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A History Of Islamic Extremism
 

A History Of Islamic Extremism

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A History Of Islamic Extremism A History Of Islamic Extremism Presentation Transcript

  • The War for Muslim Minds: A History of 21 st century Islamic Extremism BCDS Senior Spring Elective 2009
  • The goals of this course
    • What do you know about Islam and Islamic
    • extremism?
    • Why you should study these issues?
      • To be able to engage intellectually and critically in the discourse on “Islam”
      • To be able to answer/problematize questions like:
        • Why do “they” hate “us”?
        • Is Islam inherently violent?
  • Syllabus
    • Grading
      • Process (15%)
      • Progress (15%)
      • Performance (70%)
  • Process (15%)
    • Class work
    • Homework
    • Study guide
    • Meeting mile markers/pacing
    • Collaboration/group work
    • Taking responsibility
  • Progress (15%)
    • Improvement in writing
    • Improvement in process and product
    • Improvement in participation and leadership
    • Meeting terms of expected growth
  • Performance/Product (70%)
    • Blog entries-20%
    • Blog conversations-20%
      • http://islamicextremism.wordpress.com/
      • Weekly entries
    • Final Project/Essay-20%
    • Projects/Presentations/Debates-20%
    • Class Participation-20%
  • Texts
    • Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (2003) , Gilles Kepel (GK)
    • Reader
  • The class
    • Presentation on readings
    •  
    • You will be asked to read chapters from the book, and present them orally to the
    • class:
    • Read pages and take notes
    • Explain your reading to the class
    • Do not paraphrase
    • Use notes, and do not read
    • Find questions to ask to the class about the reading
    • Use paragraphs in book to explain your arguments
    • Support your ideas with evidence from other readings
    • Be prepared to answer questions from the class
    • Your presentation should be 7-10 minutes long.
  • Syllabus: Timeline of the rise of 21 st century Islamic extremism
    • Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) disintegrates after World War 1
    • Reader, AH pg. 207-225, 256-258
    Colonization by Britain, France and Russia Reader, AH, pg. 263-264, 299-301 Decolonization after World War2 The rise of Arab nationalism 1950-60s The failure of Arab Nationalism (late 1960s) Islamism and its evolution into Islamic extremism
    • The failure of Arab nationalism and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood-
    • (GK 23-32, 62-69)
    • The rise of Saudi Arabia (GK 50-53, 69-75)
    • Iranian revolution 1979 and its legacy
    • (GK 106-118, 118-136)
    • Jihad in Afghanistan (GK 136-150)
    • The Palestinian Israeli crisis (GK 150-158)
    • Gulf War and the Taliban’s Jihad
    • (GK 205-217, 217-236)
      • Pan-Arab nationalism and Nassirian politics (AH 340-349,397-400)
      • The ascendancy and failure of Nasirism (AH 407-415)
    The rise of Islamic extremism
    • The failure of Islamic revivalism
    • The birth of Islamic extremist groups and the ideology behind it (explain salafiyya, jihadi and takfir)
    • Hamas (GK 323-334)
    • Hezbollah (GK 123-130)
    • Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda (GK 313-322)
    • Conclusion (GK 361-376)-summit
    The beginning of Islam and Islam today JE, Introduction, pg 1-28 ?
  • Where do we go from here?
    • Choose an issue that is related to this topic that you’re interested in
    • I will incorporate 2 issues with the most votes into the last part of our syllabus
  • Definitions (3-4 minutes) for tomorrow, March 3, 2009
    • Islam
    • Muhammad
    • Qur’an
    • Sunni-Chris L
    • Shi’a-Sam O’ Reilly
    • Shari’a
    • Jihad-Rachel D & Roland A
    • Salafism
    • Takfirism-Sam Freeman
    • Islamism-Jon Z.
    • Wahhabism
    • Orientalism-Andrew G and Stephanie G
    • Extremism-
    • Terrorism- Cala F.
    • Fundamentalism
  • Is extremism Islamic?
    • NO!!! Extremism exists in other religions too.
    Rev. Paul J. Hill (1954-2003) "If I am in fact killed, I think you could justifiably call me a martyr," Mr. Hill said. "Of course, the world sneers at martyrs, but there's no question that God has used people who are willing to die for their cause to save human life, and I'm certainly willing to do that."
  • Is extremism Islamic?
    • "Contrary to popular belief, the highest value for a Jew is not the preservation of human or even of Jewish life. The highest value is doing what God wants you to do. So in an attempt to put Jewish values in a hierarchy, human life in general, Jewish life in particular, is high on the list. But it's not the top."
    • "There are a number of circumstances under which the individual is enjoined to take a Jewish life if necessary without consulting a court. If you see a person preparing to commit a capital crime -- rape or murder -- it is your duty to stop him. You must stop him any way you can. It's similar in some respects to the right Jewish law accords the individual to restore his own property from a thief if it is stolen. You don't have to bring him to court. If you can catch up with him, you can take your property back by force. You don't have to bother the court with stuff like that. Rabin was stealing Jewish property, proposing to give it away.
    • (Yoel Lerner)
    Yigal Amir Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995)
  • Is this Islamic Extremism? New York City, September 11 2001 Bali, Indonesia, October 12 2002 Madrid, March 11 2004 Attacks in Victoria Terminus, Mumbai, November 26-29, 2008
  • The Middle East/Arab Region 20% of Muslims live in the Middle East 30% of Muslims live in South Asia 15.6% of Muslims live in Indonesia BCDS Survey Question: What do you identify Islam with?
  • The Middle East/Arab Region
    • Arabs are…
    All Arabs are Muslims BCDS Survey Questions All Arabs speak Arabic
  • Muslim populations in the world BCDS Survey: What is the most populous Muslim nation in the world? Rank Country Muslim Population 1 Indonesia 182,570,000 2 Pakistan 134,480,000 3 India 121,000,000 4 Bangladesh 114,080,000 5 Turkey 65,510,000 6 Iran 62,430,000 7 Egypt 58,630,000 8 Nigeria 53,000,000 9 Algeria 30,530,000 10 Morocco 28,780,000 Source: CIA World Factbook
  • Who practices Islam? 85 % Muslims are Sunni while the rest are Shia
  • Who practices Islam? Indonesia Malaysia
  • Who are Muslims?
  • Islam
    • What does it mean?
    • A strong commitment to God, attaining peace through commitment to God’s will
    • Who is a M/muslim?
    • One who practices the central tenets of Islam
    • One who has a strong commitment to God
  • Islam
    • Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (570 CE-632 CE)
    • The last messenger of God
    • Islam is part of the monotheistic Abrahamic faith. Why?
    • They worship the God of Abraham as do Christians and Jews
    • What about the biblical prophets and stories?
    • Muslims recognize the biblical prophets and God’s revelation to Moses, Jesus, and Mary. They share the same stories from the Torah and the New Testament .
  • Islam
    • What is the Qur’an?
    • Central religious text of Islam
    • Cannot be seen as the “bible” of the Muslims, but instead, it is the “Jesus” of the Muslims
    • God’s revelation to Mohammed through the angel, Jibril (Gabriel) from 610 CE- 632 CE
    • Arabic as the language of revelation
  • The five pillars of Islam
    • Shahadah
    • (Profession of faith)
    • Salat
    • (Prayer)
    • Zakat
    • (Almsgiving)
    • Sawm
    • (during Ramadan)
    • Hajj
    • (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
    “ There is no God but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God” Nothing except God deserves to be worshipped What is tawhid? Muslims pray 5 times a day Muslims are required to contribute 2.5% of all liquid assets , not just annual income, to the poor, sick, or suffering A time for physical and mental reflection Muslims refrain from food, drink and sexual activity fromdawn to dusk Why Mecca? It is the birthplace of Muhammad and it was the place where Islam was first revealed
  • Islamic Caliphate
  • Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)
  • Hussein-McMahon correspondence, 1915-1916 Between the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali and Sir Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in Egypt.
    • The British encouraged Sharif Hussein to revolt to distract the Ottoman Empire during WWI
    • In return, the British promised Sharif Hussein that he would have all areas liberated from the Ottoman Empire in the Arab region except:
    • "The two districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo cannot be said to be purely Arab, and should be excluded from the limits demanded."
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement, May 1916 Between Great Britain, France and Russia
  • Balfour Declaration, 1917 Between the British Cabinet and Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland
    • British government states supports the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.
    • However, "nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.“
  • Treaty of Versailles, 1919
    • Stated that the Arab countries formally under Ottoman rule could be provisionally recognized as independent, subject to the rendering of assistance and advice by a state charged with the “mandate” for them
    • Britain-Iraq and Palestine
    • France- Syria and Lebanon
    • Creation of an independent Turkey
  • The Muslim Brotherhood
    • Founded in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna (1906-1949)
    • It is the world’s largest and most influential Islamic political group
    • Called for the return to “original” Islam and that the Arab world today has been corrupted by Western influences
    • Was often in conflict with Nasser
    • Attempted assassination of Nasser in 1954 led to full scale repression of MB
  • Sayyed Qutb (1906-1966)
    • For Muslims, there are no gap between faith and life
    • The Qur’an and the Hadith provide the principles on how one should live
    • Redefined the Quranic term jahilliya (pre-Islamic period of ignorance), jihad and ummah
    • Revolution from the bottom
    • His works are widely read across the Muslim world
    • Important to recognize that he is not a cleric
  • Middle East in the 1920s
    • Ottoman Empire disintegrates after WW1
    • Britain, France and Russia carve up the Empire (1916 Sykes-Picot Arrangement)-oil interest
    • Britain controls the area of Palestine, France controls Lebanon and Syria
  • Ramifications of the carving up of the Middle East
    • Lack of concern regarding the different religions, tribal groups in each political boundary e.g. Lebanon, Iraq
    • Palestinian-Israeli crisis
  • Decolonization and the rise of Arab nationalism
    • Creation of new nation states in the Middle East
    • Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970) of Egypt
      • Nasserism
      • -Arab nationalism-pan Arab identity
      • -modernization and industrialization of the Arab world
      • -espouses a secular ideology
      • -Islam was marginalized during this period (God is dead period)
  • The Failure of Arab Nationalism
    • Lack of growth in the Middle East despite the heavy investment
    • Concentration of power and wealth among the few
    • Seen as corrupt and weak by the Arabs
    • The Six Day War 1967
  • The rise of Islamism
    • A reaction to Arab nationalism
      • Muslim Brotherhood-Sayyed Qutb
      • Sayyid abu a’la Maududi
    • Islamic revivalism
    • Petro-Islam
    • Iranian Revolution 1979
    • Soviet-Afghanistan War (1978-1988)
    • Palestinian-Israeli Crisis
  • Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi (1903-1979)
    • Islamization from above through politics
    • Founded the Jamaat-e-Islami as the vanguard of the Islamic Revolution
  • Petro-Islam: Saudi Arabia and Islam
    • Practices the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam
    • Home of the two holiest sites of Islam-Mecca and Medinah
    • Uses its large financial resources to fund global Islamic missionary activities (Why?)
  • The Iranian Revolution 1979
    • The revolution, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, deposed the Shah of Iran and created an Islamic republic
    • Symbolized a victory against capitalist and imperialist forces
    • Became an inspiration for the Islamist movements around the world
    • Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988)
  • Soviet-Afghanistan War (1978-1988)
    • The Soviet’s Vietnam War
    • The largest US funded covert operation in history ($600million per year)-aided by Pakistan (Zia ul-Haq) and Saudi Arabia
    • Drew mujahideens from all around the world
  • Map of the Middle East
  • Palestinian-Israeli Crisis
    • Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) founded the PLO in 1974
    • Fused Arab nationalism and Islamism with the Palestinian cause
    • The return of the Palestinian state coupled with the destruction of Israel has become one of Islamic extremism’s biggest goal
  • Islamic Extremism Today
    • Hezbollah
    • Al-Qaeda
    • Hamas
  • What triggers Islamic extremism today?
    • US occupation of Iraq
    • Palestinian-Israeli crisis
    • Globalization and modernity