ANIMAL SCIENCES SCIENCE DEVELOPMENTS IN TRANSGENIC ANIMAL ENGINEERING AND ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ADVISORY COMM...
Biotechnologies, Animal Production, and Animal Health 1945 to 1995 <ul><li>Milk Production Up 3-Fold </li></ul><ul><li>Egg...
Research Driven Biotechnologies in Animal Agriculture and Biomedical Research <ul><li>IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF: </li></ul...
BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>ESTABLISHED: BREEDING AND GENETICS </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Models Predict Breeding Values </...
BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Insemination </...
BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>GAMETE AND EMBRYO MANIPULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED </li></ul><ul><li>Superovulation, Em...
Embryo Splitting
IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Transfer: 40,000-50,...
BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>IMPACTING LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid Growth Stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Bovine ...
EMERGING BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>SPERM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL EXPRESSION VECTORS – SPERM UPTAKE </...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>EXPRESSION OF ECTOPIC DNA IN RATS </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH cDNA DRIVEN BY SYNTHETIC MUSCLE-SPE...
 
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>EXPRESSION OF ECTOPIC DNA IN  PIGS </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH cDNA DRIVEN BY SYNTHETIC MUSCLE-SP...
IGF1 SNP 5A Allele and Size of Dog
Why Clone Animals <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Development, aging, cancer, models for biomedical research </li></ul>...
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ANIMAL SCIENCES SCIENCE DEVELOPMENTS IN TRANSGENIC ANIMAL ...

  1. 1. ANIMAL SCIENCES SCIENCE DEVELOPMENTS IN TRANSGENIC ANIMAL ENGINEERING AND ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON BIOTECHNOLGY AND 21 ST CENTURY AGRICULTURE
  2. 2. Biotechnologies, Animal Production, and Animal Health 1945 to 1995 <ul><li>Milk Production Up 3-Fold </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs/Year Up 134 to 254 </li></ul><ul><li>Broilers Days to 1.8 kg: Reduced from 84 to 43 Days and one-half the feed </li></ul><ul><li>Leaner and Faster Growing Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Leaner and More Efficient Beef Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Improvement in Animal Health </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Driven Biotechnologies in Animal Agriculture and Biomedical Research <ul><li>IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF: </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrinology </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics/Genomics </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Health/Disease Resistance </li></ul>
  4. 4. BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>ESTABLISHED: BREEDING AND GENETICS </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Models Predict Breeding Values </li></ul><ul><li>Sire Testing and Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Crossbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGING </li></ul><ul><li>Marker Assisted Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)/Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Gene Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous Recombination </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering Through Sperm </li></ul>
  5. 5. BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Reversal (Fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Incubation of Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Control </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGING </li></ul><ul><li>SEX CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>TRAIT SELECTION </li></ul>
  6. 6. BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>GAMETE AND EMBRYO MANIPULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISHED </li></ul><ul><li>Superovulation, Embryo Collection and Transfer, IVM and IVF, Embryo Splitting and Cloning from Blastomeres </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGING </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) </li></ul><ul><li>SCNT for Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Epigenetics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Embryo Splitting
  8. 8. IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Transfer: 40,000-50,000 Calves/Year </li></ul><ul><li>IVM/IVF: 4,000 Calves in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomere Nuclear Transfer Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>(61 males and 126 females) </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Splitting (754 males and 1,472 females) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: NAAB 1996 and Holstein Associate 2001 </li></ul>
  9. 9. BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>IMPACTING LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid Growth Stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Bovine Somatotropin - Increase Milk Yield </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGING </li></ul><ul><li>SPERM-MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER ECTOPIC DNA CONSTRUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>GENOME SIGNAL PROCESSING –Systems Biology </li></ul>
  10. 10. EMERGING BIOTECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>SPERM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL EXPRESSION VECTORS – SPERM UPTAKE </li></ul><ul><li>DNA POSITIVE PIGS – 0 TO 88% </li></ul><ul><li>DNA POSITIVE – mRNA POSITIVE – 41-100% </li></ul><ul><li>EFFICIENT AND INEXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>STABLE INTEGRATION OF TRANSGENE </li></ul><ul><li>RANDOM INSERTION OF TRANSGENE </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE POSITION EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>LETHAL EFFECTS OF EXPRESSION VECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>VL30 (50 ng) vs PCMVhGH (1000 ng)/1 million sperm </li></ul><ul><li>LAVITRANO ET AL. MOL REPROD DEV 64:284 </li></ul>
  11. 11. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>EXPRESSION OF ECTOPIC DNA IN RATS </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH cDNA DRIVEN BY SYNTHETIC MUSCLE-SPECIFIC PROMOTER: </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE GROWTH HORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE IGF-I </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE FETAL-PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE BIRTHWEIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERED PITUITARY SOMATOTROPHS AND LACTOTROPHS IN PUPS </li></ul><ul><li>KHAN ET AL. 2002; DRAGHIA-AKLI 2002 </li></ul>
  12. 13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>EXPRESSION OF ECTOPIC DNA IN PIGS </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH cDNA DRIVEN BY SYNTHETIC MUSCLE-SPECIFIC PROMOTER: </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVIER BIRTH WEIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVIER WEANING WEIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE SERUM IGF-I </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE IN PITUITARY SOMATOTROPHS AND LACTOTROPHS (BIRTH AND 100 KG) </li></ul><ul><li>KHAN et al. 2003, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285:E224-E231. </li></ul>
  13. 14. IGF1 SNP 5A Allele and Size of Dog
  14. 15. Why Clone Animals <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Development, aging, cancer, models for biomedical research </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype replication, genetic conservation, genetic engineering </li></ul>
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