A History Of Islamic ExtremismPresentation Transcript
The War for Muslim Minds: A History of 21 st century Islamic Extremism BCDS Senior Spring Elective 2009
The goals of this course
What do you know about Islam and Islamic
Why you should study these issues?
To be able to engage intellectually and critically in the discourse on “Islam”
To be able to answer/problematize questions like:
Why do “they” hate “us”?
Is Islam inherently violent?
Meeting mile markers/pacing
Improvement in writing
Improvement in process and product
Improvement in participation and leadership
Meeting terms of expected growth
Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (2003) , Gilles Kepel (GK)
Presentation on readings
You will be asked to read chapters from the book, and present them orally to the
Read pages and take notes
Explain your reading to the class
Do not paraphrase
Use notes, and do not read
Find questions to ask to the class about the reading
Use paragraphs in book to explain your arguments
Support your ideas with evidence from other readings
Be prepared to answer questions from the class
Your presentation should be 7-10 minutes long.
Syllabus: Timeline of the rise of 21 st century Islamic extremism
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) disintegrates after World War 1
Reader, AH pg. 207-225, 256-258
Colonization by Britain, France and Russia Reader, AH, pg. 263-264, 299-301 Decolonization after World War2 The rise of Arab nationalism 1950-60s The failure of Arab Nationalism (late 1960s) Islamism and its evolution into Islamic extremism
The failure of Arab nationalism and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood-
(GK 23-32, 62-69)
The rise of Saudi Arabia (GK 50-53, 69-75)
Iranian revolution 1979 and its legacy
(GK 106-118, 118-136)
Jihad in Afghanistan (GK 136-150)
The Palestinian Israeli crisis (GK 150-158)
Gulf War and the Taliban’s Jihad
(GK 205-217, 217-236)
Pan-Arab nationalism and Nassirian politics (AH 340-349,397-400)
The ascendancy and failure of Nasirism (AH 407-415)
The rise of Islamic extremism
The failure of Islamic revivalism
The birth of Islamic extremist groups and the ideology behind it (explain salafiyya, jihadi and takfir)
Hamas (GK 323-334)
Hezbollah (GK 123-130)
Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda (GK 313-322)
Conclusion (GK 361-376)-summit
The beginning of Islam and Islam today JE, Introduction, pg 1-28 ?
Where do we go from here?
Choose an issue that is related to this topic that you’re interested in
I will incorporate 2 issues with the most votes into the last part of our syllabus
Definitions (3-4 minutes) for tomorrow, March 3, 2009
Shi’a-Sam O’ Reilly
Jihad-Rachel D & Roland A
Orientalism-Andrew G and Stephanie G
Terrorism- Cala F.
Is extremism Islamic?
NO!!! Extremism exists in other religions too.
Rev. Paul J. Hill (1954-2003) "If I am in fact killed, I think you could justifiably call me a martyr," Mr. Hill said. "Of course, the world sneers at martyrs, but there's no question that God has used people who are willing to die for their cause to save human life, and I'm certainly willing to do that."
Is extremism Islamic?
"Contrary to popular belief, the highest value for a Jew is not the preservation of human or even of Jewish life. The highest value is doing what God wants you to do. So in an attempt to put Jewish values in a hierarchy, human life in general, Jewish life in particular, is high on the list. But it's not the top."
"There are a number of circumstances under which the individual is enjoined to take a Jewish life if necessary without consulting a court. If you see a person preparing to commit a capital crime -- rape or murder -- it is your duty to stop him. You must stop him any way you can. It's similar in some respects to the right Jewish law accords the individual to restore his own property from a thief if it is stolen. You don't have to bring him to court. If you can catch up with him, you can take your property back by force. You don't have to bother the court with stuff like that. Rabin was stealing Jewish property, proposing to give it away.
Yigal Amir Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995)
Is this Islamic Extremism? New York City, September 11 2001 Bali, Indonesia, October 12 2002 Madrid, March 11 2004 Attacks in Victoria Terminus, Mumbai, November 26-29, 2008
The Middle East/Arab Region 20% of Muslims live in the Middle East 30% of Muslims live in South Asia 15.6% of Muslims live in Indonesia BCDS Survey Question: What do you identify Islam with?
The Middle East/Arab Region
All Arabs are Muslims BCDS Survey Questions All Arabs speak Arabic
Muslim populations in the world BCDS Survey: What is the most populous Muslim nation in the world? Rank Country Muslim Population 1 Indonesia 182,570,000 2 Pakistan 134,480,000 3 India 121,000,000 4 Bangladesh 114,080,000 5 Turkey 65,510,000 6 Iran 62,430,000 7 Egypt 58,630,000 8 Nigeria 53,000,000 9 Algeria 30,530,000 10 Morocco 28,780,000 Source: CIA World Factbook
Who practices Islam? 85 % Muslims are Sunni while the rest are Shia
Who practices Islam? Indonesia Malaysia
Who are Muslims?
What does it mean?
A strong commitment to God, attaining peace through commitment to God’s will
Who is a M/muslim?
One who practices the central tenets of Islam
One who has a strong commitment to God
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (570 CE-632 CE)
The last messenger of God
Islam is part of the monotheistic Abrahamic faith. Why?
They worship the God of Abraham as do Christians and Jews
What about the biblical prophets and stories?
Muslims recognize the biblical prophets and God’s revelation to Moses, Jesus, and Mary. They share the same stories from the Torah and the New Testament .
What is the Qur’an?
Central religious text of Islam
Cannot be seen as the “bible” of the Muslims, but instead, it is the “Jesus” of the Muslims
God’s revelation to Mohammed through the angel, Jibril (Gabriel) from 610 CE- 632 CE
Arabic as the language of revelation
The five pillars of Islam
(Profession of faith)
(Pilgrimage to Mecca)
“ There is no God but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God” Nothing except God deserves to be worshipped What is tawhid? Muslims pray 5 times a day Muslims are required to contribute 2.5% of all liquid assets , not just annual income, to the poor, sick, or suffering A time for physical and mental reflection Muslims refrain from food, drink and sexual activity fromdawn to dusk Why Mecca? It is the birthplace of Muhammad and it was the place where Islam was first revealed
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)
Hussein-McMahon correspondence, 1915-1916 Between the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali and Sir Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in Egypt.
The British encouraged Sharif Hussein to revolt to distract the Ottoman Empire during WWI
In return, the British promised Sharif Hussein that he would have all areas liberated from the Ottoman Empire in the Arab region except:
"The two districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo cannot be said to be purely Arab, and should be excluded from the limits demanded."
Sykes-Picot Agreement, May 1916 Between Great Britain, France and Russia
Balfour Declaration, 1917 Between the British Cabinet and Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland
British government states supports the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.
However, "nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.“
Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Stated that the Arab countries formally under Ottoman rule could be provisionally recognized as independent, subject to the rendering of assistance and advice by a state charged with the “mandate” for them
Britain-Iraq and Palestine
France- Syria and Lebanon
Creation of an independent Turkey
The Muslim Brotherhood
Founded in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna (1906-1949)
It is the world’s largest and most influential Islamic political group
Called for the return to “original” Islam and that the Arab world today has been corrupted by Western influences
Was often in conflict with Nasser
Attempted assassination of Nasser in 1954 led to full scale repression of MB
Sayyed Qutb (1906-1966)
For Muslims, there are no gap between faith and life
The Qur’an and the Hadith provide the principles on how one should live
Redefined the Quranic term jahilliya (pre-Islamic period of ignorance), jihad and ummah
Revolution from the bottom
His works are widely read across the Muslim world
Important to recognize that he is not a cleric
Middle East in the 1920s
Ottoman Empire disintegrates after WW1
Britain, France and Russia carve up the Empire (1916 Sykes-Picot Arrangement)-oil interest
Britain controls the area of Palestine, France controls Lebanon and Syria
Ramifications of the carving up of the Middle East
Lack of concern regarding the different religions, tribal groups in each political boundary e.g. Lebanon, Iraq
Decolonization and the rise of Arab nationalism
Creation of new nation states in the Middle East
Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970) of Egypt
-Arab nationalism-pan Arab identity
-modernization and industrialization of the Arab world
-espouses a secular ideology
-Islam was marginalized during this period (God is dead period)
The Failure of Arab Nationalism
Lack of growth in the Middle East despite the heavy investment
Concentration of power and wealth among the few
Seen as corrupt and weak by the Arabs
The Six Day War 1967
The rise of Islamism
A reaction to Arab nationalism
Muslim Brotherhood-Sayyed Qutb
Sayyid abu a’la Maududi
Iranian Revolution 1979
Soviet-Afghanistan War (1978-1988)
Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi (1903-1979)
Islamization from above through politics
Founded the Jamaat-e-Islami as the vanguard of the Islamic Revolution
Petro-Islam: Saudi Arabia and Islam
Practices the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam
Home of the two holiest sites of Islam-Mecca and Medinah
Uses its large financial resources to fund global Islamic missionary activities (Why?)
The Iranian Revolution 1979
The revolution, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, deposed the Shah of Iran and created an Islamic republic
Symbolized a victory against capitalist and imperialist forces
Became an inspiration for the Islamist movements around the world
Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988)
Soviet-Afghanistan War (1978-1988)
The Soviet’s Vietnam War
The largest US funded covert operation in history ($600million per year)-aided by Pakistan (Zia ul-Haq) and Saudi Arabia
Drew mujahideens from all around the world
Map of the Middle East
Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) founded the PLO in 1974
Fused Arab nationalism and Islamism with the Palestinian cause
The return of the Palestinian state coupled with the destruction of Israel has become one of Islamic extremism’s biggest goal