ADIPOSE CELLS Kibbe Sandin 11/21/05
<ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>-Types of tissue  </li></ul><ul><li>- Storage of Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Components of A...
<ul><li>There are four main tissue types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connective tis...
<ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue is another loose form of connective tissue  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-  stores fat in adipose...
<ul><li>Adipose cells store fat  </li></ul><ul><li>Swell when fat is stored and shrink when the fat is used as fuel.  </li...
<ul><li>Key components of adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>neutral glycerol esters – part of a group of Carboxylic acids </...
<ul><li>Bonding of carboxylic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxylic acids are the most acidic class of compounds that contain...
<ul><li>Found? </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly beneath the skin - panniculus adiposus   </li></ul><ul><li>deposits between the mu...
<ul><li>Purpose – Uses… </li></ul><ul><li>fuel reserve  </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of heat of the body  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>White – single large lipid  </li></ul><ul><li>vacuole  directly  </li></ul><ul><li>below s...
<ul><li>When adipocytes (adipose cells) fill with lipid and get to a critical size, it results in an increase in their num...
<ul><li>Lipogenesis is the deposition of fat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Lipolysis is the chemical decomposition and release of fa...
 
<ul><li>Adipose cells related to cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between adipocytokines (adipose tissue hormone) an...
<ul><li>Insulin and Adipose cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin well known to play a key  </li></ul><ul><li>role in adipose d...
<ul><ul><li>Mouse study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stromal cell line used – differentiation by  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose Tissue,  Encyclopedia Britannica , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Ann L. Albright, Ju...
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ADIPOSE CELLS Kibbe Sandin 11/21/05

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ADIPOSE CELLS Kibbe Sandin 11/21/05

  1. 1. ADIPOSE CELLS Kibbe Sandin 11/21/05
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>-Types of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>- Storage of Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Adipose tissue and how they bond </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to Insulin </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are four main tissue types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nervous tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle tissue </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue is another loose form of connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- stores fat in adipose cells that is distributed throughout the matrix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this store fat? ….. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Adipose cells store fat </li></ul><ul><li>Swell when fat is stored and shrink when the fat is used as fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Key in storing fuel molecules and insulating and padding the body </li></ul><ul><li>fat stored in these cells – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fats eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufactured within the body from fats, carbohydrates and protein in the food </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Key components of adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>neutral glycerol esters – part of a group of Carboxylic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Stearic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Oleic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH=CH(CH 2 ) 7 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Palmitic acids CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Bonding of carboxylic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxylic acids are the most acidic class of compounds that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Lipophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Amphiphilic </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Found? </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly beneath the skin - panniculus adiposus </li></ul><ul><li>deposits between the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>among the intestines and in their mesentery </li></ul><ul><li>around the heart </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Purpose – Uses… </li></ul><ul><li>fuel reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of heat of the body </li></ul><ul><li>forms soft and elastic pads between the various organs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>White – single large lipid </li></ul><ul><li>vacuole directly </li></ul><ul><li>below skin </li></ul><ul><li>Brown – multiple lipid vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interscapular region and the axillae </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>When adipocytes (adipose cells) fill with lipid and get to a critical size, it results in an increase in their numbers </li></ul><ul><li>This critical size does not occur with moderate overfeeding, but rather long term </li></ul><ul><li>Once new adipocytes are formed, they remain throughout life and only a reduction in size of the cell is possible </li></ul><ul><li>This increased number of adipocytes has consequences for the treatment and prevention of obesity </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lipogenesis is the deposition of fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipolysis is the chemical decomposition and release of fat from adipose tissue. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Adipose cells related to cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between adipocytokines (adipose tissue hormone) and cell regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Leptin : main effect is regulation of homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, blood pressure reglation, bone formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Adioponecctin: protein exclusive in white adipose cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Well documented that obesity increases risk of prostate, breast and colon cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Leptin – shown to stimulate growth migration and invasion of cancer cells in vitro,promoting malignant biological behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Insulin and Adipose cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin well known to play a key </li></ul><ul><li>role in adipose differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin signals for Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin is a major hormone controlling energy function due to insulin binding to receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large lipid droplets observed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol released form cells increased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose uptake increased </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>Mouse study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stromal cell line used – differentiation by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treating cells with alpha –MEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(a mimal essential medium for in vitro experimentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preadipocyte cell line – cultured in DMEM and Dex ( dexamethasone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation initiated by addition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stromal line was found to be able to convert to mature adipose cells and accumulate tryglicerides and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing stimulation between intracellular signaling = easy reaction and binding = easy growth and multiplication </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose Tissue, Encyclopedia Britannica , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Ann L. Albright, Judith S. Stern, Adipose Tissue, Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science , May 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher F. Lurat, Klaus Natter, Julia Petshnig, Heino Wolinski, Kim Scheuringer, Harald Scholz, Robert Zimmerman, Regina Leber, Rudolf Zechner, Sepp D. Kohlein, Obese yeast: Triglycerides Lipolysis is Funtionally conserved from Mammals to Yeast, JBC Papers in Press. Nov. 2, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>D. Housa, J. Housova, Z. Vernerova, M. Haluzik, Adipocytes and Cancer, Psychological Research Pre-Press Article, 1-22 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard Napolitano Ph.D., The Differentiation of White Adipose Cells: An Electron Microscope Study, The Journal of Cell Biology , Vol. 18, 663-679, 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Satoshi Morito, Kuniko Yaguchi, Mikki Imada, Chihiro Tachikawa, Masaaki Nomuro, Shuzo Moritani, Manabu Igarashi, Kiochi Yokogawa, Ken-ichi Miyamoto, Insulin Signaling in Adipocytes Differentiated form Mouse Stromal MC3T3-G2/PA6 Cells , Biology Pharmacy Bullitin , Vol. 28, No. 11, 2040-2045, July 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Varastehpour Ali, Radaelli Tatjana, Minium Judi, Ortega Henar, Herrera Emilio, Castalano Patrick, Hauguel-de Mouzon Sylvie, Activation of Phospholipase A2 is associated with Generation of Placental Lipid Signals and Fetal Obesity , Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism . October 25, 2005 </li></ul>
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