Module 1 Nature & Environment
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Module 1 Nature & Environment Module 1 Nature & Environment Document Transcript

  • EST PANEL SASER ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY THEME: NATURE & ENVIRONMENT RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 1
  • ***Text book ( unit 1 – unit 3 ) WORKING HAND IN HAND TO CLEAN UP BRANTAS RIVER 1 In the past, the Brantas River, which runs through Malang, provided thousands of people with their daily water needs. In those days, people used the water from the river for drinking, cooking and washing. 2 Previously, people also used to throw household waste into the river without causing much harm. The waste was mostly organic and so was biodegradable. For example, goods that people bought in the market were wrapped in banana leaves, which quickly rotted away. 3 In the 50’s, however, plastic was introduced to wrap goods. Plastic does not disappear quickly, and it is a toxic substance. There were now many items in household bins that were dangerous to the environment. At the same time, factories and industries appeared, and these caused serious problems, as they dumped their waste in the river. 4 At first, people didn’t notice that there was anything wrong. The river usually carried away all the garbage and people forgot about it. But then the amount of garbage increased with the increase in population and the number of factories, thus the river became blocked in places. Blockages, were often due to metal and plastic items which did not rot away. This meant that the garbage stayed in the same place and the water became polluted. It became unsafe for drinking it was also unpleasant to be near the river as it stank from all the rotting garbage. 5 People began to grumble about the Brantas river condition. Everyone was aware of the situation, and so when the Malang municipal authorities set up a campaign to clean up the river, the residents were keen to be actively involved. After all, gotong royong, or community service is part of Indonesian tradition. 6 On that gotong royong day, 30,000 residents of Malang turned up to participate. It was a wonderful thing to see old and young, men and women, army personnel and students working hand in hand on this environment project. Their faces were full of joy and camaraderie: differences of race, age, rank, and religion were set aside. Nothing stopped them from taking part, not even slippery roads, the bad smell of water, heavy rain, or the heat of the sun: they were determined to get the job done. 7 Even though each person cleaned just a small part of the river, the collective effort of all those people succeeded in cleaning up the river. Nobody could take a drink of water from it, and it took some time before fish lived in it again, but the community had taken a vital step. Each person after that day looked at the river with pride; it belonged to each one of them and each had taken care of it. They knew that they had to continue to take care of it to make sure the coming generations could enjoy the Brantas river. A) Meaning in context; write the meaning of the following words/ phrases organic biodegradable toxic rot hand in hand camaraderie community RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 2
  • B) Write out the main ideas and supporting details in each paragraph. Paragraph Main ideas Supporting details 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C) Writing Practice ( Text book, page 40 ) RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 3
  • PAPER 6355/1 : SECTION A (20 marks )GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Part 1: Read the following text and complete the given task. Petrologists (scientists who study rocks) define rocks as any natural mass of mineral matter that make up the Earth’s crust. According to them, there are three main groups of rocks. Igneous rock is found from magma that is pushed out of the volcano or onto the Earth’s surface. If the magma cools quickly, it becomes a black, fine-grained volcanic rock called basalt. If the magma cools slowly, the rock is coarse-grained and is called granite. Sedimentary rock is made from sediments formed by the erosion and weathering of other rocks. The sediments are carried by wind or water to the sea. Here, these sediments are deposited and hardened to form rocks. An example of sedimentary rock would be sandstone. Sandstone is made from grains of sand which have been naturally cemented together. Sedimentary rock is also formed by the deposition of minerals by living organisms. For example, chalk is formed from millions of tiny calcium carbonate (lime) skeletons. Another type of rock would be the metamorphic rock, also known as changed-rock. This rock is changed over time by heat and pressure. When rock is subjected to heat and pressure, new minerals are formed, altering the characteristics of the rocks. An example is slate, a hard rock formed by mud and clay. It splits easily into thin sheets. Based on the information in the text, complete the table below. TYPES OF (1) _____________ (2) _____________ (3) _____________ ROCK FORMATION (4) _____________ (5) _____________ (7) _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ (6) _____________ _____________ EXAMPLES (8) _____________ (9) _____________ (10) ____________ RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 4
  • Part 2: Read the following text and complete the given task Volcanoes can be grouped into three main types, based largely on their eruptive patterns and their general forms. Scoria cones are the smallest type, with heights generally less than 300 metres and have straight sides with steep slopes and very large summit craters. Scoria cones are generated by Strombolian eruptions which produces eruptive columns of basalt tephra generally only a few hundred metres high. Paricutin in Mexico is one example of cinder cone. On the other hand, shield volcanoes have very gentle convex slopes. Their heights are typically about 1/20 of their widths. Their overall broad shapes result from the extrusion of basalt lava. Shield volcanoes are generated by Hawaiian eruptions. The Mauna Loa volcano on the big Island of Hawaii is the world’s largest shield volcano. Stratovolcanoes are the most picturesque and the most deadly of the volcanoes and the most deadly of the volcano types. Their lower slopes are gentle but they rise steeply near the summit to produce an overall morphology that is concave in an upward direction . The summit area is typically contains a surprisingly small summit crater. The compositional spectrum of these rocks types may vary from basalt to rhyolite in single volcano. However. the overall average composition of stratovolcanoes in andesitic. The eruptive history of most stratovolcanoes is delineated by highly explosive Plinian eruptions . One classic example is Mount Fuji in Japan. Based on the information from the text, complete the graphic organizer below. VOLCANO VOLCANO ERUPTION NAME OF TYPES SHAPES TYPE VOLCANO Scoria cones 1. 5 8 *Large summit craters 2. Shield 6 9 volcanoes *Have broad shapes 3. Stratovolcanoes 7 10 4. RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 5
  • SECTION B (30 marks) As a reporter for a science magazine, you have to write a report about global warming. Use the information given in the table below to write the report. Global Warming Causes Effects Solutions * Man made gases are * Higher temperature * Reduce the use of fossil trapped and build up in fuel the atmosphere * Health problems * use more energy efficient * Burning of fossil fuels * Rising sea levels- products depletion of coastal * Deforestation resources * Cut down on the use of vehicles * Open burning * Loss of plant and animal species * Plant more trees * Dumping of too much rubbish * Droughts and intense * Reduce rubbish rainstorms In your report you must;  Include its causes, effects and solutions  Use all the content points given  Provide any other relevant information Your report should not be less than 200 words. (30 marks) RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 6
  • Global Warming Causes Effects Solutions P1. Man made gases are P6 Higher temperature P11 Reduce the use of fossil trapped and build up *the increasing greenhouse Fuel in the atmosphere gases especially carbon *we are using non-renewable *man made gases are mainly dioxide causes heat to be energy from fossil fuels at an greenhouse gases trapped in the atmosphere alarming rate. *such as carbon dioxide, and leads to Earth’s average *use more renewable energy methane, nitrous oxide and temperature increases sources which does not chlorofluorocarbon. * Scientists predicted that contribute to high concentration *these gases in turn trap the earth’s temperature may of carbon dioxide in the heat in the atmosphere and rise by 1.5 C to 4.5 C by atmosphere. causes global warming which 2030. *eg are solar energy, can cause climate change *Sea water becomes warm hydroelectric, geothermic and and ecosystem destruction and thus decline in wave energy. zooplanktons. Ecosystem’s P2 Burning of fossil fuels food web will be affected P12 Use more energy *Combustion sources such efficient Products as motor vehicle exhaust, P7 Health problems *cars which use solar energy to smoke form fires, engine *High level of carbon dioxide reduce the combustion of fossil fumes can lead to respiratory fuels. *Produce greenhouse gases problem *improve fuel efficiency in such as carbon dioxide which *carbon monoxide poisoning motorised vehicles traps heat from the sun are headaches, nausea and *and also in factories by giving rise to an increase in fatigue modifying the engines and temperature *high concentration of lead machines *combustion of fossil fuel can retard mental can give rise to the presence development in children. P13 Cut down on the use of of lead in the environment vehicles which is hazardous to health P8 Rising sea levels- * a lot of greenhouse gases depletion of coastal come from the burning of fossil P3 Deforestation resources fuels from motor vehicles *the act of extensive cutting *one of the most significant * carpool, use down or burning trees in a coastal resources is the * use public transport such as forest mangrove swamp which are trains and buses *vast areas of forests are rich in biodiversity. * advisable to walk or cycle to cleared for extracting timber *Mangrove swamps play an short distances. Not only or fuel wood, agriculture and important role in flood preserving the environment, but urban development control, coastal erosion also good exercise for the body. *causes weather and climatic prevention, sediment control changes and as a barrier against P14 Plant more trees *cutting of trees will reduce strong sea waves *vegetation can affect both rainfall, transpiration rate * mangrove trees are also temperature and precipitation and the rate of using carbon used for piling construction. patterns in an area. dioxide during These resources will deplete *Plants can influence how much photosynthesis by plants sun’s energy is absorbed and *carbon dioxide prevent heat P9 Loss of plant and how quickly energy is released from escaping from the animal species *forest reserves are gazetted atmosphere. Thus, the level *global warming leads to *Organize campaigns for of carbon dioxide increases extinction of plants and Replanting programmes and global temperature also animals species due to very *Reforestation ensures that increases which leads to high temperature. forests are renewed. Restoration RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 7
  • global warming. * eg loss of habitat for seals activities should be conducted to and penguins due to melting restore damaged forests. of polar ice. * forests play an important role P4 Open burning *as a consequence, it in regulating the climate and *open burning of rubbish, reduces biodiversity and the concentration of carbon dioxide. farms and forests release source of food and valuable more carbon dioxide into the medicines for humans. P15 Reduce rubbish atmosphere which *damage of leaf cells and *Rubbish should be sorted into aggravates global warming chlorophyll, thus reducing recyclable and non-recyclable *people who like to practise photosynthesis and killing materials. quick solution to garbage the plants. *management of resources disposal resort to open includes the 3R concept, which burning. P10 Droughts and intense are reduce, reuse and recycle of *replanting in oil palm Rainstorms resources plantation requires the old *drought due to global * these include newspapers, trees to be felled and warming causes land to dry. glass, bottles and aluminium removed from the area. *ecosystem becomes cans. *decomposition of these unstable as the producers, *reducing rubbish helps in the requires long period of time. the plants are not able to conservation of the environment *Heavy fines should be thrive imposed on people who carry *intense rainstorms can lead out open burning to massive floods and loss of properties and lives. P5 Dumping of too much Rubbish *dumping of too much rubbish cause depletion of natural resources. *for instance when papers are thrown, more trees will be cut down to produce new papers. *cutting down of more trees will encourage the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and this give rise to an increase in the temperature *decomposition of too much rubbish will produce more methane which is one of the greenhouse gases. * this also will trap heat from the sun causing earth temperature to rise. Additional information; 1. The world’s population has increased exponentially, reaching over 6 billion today. 2. As human population grows, there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw materials. 3. Expectation of better living conditions, better mode of transport and industrial revolution have brought about clearing of more forest to grow food, build factories, houses and roads RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 8
  • 4. The negative effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to various environmental problems such as global warming 5. Laws prohibiting random tree felling, hunting and farming must be enforced 6. Concerted effort from all countries in the world to combat global warming. Conferences at international level to increase awareness on the dangers of global warming. 7. Education is the best way to teach the public on the need to maintain a balanced ecosystem. 8. Through formal education in schools, colleges and universities 9. Informal education through mass media, campaigns, seminars, pamphlets, posters ans documentaries. 10. Earth Hour campaign Students often think that greenhouse effect and global warming are the same phenomenon. Greenhouse effect occurs naturally and is essential to keeping the atmosphere warm for living things to survive on Earth. Global warming on the other hand, is an increase in temperature of Earth’s atmosphere that may be caused or influenced by human activities. Greenhouse effect: is a natural warming of Earth’s surface. The major gases are water vapour and carbon dioxide. The greenhouse gases are transparent to incoming solar radiation and therefore much of this energy reaches the earth’s surface. Most of this energy is reradiated skyward. But too much of greenhouse gases will revert the solar back to Earth. Global warming: as a result of an increase in greenhouse gases particularly carbon dioxide, more heat from the sunlight is absorbed and stored in these gases, thus increasing the global temperature of the Earth’s surface. Depletion of The Ozone Layer: Ozone layer is in the stratosphere. When exposed to CFC the chlorine atom in CFC will attract one of the three of oxygen atoms and thus destroys the ozone molecules. Consequently, the ozone layer will be depleted. This in turn will allow the UV light (UV-B) to reach the surface of our planet. Exposure to UV light can cause health hazards eg skin cancer, destruction of food chain, climatic change. RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 9
  • Answers: A) organic Produced by or existing in living things biodegradable That can be absorbed back into the earth naturally and so do not harm the environment toxic poisonous rot Decompose/ To go bad as part of natural process hand in hand together camaraderie Spirit of togetherness/ friendship community All the people who live in a particular area Paragraph Main ideas Supporting details 1 The Brantas River provided thousands People used the water from the river of people with their daily water needs for drinking, cooking and washing 2 People throw household waste into the The waste was mostly organic and river without causing much harm. biodegradable 3 *In the 50’s plastic was introduced and - it is a roxic substance *Many items in the household bins were dangerous to the environment *factories and industries dumped their waste in the river causing serious problems 4 - *Blockages which did not rot away *Water pollution/ water became polluted *Air pollution/ river stank from the rotting garbage 5 The malang municipal authorities set *gotong royong or community service up a river cleaning campaign 6 - 30,000 people participated willingly in the campaign 7 - It is a continuous process for the benefit of the future generations RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 10
  • Graphic organizer Part 1 1. Igneous rock 2. Sedimentary rock 3. Metamorphic rock 4. Magma that is pushed out of the volcano or onto the earth’s surface 5. Erosion and weathering of other rocks 6. Deposition of minerals by living organisms 7. Changed over time by heat and pressure 8. Basalt/ Granite (or both) 9. Sandstone/Chalk (or both) 10. Slate Part 2 1. Straight sides with steep slopes 2. Very gentle convex slopes 3. Gentle lower slopes, but steep upper slopes 4. Small summit craters 5. Strombolian 6. Hawaiian 7. Plinian 8. Paricutin 9. Mauna Loa 10. Mount Fuji Global Warming RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 11
  • Global warming is one of the most hotly debated topics in the world. The world’s leading environmentalists insist that we are on the verge of global warming. Global warming is defined as the increase of average temperature on Earth. The global temperature for the past four decades has been warm but human activities have led to an even warmer earth. Contrary to what the environmentalists think, the sceptics continue their defence that there are natural reasons that are yet to be unveiled. Is there a scientific consensus on global warming? Human activities are the main cause of global warming. Human activities cause the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase significantly over these years. Man made gases are trapped and build up in the atmosphere. One of the most notable greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is harmful to the environment in large amount. This gas forms a blanket around the earth that traps heat from the sun and prevent the heat to escape into the space. As a result, global temperature increases and causes catastrophic events to the environment. Since fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas are introduced to power up engines, it has been an important component in the motoring industry. However, the products from the burning of some fossil fuels are not environment friendly. As the motoring industry has become more productive for the last few years, it has cause the amount of carbon dioxide to skyrocket. Not to mention, pollutants such as carbon monoxide, smoke and dust are also produced. In addition, open burning is also another cause of global warming. Open burning on a large scale to clear the forest for agricultural purposes has negative impacts on the environment. Deforestation is also a cause of global warming. Since there are fewer trees on earth, the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere become imbalanced. There is too much carbon dioxide but too little oxygen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, dumping of too much rubbish in open landfills can produce another greenhouse gas believed to be the culprit to global warming which is methane. Methane causes similar effects like carbon dioxide, blanketing the earth and trapping heat from the sun. Global warming has brought erratic changes to the environment and our lives. Higher temperature has caused some grassland to become desserts. There is less space for agricultural activities to be carried out. This can cause famine in some poor countries that are fully dependant on agricultural products for food. In addition, the habitats of floras and faunas are altered and these disrupt the balance of ecosystem that inevitably leads to loss of plants and animal species. Moreover, the earth is experiencing drastic weather changes. Particularly, droughts and intense rainstorms are occurring more frequently in some parts of the world. Natural disasters especially tornadoes and flood are happening frequently and with greater effects. The melting of ice and glaciers in the North and South Pole have caused rising sea levels. Coastal areas have the tendency to be affected by flood and this can lead to depletion of natural resources. Health problem such as hypotension can occur during a heat wave. Therefore, what can we do to stop global warming? We cannot stop global warming in a few years but we can, however mitigate the effects of global warming. Firstly, we should reduce the use of fossil fuels. Research and development in finding the most suitable, eco-friendly fuels that are being carried out at a progressive rate. For example, biomass fuel is obtained from the decaying of dead organisms and organic matter. We should also RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 12
  • use more energy-efficient products to save electricity. We should take the initiative to cut down the use of vehicles. Instead, walk or ride a bicycle if you are going to a place nearby your house. We should plant more trees through reforestation. More trees on earth means lower amount of carbon dioxide and this can help to decrease the high temperature on earth. We should reduce rubbish by dispensing them the right way. We must throw rubbish into a rubbish bin. Incinerators can be used to eradicate rubbish in a more efficiently. Thus, we should all give our cooperation to stop global warming from destroying our home planet. This is to ensure that our future generations can live a comfortable and safer life. Remember, we do not inherit the environment but merely borrowing It from our children. Reported by, ………………………………............................................ (MOHAMMAD NAJMI BIN MOHAMMAD SAZALI) RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 13
  • Question: THEME: NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT 22 JAN 2010 Study the information given below regarding water pollution. P1• Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers cause water pollution. P2• Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affects quality of water. P3• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in farming are washed into water sources. P4• Rubbish dumped at landfills leaks during heavy rainfalls contaminates water sources. P5• Water pollution poses threats to humans and other living organisms. P6• Stench from water-logged areas causes discomfort to residents. P7• Educate public on proper ways to dispose of rubbish. P8• Enforce stringent laws to offenders Write a report on this topic. Your report must include the following: • the causes of water pollution • the effects of water pollution • any other relevant information Your report should be about 200 words in length. ANSWER Water Pollution Water is essential to life on Earth, all living things need it in order to survive and A flourish. Water is the major constituent of living matter – between 50 and 90 per cent AA of the weight of all living organisms, from microscopic bacteria to giant blue whales, AA is water. On our planet, water exists in all three states of matter: as a solid in the A form of ice, as a liquid in the forms of freshwater and seawater, and as a gas in the A form of water vapour. A Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers is P1 one of the causes of water pollution. This will result to clogged drains and polluted E1 rivers. Clogged drains will in turn cause flash floods during heavy rains. Flash floods E1 are floods that occur quickly, usually within six hours of the start of heavy rainfall. AA Although flash floods tend to occur quickly and last only a short time, they can still be devastating because they normally come with little warning. For the people who use AA rivers as their main sources of water, they will be at risk of contracting water-borne E1 diseases since contaminated water often contains pathogens such as vibrio cholera E1E1 that causes cholera which may lead to fatality. E1 Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affect the quality of water. This industrial waste which can be in the solid and liquid form is P2 E2 composed of acidic toxic wastes which may pollute the rivers. This will result to low E2 oxygen level in the water. Not only that, this hazardous toxic waste is highly E2 poisonous for aquatic organisms. If corrosive waste is disposed into drains, it will E2 change the PH value of water in lakes and rivers and harm the aquatic ecosystem. E2 E2 Besides corrosive waste, toxic industrial waste and effluents also can contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium. These heavy metals will E2 accumulate in the body and disrupt the functions of organs such as the brain, heart E2 E2 and kidney. E2 Another major contributor of water pollution is the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farming activities which are often washed into rivers and other water P3 sources during heavy rains. Nitrates, nitrites and phosphates from chemical fertilizers E3 E3 induce the rapid growth of algae. Consequently, the oxygen content of the water will E3 decrease as the bacteria decomposers require a lot of oxygen to decompose the E3 abundant amount of dead algae. Pesticides on the other hand contain toxic AE3 RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 14
  • substances and when consumed by aquatic organisms may lead to their death. E3 Water pollution may also arise due to landfills. Rubbish dumped at landfills often leaks during heavy rainfall and this can contaminate our water sources such as the P4 underground water. Therefore landfills require good management of waste which E4 includes dumping of waste according to the types of waste as well as proper E4 management of leakage and methane gas which is the by-product of decomposition E4 E4 of waste. To prevent leakage, the construction of a landfill requires a well-planned approach and suitable site. Thus it is vital that landfills are high above the E4E4 groundwater table so as to avoid the leakage and contamination problem. E4 Water pollution gives rise to many effects and poses threats not only to humans but also other living organisms. Apart from reducing the oxygen content of the water P5E5 which may result to death of aquatic organisms, water pollution also give rise to many water borne diseases such as cholera and hepatitis A. For example, if human E5 E5 waste is released into rivers, pathogens can enter the water system and infect many E5 E5 people. On the other hand, excessive fertilizers washed into lakes and rivers can cause algal blooms. When the algae decay, oxygen in the water will be used up by the E5 decaying process. This causes fish and other aquatic population to die. The whole E5 process is called eutrophication. E5 Another effect of water pollution is stench from water-logged areas causes discomfort to residents. The dumping of waste into water areas such drains and P6 rivers is often done by unscrupulous people. Little regard of concern is given to this E6 act of dumping as long as it can help people to save cost on proper disposal method. E6 To them, it is of little consequences if they throw their rubbish and human waste into the water as it is the easiest and fastest way to get rid of unwanted waste. The stench E6 from clogged drains for example can be unbearable and this can tarnish our tourism E6 E6 industry. Besides, dirty rivers choked with rubbish are breeding grounds for E6 mosquitoes and rodents which are carriers of diseases. E6 To curb water pollution, formal and informal education play a major role to E7 E7 educate the public on proper ways to dispose rubbish. The curriculum of our formal P7 education system contains environmental pollutions related issues. This is to create E7 E7 awareness of environmental problems such as water pollution among the younger E7 generation. Informal education includes variety of activities like public campaigns and E7 gotong royong that have been organized by the government and non-government E7 E7 organizations. These activities are carried out to educate the public on the E7 importance of preventing water pollution. E7 Another effective method to stop water pollution is to enforce stringent laws to P8 offenders. Relevant authorities should set up check points to curtail illegal dumping E8 to avoid the consequences that it may bring upon the environment. Factories or E8 individuals who are caught responsible for this despicable act should be fined with E8 heavy penalty and licence of the factories concerned should be revoked. E8 E8. In conclusion, if this human-made water pollution issue is not tackled immediately A there will be more disasters and diseases in our society. It is everyone’s responsibility A to help overcome this water pollution problem. We do not want all our waterways end up as dead rivers that even fish cannot survive. We want our rivers to stay clean AA and alive where our children can treasure the greatest gift of nature. The future AA generation is rightfully entitled to inherit sustainable living environment. A Reported by; ROGAYAH BINTI HARON RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 15
  • RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 16