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COGNITIVE FUNCTION CHALLENGES FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME (FMS ...
 

COGNITIVE FUNCTION CHALLENGES FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME (FMS ...

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    COGNITIVE FUNCTION CHALLENGES FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME (FMS ... COGNITIVE FUNCTION CHALLENGES FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME (FMS ... Presentation Transcript

    • COGNITIVE FUNCTION CHALLENGES Including Coping and Compensatory Strategies FIBROMYALGIA & CHRONIC FATIGUE IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION SYNDROMES Jason Nupp, Psy.D. Spalding Rehabilitation Hospital
    • Confused?
    • REALLY confused? Torpy, D., Ho, J, (2007). Corticosteroid-binding globulin gene polymorphisms: clinical implications and links to idiopathic chronic fatigue disorders . Clinical Endocrinology 67(2): 161-167.
    • Accepting the confusion as reality...
    • The Biopsychosocial Model FMS/CFIDS Biological Sociological Psychological
    • Overview
      • Determining What’s Wrong: Diagnosis 101
        • Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)
        • Chronic Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS)
      • Cognitive Domains Related to FMS/CFIDS
      • Perspectives From the People Who Have It (Qualitative)
        • What factors affect quality of life?
      • Perspectives From the People Who Study It (Quantitative)
        • What does the research say?
      • Possible Explanations for “Fibro Fog” and “Brain Fog”
        • Biological
        • Psychological
      • Coping with Cognitive Challenges
      • Developing Compensatory Strategies
    • Determining What’s Wrong: Diagnosis 101
    • Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)
      • “ ACR” Diagnostic Criteria
        • Widespread pain lasting ≥ 3 months
        • 11 positive tender points out of possible 18 using 4 kg of palpation
          • Occiput
          • Low cervical
          • Trapezius
          • Supraspinatus
          • Second rib
          • Lateral epicondyle
          • Gluteal
          • Greater trochanter
          • Knee
      Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum 33:160–72.
    • Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS)
      • “ Fukuda” Diagnostic Criteria
        • Unexplained, persistent fatigue ≥ 6 months that impairs daily activity by 50%
        • 4 out of 8 primary signs and symptoms
          • Loss of memory or concentration
          • Sore throat
          • Painful and mildly enlarged lymph nodes in neck or armpits
          • Unexplained muscle pain
          • Pain that moves from one joint to another without swelling or redness
          • Headache of a new type, pattern or severity
          • Unrefreshing sleep
          • Extreme exhaustion lasting more than 24 hours after physical or mental exercise
      Fukuda K, Straus S, Hickie I, Sharpe M, Dobbins J, Komaroff A (1994). The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. Ann Intern Med 121 (12): 953–9.
    • Cognitive Domains Related to FMS/CFIDS
      • Executive Functioning (planning, organizing, inhibition of behavior, error detection, insight)
      • Attention (focus on specific stimuli to the relative exclusion of others)
      • Memory (encoding, recall, recognition)
      • Working Memory (temporary storage and management of information)
      • Processing Speed (rate of processing stimuli and making use of it in thought and action)
    • Perspectives from the people who have it…
    • Qualitative Studies in FMS
      • Arnold et al. (2008) conducted a qualitative analysis of 48 FMS patients across the U.S.
      • Substantial negative impact on social and occupational functioning
      • Disrupted relationships, social isolation, reduced leisure activities, avoidance of physical activity, and career loss or inability to advance in career/education
      Arnold, L., Crofford, L., Mease, P., Burgess, S., Palmer, S., Abetz, L., Martin, S. (2008). Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia. Patient Education and Counseling 73: 114-120.
    • Qualitative Studies in FMS Physical Domain Pain Fatigue Disturbed sleep Emotional/Cognitive Domains Depression, anxiety Cognitive impairment (decreased concentration, disorganization) Memory problems Social Domain Disrupted family relationships Social isolation Disrupted relationships with friends Work/Activity Domains Reduced activities of daily living Reduced leisure activities/avoidance of physical activity Loss of career/inability to advance in career or education Arnold, L., Crofford, L., Mease, P., Burgess, S., Palmer, S., Abetz, L., Martin, S. (2008). Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia. Patient Education and Counseling 73: 114-120.
    • Qualitative Studies in FMS
      • Greatest impact on quality of life included pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment
      • Primary reported cognitive effects were on memory, thought processes, planning/organization, response time, word-finding and concentration
      • These impairments have collectively been referred to by patients as “fibro fog”
      • “ Fibro fog” is reported to affect a wide range of activities including driving, social interactions, and work-related tasks
      Arnold, L., Crofford, L., Mease, P., Burgess, S., Palmer, S., Abetz, L., Martin, S. (2008). Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia. Patient Education and Counseling 73: 114-120.
    • Qualitative Studies in FMS
      • Katz et al. (2004) investigated prevalence of reported cognitive difficulties in 57 patients with rheumatic disease with FMS and 57 patients without FMS
      • Compared to the non-FMS sample, FMS patients more frequently reported memory decline, mental confusion, and speech difficulty
      • Memory decline and mental confusion were coupled more often in FMS patients
      • FMS patients were found to be at considerably higher risk for cognitive difficulty
      Katz, R., Heard, A., Mills, M., Leavitt, F. (2004). The prevalence and clinical impact of reported cognitive difficulties (fibrofog) in patients with rheumatic disease with and without fibromyalgia. Journal of Clinic Rheumatology 10(2): 53-58.
    • Qualitative Studies in FMS Katz, R., Heard, A., Mills, M., Leavitt, F. (2004). The prevalence and clinical impact of reported cognitive difficulties (fibrofog) in patients with rheumatic disease with and without fibromyalgia. Journal of Clinic Rheumatology 10(2): 53-58.
    • Qualitative Studies in CFIDS
      • Afari & Buchwald (2003) suggest that cognitive problems are some of the most disruptive and debilitating symptoms reported in patients with CFS
      • 85% of patients describe impairments in attention, concentration, and memory function
      • In CFS these are known as “Brain Fog”
      Afari, N., Buchwald, D. (2003). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review. American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 221-236.
    • Qualitative Studies in CFIDS
      • Capuron et al. (2006) conducted a meta-analysis showing that 50-85% of patients with CFS report cognitive difficulties that contribute significantly to social and occupational dysfunction
      • Cognitive dysfunction manifests primarily in the form of concentration/attention problems, memory impairment, poor word-finding ability, decreased processing speed, motor slowing, and mental exhaustion
      Capuron, L., Welberg, L., Heim, C., Wagner, D., Solomon, L., Papanicolaou, D., Craddock, R., Miller, A., Reeves, W. (2006). Cognitive dysfunction relates to subjective report of mental fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1777-1784.
    • Summary of Findings
      • Patients with FMS and CFS report a number of cognitive impairments referred to as “Fibro Fog” and “Brain Fog” respectively
      • These impairments include attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and speech
      • These problems have a negative impact on daily function including driving, social interactions, and work tasks
    • Perspectives from the people who study it…
    • Quantitative Studies in FMS
      • Suhr (2003) studied neuropsychological test performance on 28 FMS patients, 27 chronic pain patients, and 21 healthy controls
      • Measures included depression, pain, fatigue, subjective cognitive complaints, memory, executive functioning, intellect, attention, and psychomotor speed
      • FMS patients had more memory complaints, reported greater fatigue, pain, and depression than other groups
      • Groups were not found to be different on testing after controlling for fatigue, pain, and depression
      • Depression related to memory performance
      • Fatigue related to psychomotor speed
      Suhr, J. (2003). Neuropsychological impairment in fibromyalgia: Relation to depression, fatigue, and pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 55(4): 321-329.
    • Quantitative Studies in FMS
      • Hoover (2006) investigated neuropsychological performance of 61 women with FMS that were age and education-matched to 63 healthy women
      • FMS patients were found to have significantly poorer performance on some measures of executive function, working memory, and sustained attention
      • Neuropsychological measures were not found to be more significant predictors of group membership than were measures of symptoms relevant to FMS
      Hoover, K. (2006). Neuropsychological function in Fibromyalgia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 66(9-B): 5090.
    • Quantitative Studies in CFIDS
      • Metzger et al. (2002) conducted a study examining discrepancies between perceived and actual performance by 40 CFS patients and 40 age and education matched healthy controls
      • Performance was compared on a measure of executive function
      • After correcting for differences between groups for depression, there were no differences found in actual performance on the test
      • CFS patients were found to consistently underestimate their performance relative to normal performance
      • Performance correlated with patient’s ratings of mental effort and fatigue
      Metzger, F., Denney, D. (2002). Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia. Patient Education and Counseling 73: 114-120.
    • Quantitative Studies in CFIDS
      • Majer et al. (2008) examined 58 CFS patients and 104 healthy controls on neuropsychological performance
      • Controlled for major psychiatric disorders and medications known to affect cognition
      • CFS patients were found to have significantly higher levels of impairment on tasks involving motor speed and working memory
      Majer, M., Welberg, L., Capuron, L., Miller, A., Pagnoni, G., Reeves, W. (2008). Neuropsychological performance in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Results from a population-based study. Psychosomatic Medicine 70: 829-836.
    • Summary of Findings
      • Many studies have found FMS and CFS patients exhibit deficits on neuropsychological testing
      • Areas of impairment included sustained attention, working memory, processing speed, and executive function
      • After controlling for factors such as pain, depression, and fatigue, performance was similar to that of healthy people
    • Possible Biological Explanations
      • cortisol levels
      • hippocampus is responsible for memory function
      • FMS patients have lower salivary-free cortisol levels
      • very low and very high cortisol levels affect hippocampal function
      • selective effects on verbal declarative memory, selective attention, and divided attention
      Sephton, S., Studts, J., Hoover, K., Weissbecker, I., Lynch, G., Ho, I., McGuffin, S., Salmon, P. (2003). Biological and psychological factors associated with memory function in Fibromylagia Syndrome. Health Psychology 22(6): 592-597.
    • Possible Biological Explanations
      • anti-68/48 kDa protein antibodies
      • more common in both CFS (13.2%) and FMS (15.6%) patients (Nishikai, et al., 2001)
      • suggests related immunological background
      • patients with antibodies presented more frequently with hypersomnia, short-term amnesia, and difficulty in concentration
      • may be used as a possible marker for fatigue and cognitive problems
      Nishikai, S. ,Tomomatsu, S., Hankins, R., Takagi, S., Miyachi, K., Kosaka, S., Akiya, K. (2001). Autoantibodies to a 68/48 kDa protein in chronic fatigue syndrome and primary fibromyalgia: a possible marker for hypersomnia and cognitive disorders. Rheumatology 40: 806-810.
    • Possible Biological Explanations
      • pain factors
      • pain has been shown to correlate highly with processing speed, working memory, free recall, and recognition memory (Park, et al. 2001)
      • pain and weakened immunity is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines
      • inflammatory cytokines affect appetite, sleep, and fatigue levels
      • pain affects serotonin and norepinephrine
      • pain medications (particularly opiates) have well-known effects on cognitive function
      Park, D., Glass, J., Minear, M., Crofford, L. (2001). Cognitive function in fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis & Rheumatism 44(9): 2125-2133.
    • Possible Psychological Explanations
      • clinical depression
      • 20% of FMS patients in one sample reported clinical levels of depression (Sephton et al., 2003)
      • correlated with immediate and delayed verbal memory performance in FMS
      • depression in FMS and CFS may also affect domains such as processing speed and attention
      Sephton, S., Studts, J., Hoover, K., Weissbecker, I., Lynch, G., Ho, I., McGuffin, S., Salmon, P. (2003). Biological and psychological factors associated with memory function in Fibromylagia Syndrome. Health Psychology 22(6): 592-597.
    • Coping With Cognitive Challenges The focus should be on addressing the “whole” person, not just the individual symptoms of FMS/CFIDS.
    • Medications
      • NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen sodium)
      • COX-2 Inhibitors (celecoxib)
      • SSRIs (fluoxetine, sertraline, escitalopram)
      • NDRIs (duloxetine)
      • SNRIs (milnacipran)
      • TCAs (amitriptyline)
      • AEDs (gabapentin, pregabalin)
    • Physical Therapy
      • range of motion exercises
      • flexibility
      • hydrotherapy
      • manual therapy (e.g. myofascial release, joint manipulation, massage)
      • gait alignment training
    • Psychotherapy
      • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
      • relaxation training
      • development of coping skills
      • treatment of related conditions (e.g. depression, insomnia, pain)
    • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
      • biofeedback therapy
      • Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
      • homeopathic approaches (e.g. Rhus Toxicodendron)
      • nutritional supplements (e.g. magnesium)
      • acupuncture
      • E.T.P.S.
    • Developing Compensatory Strategies Developing and implementing compensatory strategies should increase function and not simply provide “symptom relief.”
    • Compensating Through Use of Technology
      • computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation using computer games (e.g. BrainAge™ and HAPPYneuron™) to address processing speed, memory, and attention
      • PDAs and Smartphones to address memory and executive function/organizational skills
      • Pulse Smartpens™ to assist with memory and executive functioning
      • Speech recognition software (e.g. Dragon™) to address fatigue related to writing and note taking
    • Compensating Through Lifestyle Change
      • diet/nutritional changes (avoid aspartame, MSG, caffeine, simple carbohydrates, yeast, gluten, dairy, nightshade plants)
      • regular exercise (low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise at least 2x/week with strength training)
      • maintain a regular, consistent, paced routine (sleep/wake, meals, rest breaks)
      • stress reduction (relaxation, prayer/meditation, diaphragmatic breathing)
    • Compensating Through Environmental Change
      • avoid cold and/or damp environments
      • avoid exposure to strong odors
      • create rest environments void of distractions (e.g. silence cell phone, turn off computer etc.)
      • follow principles of sleep hygiene (e.g. bedtime rituals, bed for sleep/sex only, get up after 20 min. of unsuccessful sleep, etc.)
      • avoid overheating
      • reduce exposure to fluorescent lighting
    • Questions & Answers
    •