ . 8. Insulin is produced in what organ? _____pancreas_____. Circle the correct answer for each statement 9. True False If left untreated type 2 diabetes can do damage to many different areas of the body. 10. True False Type 2 diabetes can not be controlled. 11. True False Type 2 diabetics rarely if ever need insulin injections. 12. True False Type 2 diabetics would benefit from exercise. 13. True False Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes 14. Name 2 types of engineers and one thing they each do. Any two of these chemical ( makes products,medicine) civil ( plan and design bridges,buildings roads), electrical (take energy and send to homes or factories, computer ( design and construct systems networks hardware 21
  • 22. RUBRIC # 1. 4 3 2 1 COMPUTER Successfully Can mostly Occasionally needs assistance SKILLS navigate web navigate the web able to navigate or supervision to MEAL sites and links, sites and links, web sites and navigate web PLANNING find information, find information, links, find sites and links, save, edit and save, edit, and information, find information, print without any print without save, edit, and save , edit, and assistance assistance print without print assistance PROJECT Meets Meets Meets Meets PAPER requirements requirements requirements requirements ( produces the ( produces the (turns in a paper) (turns in a paper) paper) within 10 paper) staying over 50 mg / dl. but the data mg / dl., staying within 25 mg / Above or below cannot be within this dl., staying the prescribed interpreted or is glucose range for within this amount over 100 mg / dl. 24 hours glucose range for 24 hours DIABETES Contains all the Contains most of Lists some of the Scattered points, BROCHURE important points the important important points lists a few of the and is organized points and shows an attempt at important points well some organization has demonstrates organization been made little if any organization Idea for this from a rubric of Anna Farkas 22
  • 23. RUBRIC # 2: MEASURING ENERGY USE 4 3 2 1 HANDS ON Produced gas, Produced gas, Produced gas had Group produced EXPERIMENT measured Measured trouble with some gas, displacement displacement not displacement but Had trouble with correctly correctly methods were displacement Data table Jumbled data sound Measurement included table but present No data table numbers off 23
  • 24. RESOURCES Diabetes: Meal Planner ( my name for this program still under construction but usable from IIT and Dr. Ali Cinar) http:// 216.47.139.196/meals/ Glucosim http://216.47.139.196/gdiabete.html ( home page) Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International www.jdf.org American Diabetes Association www.diabetes.org.6 Center for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov/diabetes Obesity http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/dieting/obesity.html Food Pyramid http://www.answers.com/topic/food-guide-pyramid?cat=health Carbohydrates http://www.sideroad.com/diet_and_nutrition/carbohydrates Like most research I used Google and typed in my key words. This method worked perfectly the above came in this way except for the Meal Planner and Glucosim sites which were given to me from my mentor Ali Cinar at IIT. For this project we had numerous handouts with permission to use them, and we received the finished modules from the previous years to study and guide us. 24

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