Migrants Mexusa


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Migrants Mexusa

  1. 1. Mexican migration to the U. S.: data and consequences Luis Rodolfo Morán Quiroz
  2. 2. IRCA and its consequences <ul><li>Douglas Massey (2008, in press): </li></ul><ul><li>The falling rate of out-migration and the steady rate of in-migration combined to increase the rate of net undocumented migration and cause an unprecedented acceleration in the number of Mexicans living north of the border. </li></ul>
  3. 3. People tend to stay in the U.S. <ul><li>In essence, restrictive U.S. immigration and border policies backfired. Instead of reducing the net annual inflow of Mexican migrants, they doubled it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. From temporary individual jobs to permanent family settlement <ul><li>U.S. immigration and border policies transformed Mexican immigration from a circular flow of male workers into a settled population of families. </li></ul>“ Better to stay put” MEXICO US
  5. 5. How many? <ul><li>By the year 2008, the total number of undocumented Mexicans present north of the border had reached 7 million and the total number on of foreign-born Mexicans had climbed to around 12 million. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Schooling <ul><li>Among undocumented migrants, only 7% reported putting their children in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>After 1996, older children in Mexican families increasingly dropped out of school and went to work, thus depressing already low levels of education among Latino children and permanently undermining their economic prospects </li></ul>
  7. 10. Source: http://www.gallup.com/poll/108748/Fewer-Americans-Favor-Cutting-Back-Immigration.aspx#1
  8. 11. Source: http://www.gallup.com/poll/28135/Americans-Divided-Need-New-Immigration-Laws.aspx#1
  9. 12. Schooling and immigration Source: http://www.gallup.com/poll/20425/Growing-Diversity-Translates-Into-Classroom-Challenges.aspx
  10. 13. Obama on immigration reform <ul><li>Replacing the flood of illegals with a regulated stream of legal immigrants who enter the United States after background checks and who are provided labor rights would enhance our security, raise wages, and improve working conditions for all Americans. April 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://obama.senate.gov/speech/060403-floor_statement_3/ </li></ul>
  11. 14. Policy implications <ul><li>Elementary education </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly exchange and accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Migrant associations </li></ul><ul><li>Hometown associations </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Family reunification </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security, Health and Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Culture, arts, religion </li></ul>
  12. 15. As noted by Stephen Castles <ul><li>&quot;Migration policies may fail because they are based on short-term and narrow views of the migratory process. It is important to look at the entire migratory process, starting from the initial movement right through to settlement, community formation and emergence of new generations in the immigration country.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Castles, 2004. &quot;The Factors that Make and Unmake Migration Policies,&quot; International Migration Review , Vol. 38, No. 3, pp.852-884 </li></ul>
  13. 16. Elementary education <ul><li>Accreditation and differences in parents’ perception </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles for integration in (at least) two points in geography </li></ul>
  14. 17. Hometown associations <ul><li>Transnationalism as a core concept </li></ul><ul><li>Sending country as their main focus </li></ul><ul><li>By the thousands, plus federations (especially from small towns in Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán…but many more) </li></ul><ul><li>The country of origin is especially interested because of money remittances, most of which are ear-marked for local development projects </li></ul>
  15. 18. Hometown associations and remittances Mexico received: 24 billions in 2006 30 billions+ in 2007 Source: www.ifad.org 150 million migrants worldwide sent more than US$300 billion to their families in developing countries during 2006 International Fund for Agricultural Development
  16. 19. Settlement <ul><li>Urban enclaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic re-construction </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural enrichment – and encroachment </li></ul>
  17. 20. Family reunification <ul><li>More than before, given the difficulties to cross the border, especially with an illegal status in the U. S. </li></ul><ul><li>More women than before </li></ul><ul><li>Longer stays </li></ul><ul><li>Need to promote temporary worker permits: benefits for both countries (money sent to Mexico is vital for families-communities) </li></ul>
  18. 21. Social Security, Health and Employment <ul><li>Taxes collected </li></ul><ul><li>Services required </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast in services in Mexico and USA </li></ul><ul><li>Income in the US is now below the mean blacks’ income (Portes) </li></ul>
  19. 22. Culture, arts, religion
  20. 23. Conclusions and general suggestions
  21. 24. 1. Not an isolated phenomenon…
  22. 25. 2. Mexican migration as symbiosis <ul><li>Labor force needed in agriculture, services, construction </li></ul><ul><li>Wage differentials make it very attractive for Mexicans to work in the U. S. </li></ul><ul><li>Ageing population in the U.S. vs. young and underpaid workers in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican communities and enclaves in the U.S. + traditions (“to become a man”) make it “natural” and “mandatory” to cross the border </li></ul>
  23. 26. 3. Social scientists generally agree on <ul><li>… a set of factors that have promoted unauthorized migration of Mexicans to the U.S. since the early 1980s: </li></ul><ul><li>failure of the economy to supply jobs for new labor market entrants </li></ul><ul><li>wage stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>lack of access to credit </li></ul><ul><li>lack of access to health care and education </li></ul><ul><li>(Susan Gzesh, 2008) </li></ul>
  24. 27. Sources <ul><li>Migración y desarrollo: Journal and web page </li></ul><ul><li>Alejandro Portes </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Massey </li></ul><ul><li>Jorge Durand </li></ul><ul><li>David Spener </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Gzesh </li></ul><ul><li>Peggy Levitt </li></ul><ul><li>(among many others) </li></ul>
  25. 28. Contact information <ul><li>Luis Rodolfo Morán Quiroz </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail addresses : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] , [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Blog : http://lrmoranquiroz.blogspot.com </li></ul>