Chapter 13 Endocrine System

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  • 1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM CHAPTER 13 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
  • 2. STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • PITUITARY GLAND
    • THYROID GLAND
    • PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • ADRENAL GLANDS
    • PANCREAS
    • THYMUS
    • PINEAL GLAND
    • GONADS
  • 3. THE SECRETIONS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • The endocrine system secretes a substance we call hormones
    • What are hormones?
    • Hormones are a chemical product of a gland that exerts its effect in an organ at a distant site.
    • The chemical is carried by the blood system to the distant organ
  • 4. PITUITARY GLAND
    • Sometimes called the master gland
    • Acts in response to stimuli from the hypothalamus
    • Contains two distinct lobes
      • Anterior pituitary gland
      • Posterior pituitary gland
  • 5. ANTERIOR LOBE
    • ANTERIOR LOBE
    • Secretes several hormones
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • Luteinizing Hormone
    • Lactogenic hormone
    • Growth hormone
    • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • 6. POSTERIOR LOBE
    • Posterior lobe secretes two hormones
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • Oxytocin
  • 7. THYROID GLAND
    • A critical yet perplexing organ
    • Thyroid hormone controls our entire metabolic system
    • Controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands
    • Secretes two thyroid hormones
      • Thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
      • Calcitonin
  • 8. THYROID GLAND DISEASES
    • Diseases are quite common and affect both sexes
    • Hyperthyroidism --an overactive thyroid which means the metabolism is entirely too brisk
    • Graves disease --the body inappropriately creates antibodies that attach to the thyroid
    • Hypothyroidism --the gland isn’t producing enough of the thyroid hormones
  • 9. PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • USUALLY 4 OF THEM
    • SECRETES A HORMONE CALLED THE PARATHYROID HORMONE
    • REGULATES THE AMOUNT OF CALCIUM IN THE BLOOD
  • 10. ADRENAL GLANDS
    • ADRENAL CORTEX
    • Secretes a group of hormones called corticoids which include
    • Aldosterone
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Androgens
    • ADRENAL MEDULLA
    • Secretes two hormones
    • Epinephrine or adrenaline
    • Norepinephrine or noradrenaline
  • 11. PANCREAS
    • Contain special cells called the islets of Langerhans
    • Plays a major role in the metabolism of sugars and starches
    • Secretes insulin that regulates the transport of glucose and glucagon
  • 12. DIABETES MELLITUS
    • A metabolic disorder that is the result of inadequate secretion of insulin by the pancreas.
    • Several types of diabetes
      • Insulin-dependent diabetes
      • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes
      • Gestational diabetes
  • 13. INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES
    • Commonly called type I diabetes
    • A Disease that affects the way your body uses food
    • Your body destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin
    • Generally must tape shots
    • There is no direct known cause of diabetes
  • 14. SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
    • High levels of sugar in the blood & urine
    • Frequent urination
    • Extreme hunger
    • Extreme thirst
    • Extreme weight loss
    • Weakness and tiredness
    • Mood changes
    • Sick to the stomach
  • 15. NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES
    • The most common type of diabetes
    • Called Type 2 diabetes
    • Your body does not make enough insulin or still makes insulin but can’t properly use it
    • Usually occurs in people over 45 and overweight
  • 16. SYMPTOMS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
    • Increased thirst
    • Increased need to urinate
    • Feel edgy and tired
    • Sick to the stomach
    • May have increased appetite, but lose weight
    • Hard to heal infections
    • Blurred vision
    • Dry, itchy skin
  • 17. ADDITIONAL DIABETIC PROBLEMS
    • HYPOGLYCEMIA--LOW BLOOD SUGAR
    • HYPERGLYCEMIA--HIGH BLOOD SUGAR
    • KETOACIDOSIS--A DIABETIC COMA
  • 18. WHAT IS INSULIN
    • Inside the pancreas, beta cells make the protein insulin
    • With each meal, beta cells release insulin.
    • Insulin takes the sugars that your body creates during the digestion of food and carries these sugar into the cells.
    • There are almost 30 types of insulin made in the US
    • Insulin comes from either animals or is made in labs by bacteria that have gene instructions to make human insulin
  • 19. THE THYMUS
    • Located behind the sternum
    • Plays a critical part in the body’s defense mechanism
    • Secretes the hormone thymosin
  • 20. THE PINEAL GLAND
    • Produces a number of hormones in small quantities
    • Secretes Melatonin
    • Secretes Serotonin
  • 21. GONADS
    • Are the ovaries and testes which are the gamete or egg producing glands.
    • They secrete several hormones
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Testosterone
  • 22. STEROIDS
    • Hormones produces by the body
    • Medications taken by humans to duplicate the actions of these hormones
    • Anabolic Steroids
  • 23.