A Platform for Object-Action Semantic Web Interaction

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Semantic Web applications tests show that their usability is seriously compromised. This motivates the exploration of alternative interaction paradigms, different from the \"traditional\" Web or desktop applications ones. The Rhizomer platform is based on the object-action interaction paradigm, which is better suited for heterogeneous resource spaces such as those common in the Semantic Web. Resources, described by means of RDF metadata, correspond to the objects from the interaction point of view and Rhizomer provides browsing mechanisms for them. Semantic web services, dynamically associated to these objects, correspond to the actions. Rhizomer has been applied in the context of a media house to build an audiovisual content management system. End-users of this system, journalists and archivists, are able to navigate the content repository through semantic metadata describing content pieces and the domain knowledge these pieces are referring to. Those resources constitute the objects to which, when the user selects one of them, semantic web services dynamically associate specialized visualization and interaction views, the actions.

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A Platform for Object-Action Semantic Web Interaction

  1. 1. A Platform for Object-Action Semantic Web Interaction Roberto García, Juan Manuel Gimeno, Ferran Perdrix*, Rosa Gil, Marta Oliva HCI and Data Integration Research Group Universitat de Lleida, Spain *Segre Media, Spain
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhizomer Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case: S5T Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhizomer Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case: S5T Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The Semantic Web is here... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...but difficult take off in the “real world” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem : “it is complicated to use it” [1] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even for researchers/advanced users [2] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No just browsing, also edition ( Wiki -like) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[1] Shadbolt, Hall, Berners-Lee. The Semantic Web Revisited . Intelligent Systems 21(3), 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[2] Heath, Domingue, Shabajee. User interaction and uptake challenges to successfully deploying Semantic Web technologies . 3rd Semantic Web User Interaction Workshop, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  5. 5. Introducción <ul><li>Human-Computer Interaction  ↑ Usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User tasks analysis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web: reduced set and clearly defined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0, 3.0: wider set, still to define </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action-Object Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical actions menus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select action (e.g. “Open”) and the object (e.g. “File”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced usability in heterogeneous object domains </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates data integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look for a more appropriate interaction paradigm… </li></ul><ul><li>Object-Action Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for heterogeneous domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select object, then from available object actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitively, easier to organise/identify objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologies organise objects, restrict available actions </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  7. 7. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhizomer Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case: S5T Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  8. 8. Rhizomer <ul><li>Platform for Semantic Content Management and Human-Semantic Web Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Web 2.0 technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client (AJAX) / Server (REST) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 3.0 data model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic metadata store: RDF(OWL) / SPARQL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic metadata browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML + Javascript </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-Action Interaction Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Services </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  9. 9. Rhizomer <ul><li>Server part: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REST interface over repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jena, Sesame,… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GET : SPARQL end-point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PUT/POST/DELETE : RDF metadata management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OWL-S descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service Profile: Process, hasInput, hasOutput </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REST adapters for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Javascript APIs (e.g. Google Maps), SOAP,… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System Metadata Store Rhizomer GET PUT POST DEL search new edit delete
  10. 10. Rhizomer <ul><li>Client part: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AJAX (asynchronously send queries and metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF/XML ─ XSLT  HTML (browsing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Semantic” forms (edition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RDF/XML ─ XSLT  FORM ─ Javascript  RDF </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System RDF <HTML/> <HTML/> SemFORMS JavaScript
  11. 11. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhizomer Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case: S5T Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  12. 12. S5T Project <ul><li>S5T Spanish research project ( TIN2005-06885 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaleable Semantic personalised Search of Spoken and written contents on the Semantic Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application in the Segre media group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper, TV, radio and web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal use (media house): facilitate content production, history tracking, contextualisation,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External use (web users): advanced services (e.g. news personalisation, semantic podcasts,…) </li></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  13. 13. S5T Project <ul><li>Semantic annotation of audiovisual content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>voice  text (keywords)  semantic annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhizomer : user interface for browsing/interacting with content and associated knowledge </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  14. 14. S5T Project: query Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System <ul><li>Queries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content (transcript) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul></ul>GET s5t:Audio specific properties P rdfs:domain s5t:Audio or s5t:Audio owl:Restriction on P (or superclass) ?query= DESCRIBE ?s WHERE { ?s dc:title ?y0; s5t:genre ?y1. FILTER regex(?y0, &quot;…&quot;) && ?y1=<…./SubjectsOnto# 11000000> } <form method=“GET” onSumbit=“formToSPARQL”> <input type=“text” name= “ http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title”/> <input type=“text” name= “ http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date”/> … </form>
  15. 15. S5T Project: store <ul><li>GET  SPARQL endpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata store </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jena, Sesame,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE queries by default. Facilitate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse heterogeneous metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a priori knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise Bounded Description + rdfs:labels for all selected resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result: RDF/XML </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  16. 16. S5T Project: store <ul><li>DESCRIBE http://rhizomik.net/~rosa : CBD( … ~rosa ) = Fragment A U rdfs:labels </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System Fragment A
  17. 17. S5T Project: browse Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System RDF2HTML GET  RDF2HTML <s5t:Audio rdf:about=&quot; http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.mp3 &quot;>       <dc:title>Butlletí Migdia</dc:title>       <dc:date>2007-03-23</dc:date>       <s5t:genre rdf:resource=&quot;&srs;11000000&quot;/>       <s5t:transcriptResource>               http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml       </s5t:transcriptResource> </srt:Audio> http://www.segre.com/ audio/ 20070323-bm.mp3 a Audio title Butlletí Migdia date 2007-03-23 genre politics transcript http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml Referrers http://rhizomik.net/.../NewsCodes-SubjectsOnto#11000000 a Subject label politics description Local, regional, national and international exercise of power, or struggle for power, and the relationships between governing bodies and states. Referrers
  18. 18. S5T Project: edition Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System edit – del – new http://www.segre.com/ audio/ 20070323-bm.mp3 a Audio title Butlletí Migdia date 2007-03-23 genre politics transcript http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml Referrers
  19. 19. S5T Project: edition <ul><li>Semantic form: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><form method=“ PUT/POST ” onSumbit=“formToNTriples”> <input type=“text” name=“ http:// ...w3.org/.../rdf-syntax-ns# ID ” value=“ http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.mp3 ”/> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><input type=“text” name=“http:// ...w3.org/.../rdf-syntax-ns# type ” value=“ http:// rhizomik.net/.../s5t.owl# Audio ” /> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><input type=“text” name=“http:// rhizomik.net/.../s5t.owl# genre ”/ value=“ http://.../NewsCodes-SubjectsOnto#11000000 ”/ > … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></form> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PUT : description for new resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POST : replace resource description </li></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System <Subject,… Predicate,Object> Predicate,Object>
  20. 20. S5T Project: uploading <ul><li>Semantically annotate uploaded content (facilitate metadata creation) </li></ul><ul><li>Content-type specific metadata extraction plugins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio: text -to-speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text: keyword detection, disambiguation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OpenCalais, Freeling,…: named entities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo: EXIFtoRDF,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  21. 21. S5T Project: interaction <ul><li>Given a resource (object)… determine available services (actions) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource description: type, properties, values,… </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System http://www.segre.com/ audio/ 20070323-bm.mp3 a Audio title Butlletí Migdia date 2007-03-23 genre politics transcript http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml Referrers
  22. 22. S5T Project: interaction <ul><li>Services descriptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID : Service Adapter URL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hasInput : an OWL Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service applicable to any resource classified in this class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hasOutput : output content type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>text/html, application/rdf+xml,… </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System http://rhizomik.net/services/play a Process label Play hasInput http://rhizomik.net/.../s5t.owl#Audio hasOutput text/html Referrers
  23. 23. S5T Project: interaction <ul><li>For each resource: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes s.t. resource rdf:type hasInput Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call : REST PUT/POST RDF resource </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapter: service invocation (Javascript, SOAP,…) </li></ul></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System http://www.segre.com/ audio/ 20070323-bm.mp3 a Audio title Butlletí Migdia date 2007-03-23 genre politics transcript http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml Play Referrers
  24. 24. S5T Project: interaction Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System Butlletí Migdia (23/03/2007) La mobilització en contra dels transgènics i en favor de Josep Pàmies també ha servit per introduir altres reclamacions. En aquest cas, alguns dels col·lectius de la lluita contra aquests cultius demanen que la Universitat de Lleida rebi una especialització en Agricultura Ecològica . Asseguren que serien uns estudis pioners que servirien al centre per recuperar prestigi. Search Keyword Browse Term Search Keyword : describe resources whose transcript contains keyword… Browse Term : describe the concept annotating the keyword http://www.segre.com/ audio/ 20070323-bm.mp3 a Audio title Butlletí Migdia date 2007-03-23 genre politics transcript http://www.segre.com/audio/20070323-bm.xml Play Referrers http://www.udl.cat a University label Universitat de Lleida lat 41.37 long 0.37 Map Referrers
  25. 25. S5T Project: interaction <ul><li>Map any resource with lat/long: </li></ul><ul><li><process:Process rdf:about=&quot; http://rhizomik.net/services/map &quot;>   <rdfs:label> map </rdfs:label>   <process:hasInput>   <owl:Class rdf:ID=&quot; GeolocatedEntity &quot;>     <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType=&quot;Collection&quot;>      <owl: Restriction >       <owl: onProperty rdf:resource=&quot;&pos; lat &quot;/>       <owl: minCardinality > 1 </owl:minCardinality>      </owl:Restriction>      <owl: Restriction >       <owl: onProperty rdf:resource=&quot;&pos; long &quot;/>       <owl: minCardinality > 1 </owl:minCardinality>     </owl:Restriction>    </owl:intersectionOf>   </owl:Class>   </process:hasInput>   <process:hasOutput>text/html</process:hasOutput> </process:Process> </li></ul><ul><li>Service Adapter includes GoogleMap Javascript </li></ul><ul><li>The same for events (Timeline, Calendar,…), etc. </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  26. 26. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhizomer Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case: S5T Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Work </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  27. 27. Conclusions <ul><li>Content Management System based on semantic metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for Human-Semantic Web Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects: S5T, Rhizomik,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plugins for visualisation, interaction and metadata extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary usability tests </li></ul></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  28. 28. Future Work <ul><li>Assisted metadata edition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties and values recommended based on available ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create basic services set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete usability test </li></ul>Rhizomer Semantic Content Management System
  29. 29. Thank you for your attention More: http:// rhizomik.net Roberto García http://rhizomik.net/~roberto

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