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  • 1. Endocrinology of reproduction
    • Reproductive System
  • 2. Anatomy of Male Reproductive System
    • Testes
    • Series of ducts
      • Epididymides
      • Ductus deferentia
      • Urethra
    • Accessory glands
      • Seminal vesicles
      • Prostate gland
      • Bulbourethral glands
    • Supporting structures
      • Scrotum
        • 2 chambered sac that contains testes
        • Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature
      • Penis
    • Perineum
      • Diamond-shaped areas between thighs
  • 3. Male Pelvis
  • 4. Testes
    • Glands
      • Exocrine
      • Endocrine
    • Compartments divided by septa
      • Seminiferous tubules
        • Empty into rete testis
        • Empties into efferent ductules
      • Interstitial or Leydig cells
    • Descent
      • Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum
    • Cryptorchidism
      • Failure of of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum
      • Prevents normal sperm development
  • 5. Histology of Testis
  • 6. Descent of Testes
  • 7. Sperm Cell Development
    • Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules
    • Spermatogonia divide ( mitosis ) to form primary spermatocytes
    • Primary spermatocytes ( first division of meiosis ) divide to form secondary spermatocytes
    • Secondary spermatocytes ( second division of meiosis ) divide to form spermatids
    • Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum
    • Sertoli cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood-testis barrier and produce hormones
  • 8. Spermatogenesis
  • 9. Meiosis
  • 10. Ducts
    • Epididymis
      • Site of sperm cell maturation
    • Ductus deferens or vas deferens
      • Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity
    • Ejaculatory duct
      • Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle
    • Urethra
      • Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis
      • Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids
      • 3 parts
        • Prostatic urethra
        • Membranous urethra
        • Spongy or penile urethra
  • 11. Male Reproductive Structures
  • 12. Penis
    • Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood
      • Corpora cavernosa (2)
      • Corpus spongiosum (1)
    • Glans penis
      • Prepuce or foreskin covers
        • Circumcision: Surgical removal
    • External urethra orifice
  • 13. Penis
  • 14. Accessory Glands
    • Seminal vesicles
      • Empty into ejaculatory duct
      • Produce about 60% of semen
    • Prostate gland
      • Produces about 30% of semen
    • Bulbourethral glands
      • Contribute about 5% to semen
    • Secretions
      • Semen
        • Composite of sperm cells and secretions
      • Emission
        • Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra
      • Ejaculation
        • Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra
  • 15. Regulation of Sex Hormone Secretion
    • Hypothalamus releases
      • GnRH or LHRH which stimulates
        • LH or ICSH to produce testosterone
        • FSH to stimulate sperm cell formation
        • Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary
  • 16. Puberty and Testosterone
    • Puberty
      • Age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction
        • Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release
        • During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release, resulting in increased FSH , LH , and testosterone
    • Testosterone
      • Produced by interstitial cells, adrenal cortex and sustentacular cells
      • Causes development of male sex organs in embryo, stimulates descent of testes, causes enlargement of genitals and necessary for sperm cell formation
  • 17. Male Sexual Behavior and Male Sex Act
    • Male sexual behavior
      • Testosterone required to initiate and maintain
    • Male sex act
      • Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation
      • Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution
  • 18. Neural Control of Erection
    • Stimulation
      • Tactile or psychological
      • Parasympathetic
        • Erection due to vasodilation of blood vessels
      • Sympathetic
        • Causes erection, emission, ejaculation
    • Erectile Dysfunction
  • 19. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System
    • Female reproductive organs
      • Ovaries
      • Uterine tubes
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
      • External genital organs
      • Mammary glands
  • 20. Female Pelvis
  • 21. Uterus, Vagina, Uterine Tubes, Ovaries and Supporting Ligaments
  • 22. Ovary Histology
  • 23. Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte
  • 24. Maturation and Fertilization of Oocyte
  • 25. Follicle and Oocyte Development
    • Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries
    • Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop
    • Primary oocytes are surround by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle
    • Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyte enlarges and cells change
    • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or graafian follicle
      • Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate
    • Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division to produce secondary oocyte and a polar body
    • Secondary oocyte begins second meiotic division, which stops in metaphase II
  • 26. Ovulation and Follicle Fate
    • Ovulation
      • Follicle swells and ruptures, secondary oocyte is released from ovary
      • Second meiotic division completed when secondary oocyte unites with sperm cell to form zygote
    • Fate of the follicle
      • Graafian follicle become corpus luteum
      • If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists
      • If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans
  • 27. Uterine Tubes and Uterus
    • Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts
      • Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary
      • Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus
    • Uterus
      • Parts : Body, isthmus, cervix
      • Composed of 3 layers
        • Perimetrium: Serous membrane
        • Myometrium: Smooth muscle
        • Endometrium: Mucous membrane
  • 28. Vagina and Perineum
    • Vagina
      • Female organ of copulation
      • Allows menstrual flow and childbirth
      • Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice
    • Perineum
      • Divided into two triangles
        • Urogenital: Contains the external genitalia
        • Anal triangle
    • Clinical perineum
      • Region between vagina and anus
      • Episiotomy: Incision to prevent tearing during childbirth
  • 29. Female External Genitalia
    • Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia
      • Vestibule : Space
        • Labia minora: Form borders on sides
        • Clitoris: Erectile structure
          • Corpora cavernosa
          • Corpora spongiosa
      • Labia majora
        • Unite to form mons pubis
  • 30. Female Perineum
  • 31. Mammary Glands
    • Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts
      • Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue
      • Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts
  • 32. Puberty and Menstrual Cycle
    • Puberty
      • Begins with menarche or first episode of menstrual bleeding
      • Begins when GnRH levels increase
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • About 28 days long
      • Phases
        • Menses
        • Proliferative phase
        • Secretory phase
        • Menses
      • Amenorrhea: Absence of a menstrual cycle
      • Menopause: Cessation of menstrual cycles
  • 33. Menstrual Cycle
  • 34. Hormone Regulation during Menstrual Cycle
  • 35. Female Sexual Behavior and Sex Act
    • Female sexual behavior
      • Depends on hormones
        • Androgens and steroids
      • Depends on psychological factors
    • Female sex act
      • Parasympathetic stimulation
        • Blood engorgement in clitoris and around vaginal opening
        • Erect nipples
        • Mucouslike fluid extruded into vagina and through wall
      • Orgasm not necessary for fertilization to occur
  • 36. Female Fertility and Pregnancy
    • Female fertility
      • Sperm ejaculated into vagina during copulation and transported through cervix and uterine tubes to ampulla
      • Sperm cells undergo capacitation
    • Pregnancy
      • Oocyte can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation
      • Sperm cells can be viable for up to 6 days in female tract
      • Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation occurs anywhere other than uterine cavity
  • 37. Sperm Cell Movement
  • 38. Changes in Hormones During Pregnancy
  • 39. Control of Pregnancy
    • Behavioral methods
      • Abstinence
      • Coitus interruptus
      • Rhythm method
    • Barrier methods
      • Condom
        • Male and female
      • Diaphragm
      • Cervical cap
      • Spermicidal agents
    • Lactation
    • Chemical methods
      • Oral contraceptives
      • Injections as Depo-Provera
      • Implants
      • Morning-after pills
    • Surgical methods
      • Vasectomy
      • Tubal ligation
      • Abortions
  • 40. Effects of Aging
    • Male
      • Decrease in size and weight of testes
      • Decrease in sperm production
      • Prostate gland enlarges and increase in cancer
      • Impotence is age-related
      • Decrease in sexual activity
    • Female
      • Menopause
      • Decrease in size of uterus and vaginal wall thins
      • Age related increase in breast, uterine, ovarian cancer