Oracle sap

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Oracle sap

  1. 1. An Oracle White PaperJune 2011Oracle Database: The Database of Choice forDeploying SAP Solutions
  2. 2. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsExecutive Overview ................................................................................................ 1!Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2!Database market share for Enterprise Applications ..................................................... 2!Oracle-SAP Technology Relationship ....................................................................... 3!Oracle Exadata Database Machine for SAP Customers ............................................... 4! Extreme Scalability.............................................................................................. 5!Oracle Advanced Compression ................................................................................. 6! OLTP Table Compression .................................................................................... 6! Minimal Performance Overhead........................................................................ 8! SecureFiles Compression ..................................................................................... 8! How to achieve a compressed Oracle database for SAP applications?....................... 9! Recovery Manager (RMAN) Compression........................................................... 10! Data Pump Compression .................................................................................... 10! Compression for Network Traffic........................................................................ 11!Oracle Cloud File System....................................................................................... 11! Moving SAP databases to Oracle 11gR2 on ASM................................................. 12!Real Application Testing........................................................................................ 13! Database Replay................................................................................................ 13! Faster deployment ......................................................................................... 13! SQL Performance Analyzer................................................................................ 14! Real Application Testing to validate Advanced Compression for SAP ................... 15! Conclusion.................................................................................................... 15!Online Patching..................................................................................................... 15!Direct NFS ........................................................................................................... 16!SecureFiles Performance ........................................................................................ 17!Deferred Segment Creation .................................................................................... 18!
  3. 3. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsEnhanced ADD COLUMN Functionality (Dictionary-Only Add Column).................. 18!Table Partitioning .................................................................................................. 19!SAP Standard Applications Benchmarks ................................................................. 20!Real Application Clusters for SAP (RAC for SAP) ................................................... 22! High Availability for SAP Resources (through SAPCTL)...................................... 24!Data Guard for SAP............................................................................................... 24!Patching of Oracle Databases and Real Application Clusters ..................................... 27!Oracle Advanced Security ...................................................................................... 27! Tablespace Encryption ....................................................................................... 28! RMAN Backup Encryption (Oracle Secure Backup) ............................................. 28! Data Guard Secure Transmission of Redo Data .................................................... 28! Secure Database exports with Encryption ............................................................ 29! SecureFiles Encryption ...................................................................................... 30! Database Vault .................................................................................................. 30!More new 11g features........................................................................................... 31! Data Guard Improvements.................................................................................. 31! Fast-Start Failover for Maximum Performance Mode in a Data Guard Configuration .................................................................................................................... 31! User Configurable Conditions to Initiate Fast-Start Failover in a Data Guard Configuration ................................................................................................ 31! Data Guard Integration, Simplification, and Performance .................................. 31! Support Up to 30 Standby Databases ............................................................... 32! Integration, Simplification, and Performance of Availability Features .................... 32! Automatic Reporting of Corrupt Blocks........................................................... 32! Automatic Block Repair ................................................................................. 32! Block Media Recovery Performance Improvements.......................................... 33! Parallel Backup and Restore for Very Large Files............................................. 33! Enhanced Tablespace Point-In-Time Recovery (TSPITR) ................................. 33!
  4. 4. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions Online Application Maintenance and Upgrade ..................................................... 33! Invisible Indexes ........................................................................................... 33! Online Index Creation and Rebuild Enhancements............................................ 34! RMAN Integration, Simplification, and Performance ............................................ 34! Archive Log Management Improvements ........................................................ 34! Fast Incremental Backups on Physical Standby Database .................................. 35! Server Manageability ......................................................................................... 35! Global Oracle RAC ASH Report + ADDM Backwards Compatibility ................ 35! ADDM for Oracle Real Application Clusters ................................................... 35!Oracle Linux for SAP ............................................................................................ 35!Oracle Expertise in the SAP environment ................................................................ 37! The Solution Center SAP Support and Service offers SAP customers the following services: ........................................................................................................... 37!Conclusion............................................................................................................ 37!Appendix.............................................................................................................. 38!
  5. 5. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsExecutive OverviewSince 1988, Oracle has been the database of choice as the development platform forSAP applications. In November 1999, a contract between Oracle and SAP was signed toensure future cooperation and maintain Oracle!s position as a “tier one” databaseplatform for SAP.SAP R/3 was originally developed on the Oracle database, and the companies have along standing technology relationship. Subsequent SAP products, such as SAPNetWeaver Business Warehouse (SAP NetWeaver BW)) .With Oracle!s assistance, incorporation of new database features, performance testing,bug fixing and customer problem escalations have been invaluable to SAP and the largenumber of SAP customers running on the Oracle database. SAP customers running theOracle database have always benefited from the close cooperation beween Oracle andSAP Development Teams which resulted in the highest levels of one stop service andOracle database optimizations for SAP applications.The Oracle Database has an established history as the industry leader for relationaldatabases. Today, many successful businesses use the Oracle Database to power theirmission critical applications. Deploying Oracle Database 11g Release 2, within their ITarchitecture, SAP customers can leverage the power of the worlds leading database toreduce their server and storage costs, eliminate idle redundancy and improve quality of thservice. Since June 10 2011, SAP customers can use Oracle Exadata DatabaseMachine for their SAP applications, the Oracle Exadata Database Machine is an easy todeploy solution for hosting the Oracle Database that delivers the highest level ofdatabase performance available. 1
  6. 6. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsIntroductionOracle and SAP continue to satisfy the tens of thousends mutual SAP on Oracledatabase customers. The joint effort has always been charecterized by a constant desireto provide mutual customers with efficient service and support solutions for their SAPapplication needs, in order to bring additional benefit to their businesses and to offeroptimum protection of their investments. The Oracle database is always optimized forSAP Applications and with each new database release many new features are providedlike just done with Oracle Exadata Database Machine that help customers cope withconstant challenges such as, reducing storage costs, improving performance, minimizingdowntime etc.This paper will describe the most important features and technologies supported by SAPand show the main differentiators between the Oracle Database and DB2 and SQLServer. Many features, such as Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) Data Guard,Table Partitioning, AWR, and etc, have been available in earlier Oracle databaseversions ( 9i and 10g ), have been enhanced in the current Oracle database version 11gRelease 2 and can be used with Oracle Exadata Database Machine. Some major newfeatures like Advanced Compression, Oracle ASM, Real Application Testing, and OnlinePatching are available immediately with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for SAP.Database market share for Enterprise ApplicationsAnalysts are unanimous in saying that the Oracle database enjoys dominant market share forenterprise applications, including SAP.More than two-thirds of all mid-size to large enterprise SAP customers in every industryentrust their application deployments to Oracle databases, and companies are runningSAP applications with Oracle databases on all major operating systems.Note that the larger the system (i.e. more users, more data) the higher the requirements inregards to storage saving, performance, security and high availability. Very large systems arealmost exclusively based on Oracle. 2
  7. 7. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsOracle dominates the SAP database market share across operating systems platforms including,the various flavors of Unix and Linux as well as Windows.Oracle’s market position has real advantages for customers considering database choices for theirSAP system. A large installed base indicates that Oracle is able to meet the database needs ofSAP customers across many industries and geographies.It also means that a large group of customers have tested the SAP-Oracle combination insituations that no QA group at SAP could ever recreate. Both Oracle and SAP have learned fromthis experience in the field, and both products have been enhanced as a result. Customers nowchoosing Oracle for SAP will get the accumulated benefits of years of product testing in the realworld. The impressively large customer base translates into several advantages:! Proven technology! Widest choice of solutions and systems! Highest consulting expertise on the market! Best cooperation with hardware and tool vendors! Largest labor pool of people with combined Oracle – SAP skillsOracle-SAP Technology RelationshipOracle has dedicated teams working with SAP in many different areas, including joint softwaredevelopment, pre-sales and technology evangelism, customer technical support and professionalservices. The long Oracle-SAP technology relationship started in 1988 when SAP R/3development began. 3
  8. 8. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsFigure 1: Milestones in SAP-Oracle Technology RelationshipThe Oracle development team working at SAP HQ in Walldorf, Germany assists SAP in:! Performance testing of each release with the Oracle database to ensure there is no degradation of response time, throughput and scalability between SAP versions.! Fixing database bugs found during SAP functional testing, and including SAP enhancement requests in the database product roadmap! Incorporating new Oracle features in SAP releases! Optimize each new release of the DBMS and new versions of SAP applications! Responding to escalated customer problems, when related to database issuesOracle Exadata Database Machine for SAP CustomersOracle Exadata Database Machine has been certified by SAP on June 10, 2011 and can be usedwith SAP NetWeaver 7.x or higher including all SAP products which are based on SAPNetWeaver 7.x like SAP ERP 6.0, SAP BW 7.x, SAP CRM 7.x etc. (for a complete list check theSAP Product Availability Matrix: http://www.service.sap.com/PAM).The Oracle Exadata Database Machine is an easy to deploy solution for hosting the OracleDatabase that delivers the highest levels of database performance available. The Exadata 4
  9. 9. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsDatabase Machine is a “cloud in a box” composed of database servers, Oracle Exadata StorageServers, an InfiniBand fabric for storage networking and all the other components required tohost an Oracle Database. It delivers outstanding I/O and SQL processing performance foronline transaction processing (i.e. SAP ERP 6.0), Business Warehouse (i.e. SAP BW 7.x) andconsolidation of mixed workloads. Extreme performance is delivered for all types of databaseapplications by leveraging a massively parallel grid architecture using Real Application Clustersand Exadata storage. Database Machine and Exadata storage delivers breakthrough performancewith linear I/O scalability, is simple to use and manage, and delivers mission-critical availabilityand reliability.The Exadata Storage Server is an integral component of the Exadata Database Machine. Severalfeatures of the product deliver extreme performance. Exadata storage provides database awarestorage services, such as the ability to offload database processing from the database server tostorage, and provides this while being transparent to SQL processing and database applications.Hence just the data requested by the application is returned rather than all the data in the queriedtables. Exadata Smart Flash Cache dramatically accelerates Oracle Database processing byspeeding I/O operations. The Flash provides intelligent caching of database objects to avoidphysical I/O operations. The Oracle Database on the Database Machine is the first Flashenabled database. Exadata storage provides an advanced compression technology ), ExadataHybrid Columnar Compression, that typically provides up to 10x and higher levels of datacompression (limited use with SAP). Exadata compression boosts the effective data transfer byan order of magnitude. The Oracle Exadata Database Machine is the worlds most securedatabase machine. Building on the superior security capabilities of the Oracle Database, theExadata storage provides the ability to query fully encrypted databases with near zero overhead athundreds of gigabytes per second. The combination of these, and many other, features of theproduct are the basis of the outstanding performance of the Exadata Database Machine.Extreme ScalabilityThe Exadata Database Machine X2-8 is a full rack system with 2 database servers (Oracle Linux5 or Solaris 11 Express) and 14 Exadata Storage Servers. Each database server comes with 64Intel CPU cores (8 x eight-core Intel® Xeon® X7560 processors) and 1 TB of memory. It isavailable with either 600 GB High Performance SAS disks or 2 TB High Capacity SAS disks..While an Exadata Database Machine X2-8 rack is an extremely powerful system, a building-blockapproach is used that allows Exadata Database Machine X2-8 to scale to almost any size.Exadata Database Machine X2-8 racks can be connected using the integrated InfiniBand fabric.As new racks of Exadata Database Machines are incrementally added to a system, the storagecapacity and performance of the system grow. A system composed of two Exadata DatabaseMachines X2-8 racks is simply twice as powerful as a single rack system providing double theI/O throughput and double the storage capacity. It can be run in single system image mode orlogically partitioned for consolidation of multiple databases. Scaling out is easy with ExadataDatabase Machine. Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) can dynamically add more processing 5
  10. 10. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionspower and Automatic Storage Management ASM) can dynamically rebalance the data acrossExadata Storage Servers to fully utilize all the hardware in each configurationThree versions of the Exadata Database Machine X2-2 are available. From the Full Rack systemwith 8 database servers (Oracle Linux 5 or Solaris 11 Express) and 14 Exadata Storage Servers tothe Quarter Rack system with 2 database servers and 3 Exadata Storage Servers, there is aconfiguration that fits any application. One version can be upgraded online to another ensuring asmooth upgrade path as processing requirements grow. All three versions are available witheither 600 GB High Performance SAS disks or 2 TB High Capacity SAS disks.Information about the prerequisites, minimum requirements and all the necessary steps to setupan SAP system on Oracle Exadata can be found in the SAP Note 1590515 and the Best PracticesGuide “Using SAP NetWeaver with the Oracle Exadata Database Machine”(http://www.oracle.com/us/products/database/sap-exadata-wp-409603.pdf)Oracle Advanced CompressionOracle has been a pioneer in database compression technology. Oracle Database 9i introducedBasic Table Compression several years ago that compressed data that was loaded using bulk loadoperations. SAP BW customers have been able to compress data since Oracle 9i. Customerscould compress PSA tables, Historical Cubes, aggregates and ODS objects. Since Oracle 10.2.0.2,SAP certified the use of Index compression to save disk space for indexes and reduce totaldatabase size on disk. Customer experiences show that up to 75% less disk space is needed forkey compressed indexes. (Real world example: The size of the index GLPCA~1 was reducedfrom 18GB to 4.5GB). Even after full database reorganization has taken place, an additional 20%of total disk space reduction for the whole database can be achieved using index compression.Without any reorganization before the total space savings for the complete database may behigher than 20% using index compression, as index compression implicitly reorganizes any index.The Oracle Database 11g Advanced Compression Option introduces a comprehensive set ofcompression capabilities to help customers maximize resource utilization and reduce costs. Itallows IT administrators to significantly reduce their overall database storage footprint byenabling compression for all types of data – be it relational (table), unstructured (file), or backupdata. Although storage cost savings are often seen as the most tangible benefit of compression,innovative technologies included in the Advanced Compression Option are designed to reduceresource requirements and technology costs for all components of your IT infrastructure,including memory and network bandwidth. Oracle 11g Advanced compression includes:OLTP Table CompressionOracle’s OLTP Table Compression uses a unique compression algorithm specifically designed towork with OLTP applications. The algorithm works by eliminating duplicate values within adatabase block, even across multiple columns. Compressed blocks contain a structure called a 6
  11. 11. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionssymbol table that maintains compression metadata. When a block is compressed, duplicate valuesare eliminated by first adding a single copy of the duplicate value to the symbol table. Eachduplicate value is then replaced by a short reference to the appropriate entry in the symbol table.Through this innovative design, compressed data is self-contained within the database block asthe metadata used to translate compressed data into its original state is stored in the block. Whencompared with competing compression algorithms that maintain a global database symbol table,Oracle’s unique approach offers significant performance benefits by not introducing additionalI/O when accessing compressed data.In general, customers can expect to reduce their storage space consumption by a factor of 2 to 3by using the OLTP Table Compression feature. That is, the amount of space consumed byuncompressed data will be two to three times larger than that of the compressed data. Thebenefits of OLTP Table Compression go beyond just on-disk storage savings. One significantadvantage is Oracle’s ability to read compressed blocks directly without having to firstuncompress the block. Therefore, there is no measurable performance degradation for accessingcompressed data. In fact, in many cases performance may improve due to the reduction in I/Osince Oracle will have to access fewer blocks. Further, the buffer cache will become moreefficient by storing more data without having to add memory.The results achieved using OLTP compression in real world SAP BW customers are depicted infigure 2 that shows space saving up to 86% at table level.Figure 2: OLTP Table compression within SAP BW 7
  12. 12. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsMinimal Performance OverheadAs stated above, OLTP Table Compression has no adverse impact on read operations. There isadditional work performed while writing data, making it impossible to eliminate performanceoverhead for write operations. However, Oracle has put in a significant amount of work tominimize this overhead for OLTP Table Compression. Oracle compresses blocks in batch moderather than compressing data every time a write operation takes place. A newly initialized blockremains uncompressed until data in the block reaches an internally controlled threshold. When atransaction causes the data in the block to reach this threshold, all contents of the block arecompressed. Subsequently, as more data is added to the block and the threshold is again reached,the entire block is recompressed to achieve the highest level of compression. This processrepeats until Oracle determines that the block can no longer benefit from further compression.Only transactions that trigger the compression of the block will experience the slightcompression overhead. Therefore, a majority of OLTP transactions on compressed blocks willhave the exact same performance as they would with uncompressed blocks.Figure 3: OLTP Table compression ProcessSecureFiles CompressionSecureFiles is a new feature in Oracle Database 11g that introduces a completely reengineeredlarge object (LOB) data type to dramatically improve performance, manageability, and ease ofapplication development. 8
  13. 13. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsSecureFile data is compressed using industry standard compression algorithms. Compression notonly results in significant savings in storage but also improved performance by reducing IO,buffer cache requirements, redo generation and encryption overhead. If the compression doesnot yield any savings or if the data is already compressed, SecureFiles will automatically turn offcompression for such columns. Compression is performed on the server-side and allows forrandom reads and writes to SecureFile data. SecureFiles compression provides significant storagesavings for unstructured data depending on the degree of compression: LOW, MEDIUM(default) and HIGH, which represent a tradeoff between storage savings and latency.SecureFiles compression handles in-line and out-of-line LOB data which are getting more andmore important in SAP applications and are widely used in SAP products such as SAP CRM,SAP XI, SAP NetWeaver Portal, and even in SAP ERP. Almost all non-cluster tables in SAPERP use out-of-line LOBS that are unique to Oracle database.OLTP compression and SecureFiles compression lead Oracle to be able to compress each typeof data related to SAP applications such as tables, indexes, and unstructured data. Using all 11gspace optimizations the database size can be reduced up to a factor of 3.Figure 4: Space savings achieved with 11.2 Compression and other space optimizationsHow to achieve a compressed Oracle database for SAP applications?• All existing SAP systems with SAP Kernel 6.40 EX2 and higher running on oracle database 9.2.0.8 and 10.2.0.4 require an upgrade to 11.2.0.2 (documentation at http//service.sap.com/instguides "database upgrades "Oracle) and the latest SAP Bundle Patch available (http//service.sap.com/oracle-download). After the upgrade the database can then be compressed through a reorganization using SAP BRSPACE Release 7.20 and higher. The new BRSPACE version has been enriched with new options (see SAP Note 1431296 – LOB conversion and table compression with BRSPACE 7.20) that allow the conversion of 9
  14. 14. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions LONG and LOB segments into SecureFiles, OLTP and SecureFiles compression and even combined with Index compression. BRSPACE is as such intelligent to know which tables and indexes need to be compressed and are worth compressing. BRSPACE will skip all the other tables where the compression does not make sense e.g. SAP Cluster Tables, SAP Pool tables etc. (please check SAP Note 1431296 for the complete list). This means the easiest way to compress all relevant tables within a tablespace is to compress the whole tablespace and let BRPSACE do the rest (compress the suitable and skip the non-suitable tables).• All new SAP system installations based on Oracle Database 11.2 have the possibility to activate Advanced Compression during the installation.• Index Compression can be done either in combination with OLTP table compression or in a separate step.Recovery Manager (RMAN) CompressionThe continuous growth in enterprise databases creates an enormous challenge to databaseadministrators. The storage requirements for maintaining database backups and the performanceof the backup procedures are directly impacted by database size. Oracle Advanced Compressionincludes RMAN compression technology that can dramatically reduce the storage requirementsfor backup data. Due to RMAN’s tight integration with Oracle Database, backup data iscompressed before it is written to disk or tape and doesn’t need to be uncompressed beforerecovery – providing an enormous reduction in storage costs.There are three levels of RMAN Compression: LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH. The amount ofstorage savings increases from LOW to HIGH, while potentially consuming more CPUresources.Data Pump CompressionThe ability to compress the metadata associated with a Data Pump job was first provided inOracle Database 10g Release 2. In Oracle Database 11g, this compression capability has beenextended so that table data can be compressed on export. Data Pump compression is an inlineoperation, so the reduced dump file size means a significant savings in disk space. Unlikeoperating system or file system compression utilities, Data Pump compression is fully inline onthe import side as well, so there is no need to uncompress a dump file before importing it. Thecompressed dump file sets are automatically decompressed during import without any additionalsteps by the Database Administrator. 10
  15. 15. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsIn the following compression example from the Oracle sample database, the OE and SHschemas were exported while simultaneously compressing all data and metadata. The dump filesize was reduced by 74.67%.Three versions of the gzip (GNU zip) utility and one UNIX compress utility were used tocompress the 6.0 MB dump file set. The reduction in dump file size was comparable to DataPump compression. Note that the reduction in dump file size will vary based on data types andother factors.Full Data Pump functionality is available using a compressed file. Any command that is used ona regular file will also work on a compressed file. Users have the following options to determinewhich parts of a dump file set should be compressed:• ALL enables compression for the entire export operation.• DATA-ONLY results in all data being written to the dump file in compressed format.• METADATA-ONLY results in all metadata being written to the dump file in compressed format. This is the default.• NONE disables compression for the entire export operation.Compression for Network TrafficData Guard provides the management, monitoring, and automation software infrastructure tocreate, maintain, and monitor one or more standby databases to protect enterprise data fromfailures, disasters, errors, and data corruptions. Data Guard maintains synchronization of primaryand standby databases using redo data (the information required to recover a transaction). Astransactions occur in the primary database, redo data is generated and written to the local redolog files. Data Guard Redo Transport Services are used to transfer this redo data to the standbysite(s). With Advanced Compression, redo data may be transmitted in a compressed format toreduce network bandwidth consumption and in some cases reduce transmission time of redodata when the Oracle Data Guard configuration uses either synchronous redo transport (SYNC)or asynchronous redo transport (ASYNC).Oracle Cloud File SystemOracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters configurations. Oracle ASM,Oracle’s recommended storage management solution for SAP running on Oracle RAC andOracle Single Instance, provides an alternative to conventional volume managers, file systems,and raw devices. 11
  16. 16. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsOracle Cloud File System that compliments Automatic Storage Management for OracleDatabases, is now certified by SAP. This certification has been completed as of Oracle version11.2.0.2 for Oracle Single Instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC).The Oracle Cloud File System includes: Automatic Storage Management (ASM), AutomaticStorage Management Cluster File System (ACFS) and Automatic Storage Management DynamicVolume Manager (ADVM). These three components of the Oracle Cloud File System create anintegrated foundation for database and general purpose files, as well as an infrastructure forcluster and single node server configurations. The Oracle Grid Infrastructure simplifies andstreamlines management of volumes, file systems and cluster configurations, thereforeeliminating the need for multiple 3rd party software layers, complexity and cost.For SAP customers using RAC, complexity and costs can be reduced dramatically by usingSAPCTL (SAP Control) based on Oracle Clusterware, making SAP services highly available andeliminating the need for 3rd party failover software.Starting with 11gR2 (11.2.0.2), Oracle Cloud File System is the preferred storage platform forSAP systems running on Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), as well as SAP systemsrunning on a single Oracle Database. SAP customers are now able to use Oracle Cloud FileSystem to manage ALL data: Oracle Database files, Oracle Clusterware files and non-structuredgeneral purpose data such as Oracle and SAP kernel binaries, external files, and text files.Moving SAP databases to Oracle 11gR2 on ASMSAP systems running on Oracle RAC or single instance can now move their databases to ASM.Customers can smoothly migrate their current file system based databases toASM/ACFS/ADVM, reference the best practices published at http://www.oracle.com/sap,http://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/ora and SAP Note 1550133. Based on these white papers, themigration can be briefly described as follows:• ASM Disk Groups configuration• Grid Infrastructure installation• Oracle Database 11.2.0.2 installation• Configuration of Source and Target system• Online database migration through RMAN using “duplicate from active database” in case the OS platform does not change or the source and target system have the same ENDIAN• Offline database migration thorough RMAN using “transportable tablespaces” or export/import or Triple O based on Oracle GoldenGate if the platform changes (can also be used for homogenous migration)For more information about the migration process, please check the white papers mentionedabove. 12
  17. 17. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsReal Application Testing Today, enterprises have to make sizeable investments in hardware and software to roll outinfrastructure changes. For example, a data center may have an initiative to move databases to alow cost computing platform, such as Linux. Traditionally, this would require the enterprise toinvest in duplicate hardware for the entire application stack, including web server, applicationserver and database, to test their production applications. Organizations therefore find it veryexpensive to evaluate and implement changes to their data center infrastructure. In spite of theextensive testing performed, unexpected problems are frequently encountered when a change isfinally made in the production system. This is because test workloads are typically simulated andare not accurate or complete representations of true production workloads. Data centermanagers are therefore reluctant to adopt new technologies and adapt their businesses to therapidly changing competitive pressures.Oracle Database 11g’s Real Application Testing addresses these issues head-on with theintroduction of two new solutions, Database Replay and SQL Performance Analyzer.Database ReplayDatabase Replay provides DBAs and system administrators with the ability to faithfully,accurately and realistically rerun actual production workloads, including online user and batchworkloads, in test environments. By capturing the full database workload from productionsystems, including all concurrency, dependencies and timing, Database Replay enables you torealistically test system changes by essentially recreating production workloads on the test systemsomething that a set of scripts can never duplicate. With Database Replay, DBAs and systemadministrators can test:• Database upgrades, patches, parameter, schema changes, etc.• Configuration changes such as conversion from a single instance to RAC, ASM, etc.• Storage, network, interconnect changes• Operating system, hardware migrations, patches, upgrades, parameter changesFaster deploymentAnother major advantage of Database Replay is that it does not require the DBA to spendmonths getting a functional knowledge of the application and developing test scripts. With a fewpoint and clicks, DBAs have a full production workload available at their fingertips to test and 13
  18. 18. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionsrollout any change. This cuts down testing cycles from many months to days or weeks and bringssignificant cost savings to businesses as a result.Database Replay consists of four three main steps:• Capture workload in production including critical concurrency• Replay workload in test with production timing• Analyze and fix issues before productionSQL Performance AnalyzerChanges that affect SQL execution plans can severely impact application performance andavailability. As a result, DBAs spend enormous amounts of time identifying and fixing SQLstatements that have regressed due to the system changes. SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA) canpredict and prevent SQL execution performance problems caused by environment changes. SQLPerformance Analyzer provides a granular view of the impact of environment changes on SQLexecution plans and statistics by running the SQL statements serially before and after thechanges. SQL Performance Analyzer generates a report outlining the net benefit on the workloaddue to the system change as well as the set of regressed SQL statements. For regressed SQLstatements, appropriate executions plan details along with recommendations to tune them areprovided. SQL Performance Analyzer is well integrated with existing SQL Tuning Set (STS),SQL Tuning Advisor and SQL Plan Management functionality. SQL Performance Analyzercompletely automates and simplifies the manual and time-consuming process of assessing theimpact of change on extremely large SQL workloads (thousands of SQL statements). DBAs canuse SQL Tuning Advisor to fix the regressed SQL statements in test environments and generatenew plans. These plans are then seeded in SQL Plan Management baselines and exported backinto production. Thus, using SQL Performance Analyzer, businesses can validate with a highdegree of confidence that a system change to a production environment in fact results in netpositive improvement at a significantly lower cost. Examples of common system changes forwhich you can use the SQL Performance Analyzer include:• Database upgrade, patches, initialization parameter changes• Configuration changes to the operating system, hardware, or database• Schema changes such as adding new indexes, partitioning or materialized views• Gathering optimizer statistics.• SQL tuning actions, for example, creating SQL profilesUsing SQL Performance Analyzer involves the following main steps:• Capture SQL workload in production including statistics and bind variables• Re-execute SQL queries in test environment 14
  19. 19. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions• Tune regressed SQL and seed SQL plans for productionReal Application Testing to validate Advanced Compression for SAPThe Oracle/SAP Development Team recently concluded comprehensive testing of SAPapplications using both SQL Performance Analyzer and Database Replay. The testing consistedof SAP ERP and BW workloads running in-house on the ABAP stack. Further testing wasundertaken at a large utilities customer running the SAP IS-U (Industry Specific Utilities) module.The objective was to use Real Application Testing to measure the effects of AdvancedCompression for OLTP and SecureFiles on DML operations for SAP ERP. The testing activityconsisted of using Database Replay to capture a production workload from a 10.2.0.4 SAPdatabase. This workload was then replayed multiple times against both compressed and non-compressed Oracle Database 11!"Release 2 databases.Overall the test results were very instructive. Key findings are described as follows (note: resultswill vary according to your workload):• No significant overhead observed during capture process• Advanced Compression reduced database size by 50%• Redo generated increased by ~25%• Physical reads reduced by 60%• CPU usage stayed flatConclusionReal Application Testing proved a vital tool for validating upgrade from Oracle Database 10!Release 2 to 11!"Release 2. The ability to test with production workloads and SQL statements isessential for testing business critical applications like SAP and this feature will significantlymitigate upgrade and change risk when used by experienced DBAs.Online PatchingA regular RDBMS patch is comprised of one or more object files and/or libraries. Installing aregular patch requires shutting down the RDBMS instance, re-linking the oracle binary, andrestarting the instance; uninstalling a regular patch requires the same steps.With Oracle Database 11g, it is possible to install single or bundle patches completely online,without requiring the database instance to be shut down, and without requiring RAC or DataGuard configurations. With online patching, which is integrated with OPatch, each processassociated with the instance checks for patched code at a safe execution point, and then copiesthe code into its process space. 15
  20. 20. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsAn online patch is a special kind of patch that can be applied to a live, running RDBMS instance.An online patch contains a single shared library; installing an online patch does not requireshutting down the instance or relinking the oracle binary. An online patch can be installed/un-installed using Opatch (which uses oradebug commands to install/uninstall the patch). Onlinepatches are currently only supported for the RDBMS, i.e. the oracle binary.How does Online Patching differ than traditional diagnostic patching?• Online patches are applied and removed from a running instance where traditional patches require the instances to be shutdown.• Online patches utilize the oradebug interface to install and enable the patches where traditional diagnostic patches are linked into the "oracle" binary.• Online patches do not require the "oracle" binary to be relinked where traditional diagnostic patches do.Direct NFSStandard NFS client software, provided by the operating system, is not optimized for OracleDatabase file I/O access patterns. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2, you can configure OracleDatabase to access NAS devices directly using Oracle Direct NFS Client, rather than using theoperating system kernel NFS client. Oracle Database will access files stored on the NFS serverdirectly through the integrated Direct NFS Client eliminating the overhead imposed by theoperating system kernel NFS. These files are also accessible via the operating system kernel NFSclient thereby allowing seamless administration.Direct NFS Client includes two fundamental I/O optimizations to increase throughput andoverall performance. First, Direct NFS Client is capable of performing concurrent direct I/O,which bypasses any operating system level caches and eliminates any operating system write-ordering locks. This decreases memory consumption by eliminating scenarios where Oracle datais cached both in the SGA and in the operating system cache and eliminates the kernel modeCPU cost of copying data from the operating system cache into the SGA. Second, Direct NFSClient performs asynchronous I/O, which allows processing to continue while the I/O request issubmitted and processed.SAP customers can benefit from Direct NFS in the following way:• Improves throughput of NAS solutions such as NetApp • Up to 50% more database throughput in NAS environments with multiple NICs • Up to 20% CPU savings on database server• Works for Single Instance and Real Application Clusters (RAC)• Works for UNIX/Linux and Windows Platforms 16
  21. 21. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions• Highly Available Network Solution • Failure of NICs will not impact access to data as long as one single NIC survives. • Up to four network cards can be used between database server and NAS.• Faster, easier and more available than any OS or NAS based bonding or trunking solution• Direct NFS with NAS may provide higher throughput than traditional, more complex SAN solutions• Superior to any bonding solution – Faster and Easier• Better throughput than most SAN solutionsSecureFiles PerformanceSecureFiles offer the best solution for storing file content, such as images, audio, video, PDFs,and spreadsheets. Traditionally, relational data is stored in a database, while unstructuredcontent—both semi-structured and unstructured—is stored as files in file systems. SecureFiles isa major paradigm shift in the choice of files storage. SecureFiles is specifically engineered todeliver high performance for file data comparable to that of traditional file systems, whileretaining the advantages of the Oracle Database. SecureFiles offers the best database and filesystem architecture attributes for storing unstructured content.SAP customers benefit from SecureFiles because of• Significantly faster access times compared to LOBs in SAP environments• Increased transaction throughput on SAP cluster tables especially with RAC• Prerequisite for compression of SAP tables containing LOBs (e.g. cluster tables)Overall transaction throughput increases when LOB data is stored in SecureFiles (see figure 5).LOB data stored in SecureFiles delivers equal or better performance compared with LOB datastored in LONG or BasicFiles (LOB implementation prior to 11!). SecureFiles improvedramatically the scalability of SAP applications running against Oracle Database 11!"RAC butalso Oracle Database 11!"Single Instance benefits substantially from SecureFiles. Therefore aclear recommendation is given to migrate all existing LONG and Basicfile LOB data toSecureFiles. 17
  22. 22. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsFigure 5: Performance Improvement with SecureFilesDeferred Segment CreationBeginning in Oracle Database 11g Release 2, when creating a table in a locally managedtablespace, table segment creation is deferred until the first row is inserted. In addition, creationof segments is deferred for any LOB columns of the table, any indexes created implicitly as partof table creation, and any indexes subsequently explicitly created on the table.The advantages of this space allocation method for customers running Oracle databaseunderneath their SAP applications are the following:• Empty database objects will not consume any disk space• Very important for SAP environments as 60-70% of all tables, lobs, indexes and partitions in an SAP installation are empty• Makes database installation for SAP a lot faster because creation of empty tables, LOBs, and indexes are dramatically faster.• Oracle Data Dictionary Space queries run substantially fasterEnhanced ADD COLUMN Functionality (Dictionary-Only AddColumn)Before Oracle 11g adding new columns with DEFAULT values and NOT NULL constraintrequired both an exclusive lock on the table and the default value to be stored in all existingrecords. 18
  23. 23. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsNow in Oracle 11g the database can optimize the resource usage and storage requirements forthis operation, default values of columns are maintained in the data dictionary for columnsspecified as NOT NULL. Adding new columns with DEFAULT values and NOT NULLconstraint no longer requires the default value to be stored in all existing records. This not onlyenables a schema modification in sub-seconds and independent of the existing data volume, italso consumes no space. Especially for large tables, updating table column results in reducedexecution time and space saving.Because add column is very common within SAP BW applications and SAP upgrades, enhancedADD Column Functionality leads to:• Factor 10-20 performance improvement for SAP BW during add column process• Saving large amount of disk spaceTable PartitioningTable partitioning has been supported since SAP Release 4.6C (using many of the Oraclepartitioning types available) and SAP BW 2.0 where many SAP InfoCubes tables are partitionedby default.As of 11g Release 2 and SAP BASIS Release 700 (Support Package 22), composite partitioning(or subpartitioning) and interval partitioning are also supported by SAP:• With composite partitioning - a scheme introduced in Oracle8i Database - you can create subpartitions from partitions, allowing further granularity of the table. But in that release, you could use subpartition range-partitioned tables only via hash subpartitioning. In Oracle9i, composite partitioning was expanded to include range-list subpartitioning.• In Oracle Database 11g, you are not limited to range-hash and range-list composite partitioning. Rather, your choices are virtually limitless; you can create composite partitions in any combination. This means customers can create the following types of composite partitions available in Oracle 11g: Range-range, Range-hash, Range-list, List-range, List-hash, List-list.• Interval partitioning, new in 11g, is an extension of range partitioning which instructs the database to automatically create partitions of a specified interval when data inserted into the table exceeds all of the existing range partitions. You must specify at least one range partition. The range partitioning key value determines the high value of the range partitions, which is called the transition point, and the database creates interval partitions for data beyond that transition point. The lower boundary of every interval partition is the non-inclusive upper boundary of the previous range or interval partition.• For example, if you create an interval partitioned table with monthly intervals and the transition point at January 1, 2007, then the lower boundary for the January 2007 interval is 19
  24. 24. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions January 1, 2007. The lower boundary for the July 2007 interval is July 1, 2007, regardless of whether the June 2007 partition was already created.• The "SAP Partition Engine" provides a tool for SAP/Oracle systems that you can use to partition large application tables to optimize archiving. The Partition Engine offers a predefined set of approximately 30 application tables to be partitioned based on time based criteria: • Existing non-partitioned tables will be converted through an ABAP/SAP BR*Tools task. • Partition Maintenance is fully automated through the internal SAP SM37 job, and requires no DBA intervention. For additional information regarding prerequisits and usage check the SAP Note 1333328.SAP Standard Applications BenchmarksSAP has created several standard benchmarks to compare the performance of various solutionsand components across different hardware platforms and technology stacks and to assist in sizingcustomer systems. The most “popular” SAP standard application benchmarks are SAP Sales andDistribution (SAP SD), Assemble-to-Order (ATO), SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAPBW), SAP Business Intelligence Data Mart, and Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAPAPO). SAP SD comes in three possible configurations: 2-tier, the database and SAP applicationare on same server. 3-tier, the database and SAP application are on separate servers. Parallel3-tier with a clustered database such as Oracle RAC. Finally, the ATO benchmark has twoconfigurations: 2-tier and 3-tier.In October 2009, Oracle announced a world-record result on the SAP® Business Intelligence-Data Mart (BI-D) Standard Application Benchmark, SAP certification number 2009037. Thisresult surpasses the best IBM DB2 result running this benchmark, with more than triple theperformance, SAP certification number 2008063: On a system comprised of a two-node Fujitsu PRIMERGY RX300 cluster, each equipped with a two-socket, quad-core Intel Xeon x5570 2.93 GHZ processor, Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters on Linux delivered world record 609,349 query navigation steps per hour. When measured from a one-node to a two-node configuration, as documented and certified by SAP, Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters showed 90 percent scalability by achieving 320,363 (SAP certification number 2009036) and 609,349 (SAP certification number 2009037) query navigation steps per hour, respectively, while delivering unmatched performance and high availability. 20
  25. 25. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions Additionally, the one-node and two-node results delivered more than 67 percent higher performance per core and 3.3 times more performance-per-processor, respectively, than the highest IBM DB2 results on the SAP BI-D Standard Application Benchmark. The data mart scenario is one use of the business intelligence capabilities of the SAP NetWeaver® technology platform. The data mart contains a static snapshot of a huge amount of operational data and multiple users run queries on this data in 10 InfoCubes that contain 2.5 billion (2,500,000,000) records. The key figure is the number of query navigation steps per hour against an enormous amount of data.Oracle has extended this series of benchmarks to three (SAP certification number 2009044) andthen four (SAP certification number 2009045) RAC nodes cluster to prove that scalability stayson the same high level whenever we double the node number and thus the resources.Figure 5: RAC scalability with SAP BI Data MartIn November 2007, Oracle announced a world-record result on the SAP® Sales andDistribution-Parallel (SD-Parallel) Standard Application Benchmark running on the SAP® ERP6.0 application with 37,040 SD users, Certification Number 2008013. Based on these results anIBM paper states “This document will demonstrate that the SAP software suite works andscales very well utilizing multiple server nodes in a Oracle RAC cluster”.A Head-to-Head Comparison finds Oracle on Top with 3,600 more SAP SD Users thanMicrosoft SQL Server 2005 on Identical Fujitsu Hardware, Oracle/Linux certification number2006071 and SQL Server/Windows certification number 2006068. Another benchmarkcomparison on identical HP Hardware shows Oracle Database could serve 34% more SD usersthan SQL Server , Oracle/Linux certification number 2008064 and SQL Server/Windows 21
  26. 26. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionscertification number 2008026. This comparison shows that Oracle 10g was better than SQLServer 2008.“Oracle continues to prove that it is far ahead of the competition when it comes to meeting thehigh-performance, data-intensive computing demands of our customers,” said Juan Loaiza,senior vice president, Systems Technology, Oracle. "This new world-record result and superiorscalability proof points clearly distinguish Oracle Database and Real Application Clusters indemanding enterprise application environments.”A production SAP system sees fluctuating user loads, contention on frequently used tables, a mixof reads and writes, and occasional large batch jobs. The database platform for the system needsto be able to scale easily with this mixed workload without requiring frequent and extensive DBAintervention. SAP standard benchmark results as well as customer experience show that theOracle RDBMS distinguishes itself through an optimal usage of available system resources. SAPcertified a series of benchmarks that demonstrate the impressive scalability of Oracle RealApplication Clusters (RAC): The throughput increased by a factor of 1.9 whenever the numberof nodes was doubled. This scalability was proven by Oracle in two of the most known SAPStandard Application Benchmarks: SAP BI-D (figure 5) and SAP SD (figure 6).Figure 6: RAC scalability with SAP SDReal Application Clusters for SAP (RAC for SAP)Oracle Database 10g comes with an integrated set of High Availability (HA) capabilities that helporganizations ensure business continuity by minimizing the various kinds of downtime that canaffect their businesses. These capabilities take care of most scenarios that might lead to data 22
  27. 27. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionsunavailability, such as system failures, data failures, disasters, human errors, system maintenanceoperations and data maintenance operationsThe cornerstone of Oracle’s high availability solutions that protects from system failures isOracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). Oracle RAC is a cluster database with a shared cachearchitecture that overcomes the limitations of traditional shared-nothing and shared-diskapproaches, to provide a highly scalable and available database solution for SAP applications.RAC supports the transparent deployment of a single database across a cluster of active servers,providing fault tolerance from hardware failures or planned outages. RAC supports mainstreambusiness applications of all kinds – these include popular packaged products such as SAP, as wellas custom applications. RAC provides a very high availability for these applications by removingthe single point of failure with a single server. In a RAC configuration, all nodes are active andserve production workload. If a node in the cluster fails, the Oracle Database continues runningon the remaining nodes. Individual nodes can also be shutdown for maintenance whileapplication users continue to work.A RAC configuration can be built from standardized, commodity-priced processing, storage, andnetwork components. RAC also enables a flexible way to scale applications, using a simple scale-out model. When more processing power is needed by a particular application service, anotherserver can be added easily and dynamically, without taking any of the active users offline. Basedon customer configurations, SAP Dialog instances and connected users can be routed todedicated nodes in the RAC cluster.Contrary to Failover Cluster, where every SAP instance is connected to a single databaseinstance, with an Oracle RAC cluster one or more SAP instances can be connected to onededicated Oracle RAC instance from within the available instances. If one RAC node crashes, theusers connected to the other nodes will not be affected since they are connected to a differentdatabase instance. The SAP dialog instances that were connected to the crashed databaseinstance (node1) will be automatically reconnected to a surviving database instance (node2)within seconds. In case more than one SAP instance were connected to the crashed databaseinstance, then the SAP instances concerned can be reconnected either to only one available RACinstance or to different RAC instances in order to split the workload. 23
  28. 28. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsFigure 7: SAP workload distribution with RACHigh Availability for SAP Resources (through SAPCTL)Oracle Clusterware can provide high availability for SAP resources just as it does for Oracleresources. Oracle has created an Oracle Clusterware tool, SAP Control (SAPCTL), to enablecustomers to easily manage SAP high availability resources. SAPCTL provides an easy-to-useinterface to administer the resources, scripts, and dependencies of Oracle Clusterware and SAPhigh availability components. SAPCTL consolidates the functionality of the Oracle command-line tools by enabling SAP customers to easily manage the SAP Enqueue Service for ABAP andJAVA, the SAP Replication Service for ABAP and JAVA, and the additional virtual IP addressesused by the SAP Enqueue Service for ABAP and/or JAVA. In addition to the critical SAP highavailability components, namely the SAP Enqueue and SAP Replication Service, SAPCTLprovides an interface for the protection of arbitrary number of SAP application instances. TheSAP Central Instance (CI) or SAP application instances (DV) are possible candidates to rununder SAPCTL supervision.Data Guard for SAPOracle Data Guard is the most effective and comprehensive data availability, data protection, anddisaster recovery solution for enterprise databases. It provides the management, monitoring, andautomation software infrastructure to create and maintain one or more synchronized standbydatabases to protect data from failures, disasters, errors, and corruptions. Data Guard standbydatabases deliver high return on investment when used for reports, backups, and testing.Administrators can chose either manual or automatic failover of the production system to a 24
  29. 29. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionsstandby system, if the primary fails in order to maintain high availability for mission criticalapplications, without downtime.Data Guard standby databases can be located at remote disaster recovery sites thousands of milesaway from the production data center, or they may be located in the same city, same campus, oreven in the same building. If the production database becomes unavailable because of a plannedor an unplanned outage, Data Guard can switch any standby database to the production role,thus minimizing downtime and preventing any data loss.Oracle Data Guard 11g Release 2 redefines what users should expect from such solutions. DataGuard is included with Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and provides the management,monitoring, and automation software to create and maintain one or more synchronized standbydatabases that protect data from failures, disasters, errors, and corruptions. It can address bothHigh Availability and Disaster Recovery requirements and is the ideal complement to Oracle RealApplication ClustersData Guard functionalities for SAP customers:• Snapshot Standby enables a physical standby database to be open read-write for testing or any activity that requires a read-write replica of production data. A Snapshot Standby continues to receive, but not apply, updates generated by the primary. These updates are applied to the standby database automatically when the Snapshot Standby is converted back to a physical standby database. Primary data is protected at all times.• A physical standby database, because it is an exact replica of the primary database, can also be used to offload the primary database of the overhead of performing backups• Automatic Gap Resolution: In cases where the primary and standby databases become disconnected (network failures or standby server failures), and depending upon the protection mode used, the primary database will continue to process transactions and accumulate a backlog of redo that cannot be shipped to the standby until a new network connection can be established. While in this state, Data Guard continually monitors standby database status, detects when connection is re-established, and automatically resynchronizes the standby database with the primary (step four in Figure 3). No administrative intervention is required as long as the archive logs required to resynchronize the standby database are available on-disk at the primary database. In the case of an extended outage where it is not practical to retain the required archive logs, a physical standby can be resynchronized using an RMAN fast incremental backup of the primary database.• Oracle Data Validation: One of the significant advantages of Data Guard is its ability to use Oracle processes to validate redo before it is applied to the standby database. Data Guard is a loosely coupled architecture where standby databases are kept synchronized by applying redo blocks, completely detached from possible data file corruptions that can occur at the primary database. Redo is also shipped directly from memory (system global area), and thus is 25
  30. 30. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions completely detached from I/O corruptions on the primary. Corruption-detection checks occur at a number of key interfaces during redo transport and apply.• Managing a Data Guard Configuration: Primary and standby databases and their various interactions may be managed by using SQL*Plus. Data Guard also offers a distributed management framework called the Data Guard Broker, which automates and centralizes the creation, maintenance, and monitoring of a Data Guard configuration. Administrators may interact with the Broker using either Enterprise Manager Grid Control or the Broker’s command-line interface (DGMGRL).• Role Management Services: Data Guard Role Management Services quickly transition a designated standby database to the primary role. A switchover is a planned operation used to reduce downtime during planned maintenance, such as operating system or hardware upgrades. Regardless of the transport service (SYNC or ASYNC) or protection mode utilized, a switchover is always a zero data loss operation. A failover brings a standby database online as the new primary database during an unplanned outage of the primary database. A failover operation does not require the standby database to be restarted in order to assume the primary role. Also, as long as the database files on the original primary database are intact and the database can be mounted, the original primary can be reinstated and resynchronized as a standby database for the new primary using Flashback Database – it does not have to be restored from a backup.• Fast-Start Failover: Fast-Start Failover allows Data Guard to automatically fail over to a previously chosen, standby database without requiring manual intervention to invoke the failover. A Data Guard Observer process continuously monitors the status of a Fast-Start Failover configuration. If both the Observer and the standby database lose connectivity to the primary database, the Observer attempts to reconnect to the primary database for a configurable amount of time before initiating a fast-start failover. Fast-start failover is designed to ensure that out of the three fast-start failover members - the primary, the standby and the Observer - at least two members agree to major state transitions to prevent split-brain scenarios from occurring. Once the failed primary is repaired and mounted, it must establish connection with the Observer process before it can open. When it does, it will be informed that a failover has already occurred and the original primary is automatically reinstated as a standby of the new primary database. The simple, yet elegant architecture of fast-start failover makes it excellent for use when both high availability and data protection is required.• Automating Client Failover: The ability to quickly perform a database failover is only the first requirement for high availability. SAP Applications must also be able to quickly drop their connections from a failed primary database, and quickly reconnect to the new primary database. Effective SAP failover in a Data Guard context has three components: • Fast database failover 26
  31. 31. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions • Fast start of database services on the new primary database • Fast notification of clients and fast reconnection to the new primary database In previous Oracle releases, one or more user-written database triggers were required to automate client failover, depending upon configuration. Data Guard 11g Release 2 simplifies configuration significantly by eliminating the need for user-written triggers to automate client failover. Role transitions managed by the Data Guard broker can automatically failover the database, start the appropriate services on the new primary database, disconnect clients from the failed database and redirect them to the new primary database – no manual intervention is required.• Easy conversion of a physical standby database to a reporting database – A physical standby database can be opened read/write for reporting purposes, and then flashed back to a point in the past to be easily converted back to a physical standby database. At this point, Data Guard automatically synchronizes the standby database with the primary database. This allows the physical standby database to be utilized for read/write reporting activities for SAP applications e.g. NetWeaver BI.Many Oracle Data Guard 11g Release 2 functionalities are enhanced features that were originallyavailable with Oracle 10g, like the improved Redo Transmission, Easy conversion of a physicalstandby database to a reporting database, and Real Time Apply etc.Patching of Oracle Databases and Real Application ClustersMOPatch is a specially packaged wrapper utility created around Opatch, simplifying the task ofinstalling multiple Oracle database patches into an Oracle Home. MOPatch automates theprocess of unpacking the patches and calling o Opatch apply for each of them. See SAP Notes1027012 and 839182 for more details.MOPatch is developed by Oracle’s SAP integration development team and is available fordownload from SAP Service Marketplace. It is now integrated with the deployment proceduresof Enterprise Manager Grid Control to automate the orchestration of patching on OracleDatabases. This automation significantly reduces time and effort involved in the manual patchingactivity, see: http://www.oracle.com/newsletters/sap/products/database/oradb4sap_howto.htmlOracle Advanced SecurityOracle Advanced Security helps customers address regulatory compliance requirements byprotecting sensitive data from unauthorized disclosure on the network, backup media, or withinthe database. Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption provides the industriesmost advanced encryption capabilities for protecting sensitive information without requiring anychanges to the existing application. 27
  32. 32. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsPrior to 11g Release 2 SAP customers could implement security features such as ColumnEncryption through Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) and Client Server NetworkEncryption, to secure the data transfer between SAP instances and the database server.Unlike most database encryption solutions, TDE is completely transparent to existingapplications with no triggers, views or other application changes required. Data is transparentlyencrypted when written to disk and transparently decrypted after an application user hassuccessfully authenticated, and passed all authorization checks.Tablespace EncryptionStarting with Oracle Database 11g it is possible to encrypt entire tablespaces. This makes it mucheasier to ensure that all relevant data is encrypted because everything stored in the tablespace getsencrypted automatically. Tablespace encryption means entire application tables can betransparently encrypted. Data blocks will be transparently decrypted as they are accessed by thedatabase.RMAN Backup Encryption (Oracle Secure Backup)Lost or stolen tapes are frequently the cause for losing sensitive data. Oracle Secure Backupencrypts tapes and provides centralized tape backup management for the entire Oracleenvironment and protects Oracle database.Oracle Secure Backup protects heterogeneous UNIX, Linux, Windows and Network AttachedStorage (NAS) file system data and the Oracle database providing tape backup management forthe entire Oracle environment:• Oracle database to tape through integration with Recovery Manager (RMAN) supporting versions Oracle9i to Oracle Database 11g.• Optimized Oracle database backups to tape provide unparalleled performance achieving 10- 25% faster backups than comparable media management utilities with up to 30% less CPU utilization• Backup encryption using AES128, AES192 or AES256 encryption algorithms• File system data protection of local and distributed servers• Policy-based tape backup managementData Guard Secure Transmission of Redo DataBecause a lack of security can directly affect availability, Data Guard provides a secureenvironment and prevents tampering with redo data as it is being transferred to the standbydatabase. To enable secure transmission of redo data, set up every database in the Data Guardconfiguration to use a password file, and set the password for the SYS user identically on every 28
  33. 33. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionssystem. The following is a summary of steps needed for each database in the Data Guardconfiguration:Create a password file for each database in the Data Guard configuration (Set the initializationparameter on each instance):• REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE• orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw password=<passwd> entries=10After you have performed these steps to set up security on every database in the Data Guardconfiguration, Data Guard transmits redo data only after the appropriate authentication checksusing SYS credentials are successful. This authentication can be performed even if OracleAdvanced Security is not installed and provides some level of security when shipping redo data.Secure Database exports with EncryptionFor years Oracle customers have found the import / export utilities a convenient way to movesmall amounts of data from one database to another. Oracle Data Pump 11g provides the abilityto encrypt data as it is written to the export file, providing additional protection for credit cardnumbers and other sensitive business data.Oracle Data Pump can easily encrypt an entire export file using one of these three methods:• Protected by the Transparent Data Encryption master encryption key• Protected by a passphrase• Protected by both passphrase and Oracle Transparent Data Encryption master encryption keyUsing Oracle Transparent Data Encryption, Oracle Data Pump uses the Transparent DataEncryption master encryption key either from the Oracle Wallet or a Hardware Security Module(HSM).Using a passphrase, Oracle Data Pump uses the passphrase supplied on the command line as thekey for the encryption algorithm. This is beneficial if the export file is to be imported intoanother database, where the matching master encryption key is not available, but the temporarypassphrase can be shared with the receiving site.If using both passphrase and TDE master encryption key, the export file can be decryptedtransparently if the TDE master encryption key is available, or by providing a passphrase. This isconvenient when export files are to be imported back into the source database, and shipped offto other locations where the matching TDE master encryption key is not available, but thetemporary passphrase can be shared with the receiving site.Oracle Data Pump supports the AES encryption algorithm with key sizes ranging from 128 to256. 29
  34. 34. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsOracle Data Pump command line parameters can be used to specify the granularity of dataencryption in the export file. For example, Data Pump can be instructed to encrypt allinformation or only those columns currently encrypted using Oracle Transparent DataEncryption.SecureFiles EncryptionIn 11g, Oracle has extended the encryption capability to SecureFiles and uses the TransparentData Encryption (TDE) syntax. The database supports automatic key management for allSecureFile columns within a table and transparently encrypts/decrypts data, backups and redolog files. Applications require no changes and can take advantage of 11g SecureFiles using TDEsemantics. SecureFiles supports the following encryption algorithms:• 3DES168: Triple Data Encryption Standard with a 168-bit key size• AES128: Advanced Encryption Standard with a 128 bit key size• AES192: Advanced Encryption Standard with a 192-bit key size (default)• AES256: Advanced Encryption Standard with a 256-bit key sizeDatabase VaultOutsourcing, application consolidation, and increasing concerns over insider threats haveresulted in an almost mandatory requirement for strong controls on access to sensitiveapplication data. In addition, regulations such as Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), Payment Card Industry(PCI), and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) require stronginternal controls to protect sensitive information such as financial, healthcare, and credit cardsrecords. Oracle Database Vault enforces real-time preventive controls and separation-of-duty inthe Oracle Database to secure the SAP application data.Oracle Database Vault Protection for SAP enables SAP customers to prevent access toapplication data by privileged database users, enforce separation-of-duty, and provide strongeraccess control with multi-factor authorization (Oracle Database Vault is currently in controlledavailability as described in SAP Note 1355140). Database Vault enforces security controls evenwhen a database user bypasses the application and connects directly to the database. DatabaseVault certification with SAP applications benefits customers by:• Preventing privileged user access to application data using protection realms for the SAP ABAP stack and the SAP Java stack• Enforcing separation of duty in the Oracle Database while allowing SAP administrators to perform their duties and protecting their SAP administration roles• Provides SAP specific Database Vault protection policies for SAP BR*Tools 30
  35. 35. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutions• Implements all Database Vault protections transparently and without any change to the SAP application codePreventing Privileged User Access: Database administrators hold highly trusted positions withinthe enterprise. With Database Vault realms, enterprises increase security by preventing access toapplication data even if the request is coming from privileged users. This is especially importantwhen a privileged account is compromised or accessed outside normal business hours or from anun-trusted IP address. The regular tools used by administrators to help manage and tune theOracle database continue to work as before, but they can no longer be used to access SAPapplication data.Enforcing Separation-of-Duty: Database Vault helps administrators manage operations moresecurely by providing fine-grained controls on database operations such as creating accounts, andgranting privileges. For more information and White Paper see:http://www.oracle.com/newsletters/sap/products/dbvault.htmlMore new 11g featuresData Guard ImprovementsFast-Start Failover for Maximum Performance Mode in a Data Guard ConfigurationThis feature enables fast-start failover to be used in a Data Guard configuration that is set up inthe maximum performance protection mode. Since there is some possibility of data loss when aData Guard failover occurs in maximum performance mode, administrators can now choose notto do a fast-start failover if the redo loss exposure exceeds a certain amount.This enhancement allows a larger number of disaster recovery configurations to take advantageof Data Guards automatic failover feature.User Configurable Conditions to Initiate Fast-Start Failover in a Data Guard ConfigurationFor lights out administration, you can enable fast-start failover to allow the broker to determineif a failover is necessary and to initiate a failover to a pre-specified target standby database, witheither no data loss or a configurable amount of data loss. In addition, you can specify underwhich conditions or errors you want a failover to be initiated. Oracle also provides the DBMS_DGPL/SQL package to allow an application to request a fast-start failover.This feature enables the administrator to choose and configure a list of conditions that, if theyoccur, will initiate fast-start failover and increases the flexibility and manageability of customersdisaster recovery configurations.Data Guard Integration, Simplification, and Performance 31
  36. 36. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsThe new features in the following sections simplify the configuration and use of Oracle DataGuard. For example, some features provide a smaller set of integrated parameters, a unifiedSQL/Broker syntax, and better integration with other High Availability features like RMAN andOracle RAC. Other features enhance the performance of key Oracle Data Guard features likeredo transport, gap resolution, switchover/failover times.• Enhanced Data Guard Broker Based Management Framework: The enhancements for this release include: ! Data Guard Broker improved logging and tracing ! Oracle Managed Files (OMF) support for Data Guard Broker configuration files ! Data Guard Broker integration with database startup ! Guard Broker support for advanced redo transport settings ! Data Guard Broker support of prepared switchovers for Logical Standby These enhancements make it possible to use Data Guard Broker in a wider variety of disaster recovery configurations.Support Up to 30 Standby DatabasesThe number of standby databases that a primary database can support is increased from 9 to 30in this release.The capability to create 30 standby databases can be used to offload large reporting and testingworkloads from a production database.Integration, Simplification, and Performance of Availability FeaturesAutomatic Reporting of Corrupt BlocksDuring instance recovery, if corrupt blocks are encountered, theDBA_CORRUPTION_LIST is automatically populated. Block validation occurs at everylevel of backup, media recovery, and instance recovery.Automatic Block RepairAutomatic block repair allows corrupt blocks on the primary database or physical standbydatabase to be automatically repaired, as soon as they are detected, by transferring good blocksfrom the other destination. In addition, RECOVER BLOCK is enhanced to restore blocksfrom a physical standby database. The physical standby database must be in real-time querymode. 32
  37. 37. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP SolutionsThis feature reduces time when production data cannot be accessed, due to block corruption, byautomatically repairing the corruptions as soon as they are detected in real-time using goodblocks from a physical standby database. This reduces block recovery time by using up-to-dategood blocks from a real-time, synchronized physical standby database as opposed to disk or tapebackups or flashback logs.Block Media Recovery Performance ImprovementsIn prior releases, block media recovery needed to restore original block images from disk or tapebackup before applying needed archived logs. In this release, if flashback logging is enabled andcontains older, uncorrupted blocks of the corrupt blocks in question, then these blocks will beused, speeding up the recovery operation.The benefit is a reduction in the time it takes for block media recovery by restoring block imagesfrom flashback logs instead of from disk or tape backups.Parallel Backup and Restore for Very Large FilesBackups of large data files now use multiple parallel server processes to efficiently distribute theworkload for each file. This is especially useful for very large files. This feature improves theperformance backups of large data files by parallelizing the workload for each file.Enhanced Tablespace Point-In-Time Recovery (TSPITR)Tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) is enhanced as follows:• You now have the ability to recover a dropped tablespace.• TSPITR can be repeated multiple times for the same tablespace. Previously, once a tablespace had been recovered to an earlier point-in-time, it could not be recovered to another earlier point-in-time.• DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK is automatically run to ensure that TSPITR is successful.• AUXNAME is no longer used for recovery set data files.This feature improves usability with TSPITR.Online Application Maintenance and UpgradeInvisible IndexesBeginning with Release 11g, you can create invisible indexes. An invisible index is an index that isignored by the optimizer unless you explicitly set theOPTIMIZER_USE_INVISIBLE_INDEXES initialization parameter to TRUE at the session or 33
  38. 38. Oracle Database: the Database of Choice for Deploying SAP Solutionssystem level. Making an index invisible is an alternative to making it unusable or dropping it.Using invisible indexes, you can do the following:• Test the removal of an index before dropping it. • Use temporary index structures for certain operations or modules of an application without affecting the overall application.Unlike unusable indexes, an invisible index is maintained during DML statements.Online Index Creation and Rebuild EnhancementsIn highly concurrent environments, the requirement of acquiring a DML-blocking lock at thebeginning and end of an online index creation and rebuild could lead to spikes of waiting DMLoperations and, therefore, a short drop and spike of system usage. While this is not an overallproblem for the database, this anomaly in system usage could trigger operating system alarmlevels. This feature eliminates the need for DML-blocking locks when creating or rebuilding anonline index.Online index creation and rebuild prior to this release required a DML-blocking lock at thebeginning and end of the rebuild for a short period of time. This meant that there would be twopoints at which DML activity came to a halt. This DML-blocking lock is no longer required,making these online index operations fully transparent.RMAN Integration, Simplification, and PerformanceArchive Log Management ImprovementsThis feature provides the following enhancements:• Ensure that archive logs are deleted only when not needed by required components (for example, Data Guard, Streams, and Flashback).• In a Data Guard environment, allow all standby destinations to be considered where logs are applied (instead of just mandatory destinations), before marking archive logs to be deleted. This configuration is specified using CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO APPLIED ON ALL STANDBY.• Allow optional archive log destination to be utilized in the event that the flash recovery area is inaccessible during backup. Archive logs in this optional destination can be deleted using BACKUP DELETE INPUT or DELETE ARCHIVELOG.This feature simplifies archive log management when used by multiple components. It alsoincreases availability when backing up archive logs, when an archive log in the flash recovery areais missing or inaccessible. In this case, the backup will failover to an optional archive logdestination to continue backing up the archive logs. 34

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