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    2005-06 training ove.. 2005-06 training ove.. Document Transcript

    • Level-4 Honours Option: Training, Overtraining & Drugs in Sport 2005-2006
    • Summary of essential information........................................................................................ 3 First meeting of class........................................................................................................... 3 Lectures ............................................................................................................................... 3 Degree exam........................................................................................................................ 3 Electronic contacts with whole PSS L4 class....................................................................... 3 Option organiser................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 4 Aim of the Option.................................................................................................................. 4 Learning objectives.............................................................................................................. 4 Timetable 2006..................................................................................................................... 4 Candlemas - Weeks 13-17.............................................................................................4 Training.........................................................................................................................6 Overtraining..................................................................................................................7 Halson, S and Jeukendrup, A. Does Overtraining Exist?: An Analysis of Overreaching and Overtraining Research. Sports Medicine. 34, no. 14, pp. 967-981 (15) 2004.............. 7 Overtraining - Its Effects on the Endocrine System......................................................7 Drugs in sport................................................................................................................8 Other information................................................................................................................ 10 Staff.............................................................................................................................10
    • Summary of essential information First meeting of class Mon 9th Jan, 09.00 hrs (Bower 248) Lectures Mon & Fri: 09.00hrs Mon & Fri: 13.00 and 14.00hrs Drugs and Sport Laboratory classes 14.00- 17.00 hrs Group subdivision will be carried out at the first Drugs and Sport class. Degree exam One written paper Provisional date: May 2006 Electronic contacts with whole PSS L4 class E-mail: class@gla.ac.uk (427j) Option organiser Dr Andy Cathcart, Room 209 West Medical Building, Tel: Ext. 2585 E-mail: A.Cathcart@bio.gla.ac.uk
    • Introduction This Option consists of 19 hours of lectures, a debate and a 3 hour laboratory session. It is designed principally for students continuing from L3 Physiology & Sports Science (PSS). Aim of the Option The aim of this Option is to equip students to understand the main issues relating to training, overtraining and drugs in sport. Learning objectives By the end of this course you should be able to read with comprehension, and critically discuss, current research papers in the following subject areas: • Principles of training • Aerobic Training – including mode, specificity, frequency, duration and intensity • Strength Training – including mode, specificity, frequency, duration and intensity • Altitude Training – effect on altitude and sea level performance • Overtraining – including causes and effects of overtraining • Overtraining – impact on endocrine function • Overtraining and the immune system • Drugs and Sport – including the effects of drugs in sport, doping control and drug detection Timetable 2006 Candlemas - Weeks 13-17 Week 13 9 January 09.00-10.00 (Bower 2481) Introduction & Principles of Training {AJC} 9 January 13.00-14.00 (JB A5042) Training for Middle & Long Distance Events {AJC} 13 January 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT3) Novel Training Strategies for Endurance Performance {AJC} 13 January 13.00-15.00 (Med Sch SEM24) Training for Sprint and Power Events {AJC} Week 14 16 January 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Overtraining – An Introduction {AJC} 16 January 14.00-15.00 (Med Sch SEM2) Drugs and Sport {RA} 20 January 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Overtraining and Immune Function {AC} 20 January 10.00-11.00 (Gloag LT) Cardiovascular adaptations to training – from cell to organ (OK) 20 January 14.00-15.00 (Med Sch SEM2) Overtraining and Immune Function {AC} Week 15 23 January 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Overtraining and Immune Function {AC} 23 January 14.00-15.00 (JB C4075) Overtraining and Immune Function {AC} 27 January 14.00-16.00 (Med Sch SEM2) Overtraining and Endocrinology {DG} Week 16 30 January 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Drugs and Sport {RA} 30 January 14.00-15.00 (JB C407) Drugs and Sport {RA} 3 February 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Drugs and Sport {RA} 3 February 14.00-17.00 (Forensic Medicine) Drugs and Sport lab sessions {RA}
    • Week 17 7 February 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Drugs and Sport {RA} 7 February 14.00-17.00 (Forensic Medicine) Drugs and Sport lab sessions {RA} 11 February 09.00-10.00 (Gloag LT) Drugs and Sport {RA} 11 February 11.00-12.00 (t.b.c) Debate – How to train an endurance athlete (AJC) 11 February 14.00-17.00 (Forensic Medicine) Drugs and Sport lab sessions {RA} 1 Bower 248 – Bower Building: Room 248 (Seminar Room) 2 JB A504 – Joseph Black Building A504 3 Gloag LT – Gloag Lecture Theatre, Law building (8 Professor Square) 4 Med Sch SEM2 – Wolfson Medical School Building, Seminar Room 2, (Hugh Fraser) 5 JB C407 – Joseph Black Building C407
    • Suggested Reading Training Adams, W.C., Bernauer, E.M., Dill, D.B., & Bomar, J.B. Effects of equivalent sea level and altitude . training on V O2max and running performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 39, 262-266. 1975. American College of Sports Medicine "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Adults". Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Vol 30. (6 ): 975-991, 1998. Chapman RF. Stray-Gundersen J. Levine BD. Individual variation in response to altitude training. Journal of Applied Physiology,. 85(4):1448-56, 1998. Daniels, J., & Oldridge, N. The effects of alternate exposure to altitude and sea level on world-class middle-distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports, 2, 107-112. 1970. Fox, E.L., Bowers, R.W., Foss, M.L., "Development of Muscular Strength, Endurance and Flexibility" in "The Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport". Fifth Edition. Wm C.Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 158-199,. 1993. Hahn AG. & Gore CJ. The effect of altitude on cycling performance: a challenge to traditional concepts. [Review] Sports Medicine. 31(7):533-57, 2001. Hawley JA & Stepto NK. Adaptations to Training in Endurance Cyclists: Implications for Performance. Sports Medicine 31 (7): 511-520, 2001 Kraemer W.J. & Ratamess N.A. Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Medicine vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 339-361(23) 2005 Levine, B. D. Stray-Gundersen J. The effects of altitude training are mediated primarily by acclimatization, rather than by hypoxic exercise. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology, 502:75-88, 2001. Stray-Gundersen J. Chapman RF. Levine BD. "Living high-training low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. Journal of Applied Physiology. 91(3):1113-20, 2001 McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L., "Exercise Training and Adaptations in Functional Capacity, Training the Anaerobic and Aerobic Energy Systems" "Training Muscles to Become Stronger", In 'Essentials of Exercise Physiology.' Second Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia/London, 354-425. 2000. Noakes, T. The Lore Of Running. Leisure Press. Champaign. Illinois. 1991 Rusko, H., Tikkanen, H., Peltonen, J. Altitude and endurance training. Journal of Sports Sciences 22: 928-945, 2004. Saunders, P.U., R. D. Telford, D. B. Pyne, R. B. Cunningham, C. J. Gore, A. G. Hahn, and J. A. Hawley Improved running economy in elite runners after 20 days of simulated moderate-altitude exposure Journal of Applied Physiology, 96: 931 - 937. 2004. Skinner, J.S., "General Principles of Exercise Prescription" in "Exercise Testing and Exercise Prescription for Special Cases" (Ed J.S. Skinner). Philadelphia. Lea & Febiger, 21-30, 1987. Spengler CM & Boutellier U. Breathless Legs? Consider Training Your Respiration. News Physiol Sci 15: 101-105, 2000 Stray-Gundersen J. Levine BD."Living high and training low" can improve sea level performance in endurance athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 33(3):150-1, 1999. Weltman, A. The blood lactate response to exercise. Current Issues In Exercise Science. Mongraph Number 4. Human Kinetics. Champaign. Illinois. 1995.
    • Overtraining Halson, S and Jeukendrup, A. Does Overtraining Exist?: An Analysis of Overreaching and Overtraining Research. Sports Medicine. 34, no. 14, pp. 967-981 (15) 2004. Budgett R ; Newsholme E ; Lehmann M ; Sharp C ; Jones D ; Peto T ;Collins D ; Nerurkar R; White P Redefining the overtraining syndrome as the unexplained underperformance syndrome. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34 (1): 67-8, 2000. Budgett R Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32 (2): 107-10, 1998. Hartmann U ; Mester J; Training and overtraining markers in selected sport events. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32 (1): 209-15, 2000 Kreider, R. B., Fry, A.C. and O’Toole. Overtraining in Sport. Human Kinetics 1997. Kuipers H Training and overtraining: an introduction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30 (7): 1137-9 1998. Rowbottom DG ; Keast D ; Morton AR The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Medicine, 21 (2): 80-97, 1996. International Olympic Committee Website: http://www.ioc.org Overtraining - Its Effects on the Endocrine System Barron, J.L., Noakes, T.D., Levy, W., Smith, C. & Millar, R.P. “Hypothalamic dysfunction in overtrained athletes”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 69 : 803-806, 1985. Boyden, T.W., Pamenter, R.W., Grosso, D., Stanworth, P., Rotkis, T. & Wilmore, J.H. “Prolactin responses, menstrual cycles, and body composition of women runners”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 54 : 711-713, 1982. Brouns, F., Saris, W.H.M. & Rehrer, N.J. “Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long-lasting exercise”. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 175-189, 1987. Carbon, R.J. “Exercise, amenorrhoea and the skeleton”. British Medical Bulletin 48 : 546-560, 1992. Crawford, E., Gilmore, D. & James W.H. “Running in the family”. Nature 357 : 272, 1992. Cumming, D.C. “The reproductive effects of exercise and training”. Current Problems in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility, Volume X No. 6 : 227-285, 1987. Cumming, D.C., Wheeler, G.D. & McColl, E.M. “The effects of exercise on reproductive function in men”. Sports Medicine, 7 : 1-17, 1989. De Cree, C. “The possible involvement of endogenous opioid peptides and catecholestrogens in provoking menstrual irregularities in women athletes”. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11 : 329-348, 1990. Eichner, E.R. “Overtraining : consequences and prevention”. Journal of Sports Sciences 13 : S41-S48, 1995. Fry, R. W., Morton, A.R. & Keast, D. “Overtraining in athletes”. Sports Medicine, 12 : 32-64, 1991. Fry AC ; Kraemer WJ Resistance exercise overtraining and overreaching. Neuroendocrine responses. Sports Medicin,e 23 (2): 106-29, 1997. Hackney, A.C. “The male reproductive system and endurance exercise”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 28, 180-189, 1996. Hackney, A.C., Sinning, W.E. & Bruot, B.C. “Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function in endurance-trained males”. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11 : 298-303, 1990. Kindermann, W. “Overtraining - an expression of faulty-regulated development”. Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmediizin, 37 : 238-245, 1986. Kujala, U.M., Alen, M. & Huhtaniemi, I.T. “GnRH and hCG tests reveal that both hypothalamic and testicular endocrine functions are suppressed during acute prolonged physical exercise”. Clinical Endocrinology, 33 : 219-225, 1990.
    • Micklesfield, T.D., Lambert, E.V., Fataar, A.B., Noakes, T.D. & Myburgh, K.H. “Bone mineral density in mature pre-menopausal marathon runners”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27 : 688-696, 1995. Puhl, J.L. & Brown, C.H. (Editors) “The Menstrual Cycle and Physical Activity”. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Champaign, Illinois. 1986. Stone, M.H., Keith, R.E., Kearney, J.T., Fleck, S.J., Wilson, G.D. & Triplett, N.T. “Overtraining: a review of the signs, symptoms and possible causes”. Journal of Applied Sports Science Research, 5 : 35-50, 1991. Tanaka, H., Cleroux, J., de Champlain, J., Ducharme, J.R. & Collu, R. (1986) “Persistent effects of a marathon run on the pituitary-testicular axis”. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 9 : 97-101. 1986. Vervoorn, C., Quist, A.M., Vermulst, L.J.M., Erich, W.B.M., de Vries, W.R. & Thijssen, J.H.H. “The behaviour of the plasma free testosterone/cortisol ratio during a season of elite rowing training”. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12 : 257-263, 1991. Wheeler, G.D., Wall, S.R., Belcastro, A.N. & Cumming, D.C. “Reduced serum testosterone and prolactin levels in male distance runners”. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252 : 514-516, 1984. Immunity and Overtraining Rowbottom, D.G., Keast,D. Morton, A.L. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Medicine, 21(2) 80-97 (1996) Rowbottom,D.G.and Green K.J. Acute exercise effects on the immune system. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(7) S396-S405 (2000) Walsh,N.P.,Blannin,A.K., Robson,P.J. & Gleeson,M. Glutamine,exercise and immune function. Sports Medicine, 26(3) 177-191 (1998) Castell,L. Glutamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo in exercise and immunodepression. Sports Medicine, 33(5) 323-345 (2003) Lakier Smith,L. Overtraining, excessive exercise and altered immunity. Is this a Th1 versus Th2 response? Sports Medicine, 33(5) 347-364 (2003) Robson,P.J. Elucidating the unexplained underperformance syndrome in endurance athletes. The Il-6 hypothesis. Sports Medicine, 33(10) 771-781 (2003) Mackinnon,L.T. Overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes Immunology and Cell Biology, 78(5) 502-509 (2000) Nieman,D.C. Is infection risk linked to exercise workload ? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(7) S406-S411 (2000) Drugs in sport From the WADA Web Site: http://www.wada-ama.org/en/t1.asp • The World Anti-Doping Code and associated List, Monitoring Programme and summary of modifications for 2005 • WADA Annual Report for 2003 (at http://www.wada-ama.org/en/tarchive.asp?p=41277&x=1&a=104523) • International Standard for Testing From UK Sport: http://www.uksport.gov.uk/
    • • Annual Review 2002/3 BBC Web Site: news review on drugs in sport Many articles available on-line e.g.: Development and Characterisation of Novel Erythropoiesis Stimulating Protein (NESP),British Journal of Cancer, 84 (Suppl. 1), 3-10 (2001). Articles in special issue of J. Endocrinology, 170, 13-48 (2001). Unhealthy competition, EMBO Reports, 4, No 10, 927 (2003). Gene Transfer and athletes: an impending crisis, Molecular Therapy, 3, No 6, 819 (2001). Correlations of GH and IGF-1: effects of exercise and abuse by athletes. Clin Chim Acta, 305, 1-17 (2001). The Future of Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport, the Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol 30 - NO. 11 - November 2002. Hartgens F. Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Medicine, 34(8):513-54, 2004. Unal M. Ozer Unal D. Gene doping in sports. Sports Medicine, 34(6):357-62, 2004. Pascual JA. Belalcazar V. de Bolos C. Gutierrez R. Llop E. Segura J. Recombinant erythropoietin and analogues: a challenge for doping control. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 26(2):175-9, 2004 Apr. Schumacher YO. Ashenden M. Doping with artificial oxygen carriers: an update. Sports Medicine,. 34(3):141-50, 2004. Evans NA. Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(2):534-42, 2004 Mar. Sports drug testing--an analyst's perspective. Chemical Society Reviews, 33(1):1-13, 2004 Jan 10. Drugs in Sport, D. Mottram, 2nd Ed, E & FN Spon Pub. (1996). Drugs in Sport, BMA Board of Science and Education (2002).
    • Other information Staff Course Co-ordinator Dr Andy Cathcart (AJC) Room 209, West Medical Building Tel: (330) 2585 E-mail: A.Cathcart@bio.gla.ac.uk Lecturers Prof A. Campbell (AC) Room 426 Davidson Building Tel: (330) 4627 E-mail: A.Campbell@bio.gla.ac.uk Dr D. Gilmore (DG) Room 133, Thomson Building (Laboratory of Human Anatomy) Tel: (330) 5961 E-mail: D.Gilmore@bio.gla.ac.uk Dr R. Anderson (RA) Room A266 Joseph Black Building Tel: (330) 4574 E-mail: R.A.Anderson@formed. gla.ac.uk Dr Ole Kemi Room 416B West Medical Building Tel (330) 5962 E-mail: O.Kemi@bio.gla.ac.uk Students calling unsuccessfully at staff offices are encouraged to leave notes saying when they expect to try again.