LESSON 12: THE ESTABLISHMENTOF A COLONIAL GOVERNMENT ANDTHE THREATS AGAINST IT
Establishment of a colony: Establishment of pueblos or towns Established a colonial government: Insular National Provincial Municipal
One problem of the Spaniards in spreading Christianity was the scattered settlement of natives and another one is the lack of priests. The answer to this problem is to encourage the newly baptized and those be baptized to live in the pueblo or town. TOWN: it has a church, basis for the municipal government. Method of creating towns: REDUCCION or the transfer of the inhabitants to the town.
CABECERA-VISITA The inhabitants who underwent reduccion were made to stay at the cabecera or “under the bells”. CABECERA: To live in a place where they can hear the sound of the church bell. The bell is a symbol of reduccion. VISITA: Village or barrio surrounding the cabecera where those undergoing Christians lived. There is a chapel which was also called visita. The cabecera-visita was under the authority of the Catholic church and the colonial government. Many refused it because it meant the transfer of residence. The friars held feasts to encourage the people to stay in the cabecera-visita.
PLAZA The center of the cabecera was the plaza. The plaza is an open space, square in shape, where the streets of the town converge. Church, covenant of the friar, municipal hall, the customs house, arsenal.
customs house - was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork for the import and export of goods into and out of a country Arsenal - A place where weapons and military equipment are stored or made.
INSULAR GOVERNMENT The government established by the Spaniards in the Philippines had different levels of administration – insular, national, provincial, municipal, and city. They started the administration of the archipelago as a colony with the appointment of the council that served as its administrator. “THE COUNCIL OF THE INDIES” (Spain)
COUNCIL OF THE INDIES Duty: govern all of the colonies in the name of the King of Spain Executive – recommended the officials appointed to serve in the colonies Legislative – made laws, decrees, and orders Judicial – it was the highest and last court for all cases of appeal coming from the colonies
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Centralized form of government Hasten and make effective the implementation of colonial policies
NEED TO KNOW WORDS Audiencia – Spanish Court Cumplase – Rights of being a governor general Residencia – An investigation
GOVERNOR-GENERAL Highest official Appointed by the King Titles/ Roles: Captain-general: duty to defend the colony Vice royal patron: counterpart of the archbishop in religious matters President of Audiencia: highest judge in the colony Right of Cumplase – the decision whether to implement a law or not which came from Spain Residencia – An investigation on the performance of his duty which most often administered by his replacement.
AUDIENCIA The grant of many powers to the governor-general opened the possibility of abuse of these powers. Thus, it was essential to have a court. Upon the suggestion of : DOMINGO SALAZAR Made up of: Governor general Oidores or judges Fiscal or prosecutor Alguacil mayor or police, notaries, clerks THERE WAS CONFLICT OF INTEREST SO… ROLE OF AUDIENCIA: Adviser to governor-general; last court of appeal
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The Spaniards divided the archipelago into provinces for faster and more effective governance. Two types of provinces: Alcaldia (Alcalde mayor) – province where there is peace and order Corregimiento (Corregidor) – province where there is chaos
PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR The position was open only to Spaniards Appointed by the governor-general ROLE: Administering the province Highest judge in the province Privilege of INDULTO DE COMERCIO (in English “Pardon Trading” – allowed him to engage in trade in the province
MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT The province was divided into pueblos or towns and the pueblos were divided into barangays. Pueblo (Gobernadorcillo) Barangay (Cabeza) –used to be headed by former Datus In the 19th century positions are opened to election but it was chosen by a board made up of the former gobernadorcillo and members of the PRINCIPALIA. Principalia (NOBLE CLASS, NATIVE ELITES) – native elite; former gobernadorcillo and cabeza; landowners ROLE: COLLECTION OF TAXES
CITY GOVERNMENT City had a governing council called AYUNTAMIENTO or CABILDO. Made up of: 2 alcaldes 6 up to 12 regidores/councilors Alguacil or police FIRST CITIES: Santissimo Nombre de Jesus (Cebu) Manila Nueva Segovia (CITY IN SPAIN) (Cagayan) Nueva Caceras (NEW HOME) (Camarines)
COLONIAL LAWS The law that served as the basis for the framework that the Spaniards implemented in the Philippines was made by the Council of the Indies.
ROLE OF FRIARS IN THEGOVERNMENT He supervised the election of the gobernadorcillo and cabeza. He was the keeper of the list of residents of the town. His signature must be seen in all financial papers of the town. Mediator of rebellions Powerful – owners of HACIENDAS
EXTERNAL THREATS Intense competition among European countries which started from the desire to reach Asia first. In the desire to elevate her honor at the expense of her rivals, Spain made use of the lives and resources of the Filipinos.
THE PORTUGESE Violation of the TREATY of ZARAGOZA Tried twice to regain ownership of the Philippines Spain used her forces in the Philippines to strengthen her dominance over the Portugese in the Moluccas. Gov-gen Gonzalo Penalosa sent an expedition to Moluccas but it did not succeed because the soldiers got sick of beriberi (lack of thamine or B1)
Symptoms of dry beriberi include: Difficulty walking Loss of feeling (sensation) in hands and feet Loss of muscle function or paralysis of the lower legs Mental confusion/speech difficulties Pain Strange eye movements (nystagmus) Tingling Vomiting
THE CHINESE Lin Feng (Limahong) – one if the men of CHU LIANG PAO; pirate on the southern coasts of China. Limahong found out that the defense of the Philippines was weak; Limahong along with 3000 men on 62 ships went to the Philippines and conquer the archipelago. Defeated in the first battle although Martin de Goiti was killed. Gov-gen Guido de Lavezres strengthened the defense of the city and put four cannons in Fort Santiago because Limahong might come back Limahong’s men were driven away because of the fierce defense put up the Spaniards; they eventually left the Philippines.
THE DUTCH Spain vs. Netherland began when Netherlands became part of Spain. The Dutch desired to be free especially since the Dutch were Protestants while Spaniards were Catholic. Prince of Netherlands ordered Admiral Oliver van Noort to invade the ports of Spain. In 1600s, Van noort arrived in the Philippines; they had a naval battle with Spain. ANTONIO DE MORGA After six days, Dutch warship CONRAD was captured; Noort escaped using MAURITIUS; SAN ANTONIO of the Spaniards sank and SAN BARTOLOME survived.
SPAINISH-DUTCH Wars In 1605, Dutch established commercial outposts in Amboina, Ternate, Tidore Indonesia. Spaniards did not like this and sent an expedition to drive away Dutch; Spaniards succeeded and recovered the Kingdom of Tidore. Admiral Francois de Wittert reached Panay(defeated) then went to Manila Bay then Playa Honda (A Fort in Zambales) (defeated by Gov- Gen JUAN DE SILVA); Wittert died in battle. Dutch returned to the Philippines under Admiral Joris van Speilbergen and attacked IloIlo; they went to Manila but just besieged trading ships entering Manila Bay.
Admiral Jan Derickson Lam arrived Manila Bay; AIM: destroy the trade in Manila Gov-Gen Ronquillo defeated Dutch in Playa Honda Zambales. In 1620, 3 Dutch ships conspired against San Nicolas which arrived from Acapulco. 3RD BATTLE in PLAYA, 7 Dutch ships, Dutch left. Dutch changed their strategy, instead of fighting they destroyed the trade between Manila and China by putting trading posts in Formosa (Taiwan) The Spaniards also made posts in Formosa but they were driven out. SPAIN AND DUTCH had series of battle; Enacarnacion and Rosario and 5 dutch ships faced each other and SPANIARDS won all battles.
Admiral Martin Gertzen returned to Philippines(CAVITE and CORREGIDOR); he died and his ship sank. Dutch continued to Bataan and invaded Abucay and killed 400 Filipino soldiers. Captain Juan de Chavez expedition pursue and punish the Dutch The Dutch invasions ended only after the Spaniards stopped their incursions in the Moluccas.
THE BRITISH In 1762, British invaded and occupied Manila Cause: Seven Years’ War (ENGLAND vs. FRANCE; Spain for FRANCE) which started in Europe in 1756 The British entered Manila Bay on Sept. 23,1762; Archbishop Manuel Rojo did not order strengthening of the defense but depended on God The British bombarded; Archbishop Rojo surrendered. On October 5, the British entered Manila In 1764, British returned Philippines to Spain following the Treaty of Paris
THE EFFECT The effect on the Filipinos was disastrous. The once peaceful life of the Filipinos was thrown into chaos. Spain made use of the natives in military undertakings; many Filipinos shed blood and sweat. Forced labor Filipinos shouldered the human and material costs of these wars.