The Establishment of a colonial Government and the threats against it
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The Establishment of a colonial Government and the threats against it

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  • 1. LESSON 12: THE ESTABLISHMENTOF A COLONIAL GOVERNMENT ANDTHE THREATS AGAINST IT
  • 2. Establishment of a colony: Establishment of pueblos or towns Established a colonial government:  Insular  National  Provincial  Municipal
  • 3.  One problem of the Spaniards in spreading Christianity was the scattered settlement of natives and another one is the lack of priests. The answer to this problem is to encourage the newly baptized and those be baptized to live in the pueblo or town. TOWN: it has a church, basis for the municipal government. Method of creating towns: REDUCCION or the transfer of the inhabitants to the town.
  • 4. CABECERA-VISITA The inhabitants who underwent reduccion were made to stay at the cabecera or “under the bells”. CABECERA: To live in a place where they can hear the sound of the church bell. The bell is a symbol of reduccion. VISITA: Village or barrio surrounding the cabecera where those undergoing Christians lived. There is a chapel which was also called visita. The cabecera-visita was under the authority of the Catholic church and the colonial government. Many refused it because it meant the transfer of residence. The friars held feasts to encourage the people to stay in the cabecera-visita.
  • 5. PLAZA The center of the cabecera was the plaza. The plaza is an open space, square in shape, where the streets of the town converge. Church, covenant of the friar, municipal hall, the customs house, arsenal.
  • 6.  customs house - was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork for the import and export of goods into and out of a country Arsenal - A place where weapons and military equipment are stored or made.
  • 7. INSULAR GOVERNMENT The government established by the Spaniards in the Philippines had different levels of administration – insular, national, provincial, municipal, and city. They started the administration of the archipelago as a colony with the appointment of the council that served as its administrator. “THE COUNCIL OF THE INDIES” (Spain)
  • 8. COUNCIL OF THE INDIES Duty: govern all of the colonies in the name of the King of Spain Executive – recommended the officials appointed to serve in the colonies Legislative – made laws, decrees, and orders Judicial – it was the highest and last court for all cases of appeal coming from the colonies
  • 9. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Centralized form of government Hasten and make effective the implementation of colonial policies
  • 10. NEED TO KNOW WORDS Audiencia – Spanish Court Cumplase – Rights of being a governor general Residencia – An investigation
  • 11. GOVERNOR-GENERAL Highest official Appointed by the King Titles/ Roles:  Captain-general: duty to defend the colony  Vice royal patron: counterpart of the archbishop in religious matters  President of Audiencia: highest judge in the colony  Right of Cumplase – the decision whether to implement a law or not which came from Spain  Residencia – An investigation on the performance of his duty which most often administered by his replacement.
  • 12. AUDIENCIA The grant of many powers to the governor-general opened the possibility of abuse of these powers. Thus, it was essential to have a court. Upon the suggestion of : DOMINGO SALAZAR Made up of:  Governor general  Oidores or judges  Fiscal or prosecutor  Alguacil mayor or police, notaries, clerks THERE WAS CONFLICT OF INTEREST SO…  ROLE OF AUDIENCIA: Adviser to governor-general; last court of appeal
  • 13. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The Spaniards divided the archipelago into provinces for faster and more effective governance. Two types of provinces:  Alcaldia (Alcalde mayor) – province where there is peace and order  Corregimiento (Corregidor) – province where there is chaos
  • 14. PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR The position was open only to Spaniards Appointed by the governor-general ROLE:  Administering the province  Highest judge in the province  Privilege of INDULTO DE COMERCIO (in English “Pardon Trading” – allowed him to engage in trade in the province
  • 15. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT The province was divided into pueblos or towns and the pueblos were divided into barangays. Pueblo (Gobernadorcillo) Barangay (Cabeza) –used to be headed by former Datus In the 19th century positions are opened to election but it was chosen by a board made up of the former gobernadorcillo and members of the PRINCIPALIA. Principalia (NOBLE CLASS, NATIVE ELITES) – native elite; former gobernadorcillo and cabeza; landowners ROLE: COLLECTION OF TAXES
  • 16. CITY GOVERNMENT City had a governing council called AYUNTAMIENTO or CABILDO. Made up of:  2 alcaldes  6 up to 12 regidores/councilors  Alguacil or police  FIRST CITIES:  Santissimo Nombre de Jesus (Cebu)  Manila  Nueva Segovia (CITY IN SPAIN) (Cagayan)  Nueva Caceras (NEW HOME) (Camarines)
  • 17. COLONIAL LAWS The law that served as the basis for the framework that the Spaniards implemented in the Philippines was made by the Council of the Indies.
  • 18. ROLE OF FRIARS IN THEGOVERNMENT He supervised the election of the gobernadorcillo and cabeza. He was the keeper of the list of residents of the town. His signature must be seen in all financial papers of the town. Mediator of rebellions Powerful – owners of HACIENDAS
  • 19. EXTERNAL THREATS Intense competition among European countries which started from the desire to reach Asia first. In the desire to elevate her honor at the expense of her rivals, Spain made use of the lives and resources of the Filipinos.
  • 20. THE PORTUGESE Violation of the TREATY of ZARAGOZA Tried twice to regain ownership of the Philippines Spain used her forces in the Philippines to strengthen her dominance over the Portugese in the Moluccas. Gov-gen Gonzalo Penalosa sent an expedition to Moluccas but it did not succeed because the soldiers got sick of beriberi (lack of thamine or B1)
  • 21. Symptoms of dry beriberi include: Difficulty walking Loss of feeling (sensation) in hands and feet Loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs Mental confusion/speech difficulties Pain Strange eye movements (nystagmus) Tingling Vomiting
  • 22. THE CHINESE Lin Feng (Limahong) – one if the men of CHU LIANG PAO; pirate on the southern coasts of China. Limahong found out that the defense of the Philippines was weak; Limahong along with 3000 men on 62 ships went to the Philippines and conquer the archipelago. Defeated in the first battle although Martin de Goiti was killed. Gov-gen Guido de Lavezres strengthened the defense of the city and put four cannons in Fort Santiago because Limahong might come back Limahong’s men were driven away because of the fierce defense put up the Spaniards; they eventually left the Philippines.
  • 23. THE DUTCH Spain vs. Netherland began when Netherlands became part of Spain. The Dutch desired to be free especially since the Dutch were Protestants while Spaniards were Catholic. Prince of Netherlands ordered Admiral Oliver van Noort to invade the ports of Spain. In 1600s, Van noort arrived in the Philippines; they had a naval battle with Spain. ANTONIO DE MORGA After six days, Dutch warship CONRAD was captured; Noort escaped using MAURITIUS; SAN ANTONIO of the Spaniards sank and SAN BARTOLOME survived.
  • 24. SPAINISH-DUTCH Wars In 1605, Dutch established commercial outposts in Amboina, Ternate, Tidore Indonesia. Spaniards did not like this and sent an expedition to drive away Dutch; Spaniards succeeded and recovered the Kingdom of Tidore. Admiral Francois de Wittert reached Panay(defeated) then went to Manila Bay then Playa Honda (A Fort in Zambales) (defeated by Gov- Gen JUAN DE SILVA); Wittert died in battle. Dutch returned to the Philippines under Admiral Joris van Speilbergen and attacked IloIlo; they went to Manila but just besieged trading ships entering Manila Bay.
  • 25.  Admiral Jan Derickson Lam arrived Manila Bay; AIM: destroy the trade in Manila Gov-Gen Ronquillo defeated Dutch in Playa Honda Zambales. In 1620, 3 Dutch ships conspired against San Nicolas which arrived from Acapulco. 3RD BATTLE in PLAYA, 7 Dutch ships, Dutch left. Dutch changed their strategy, instead of fighting they destroyed the trade between Manila and China by putting trading posts in Formosa (Taiwan) The Spaniards also made posts in Formosa but they were driven out. SPAIN AND DUTCH had series of battle; Enacarnacion and Rosario and 5 dutch ships faced each other and SPANIARDS won all battles.
  • 26.  Admiral Martin Gertzen returned to Philippines(CAVITE and CORREGIDOR); he died and his ship sank. Dutch continued to Bataan and invaded Abucay and killed 400 Filipino soldiers. Captain Juan de Chavez expedition pursue and punish the Dutch The Dutch invasions ended only after the Spaniards stopped their incursions in the Moluccas.
  • 27. THE BRITISH In 1762, British invaded and occupied Manila Cause: Seven Years’ War (ENGLAND vs. FRANCE; Spain for FRANCE) which started in Europe in 1756 The British entered Manila Bay on Sept. 23,1762; Archbishop Manuel Rojo did not order strengthening of the defense but depended on God The British bombarded; Archbishop Rojo surrendered. On October 5, the British entered Manila In 1764, British returned Philippines to Spain following the Treaty of Paris
  • 28. THE EFFECT The effect on the Filipinos was disastrous. The once peaceful life of the Filipinos was thrown into chaos. Spain made use of the natives in military undertakings; many Filipinos shed blood and sweat. Forced labor Filipinos shouldered the human and material costs of these wars.