CULTURE VS. CIVILIZATION
What is CULTURE?
Answer: It has been called to be the “way of life”
for an entire society.
What is CIVILIZATION?
Answer: It is a highly organized society marked
by advanced knowledge of
trade, government, arts, science and often
times, written language.
GRESASAW: Government, Religion, Economic
stratification, Architecture, Science, Arts and
As we continue with our discussion, identify
GRESASAW for the Sumer civilization.
Write them down on your notebook.
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AREA
REPRESENTED BY THE ORANGE STAR?
•WHAT IS THE
located at the
•This is an arc of
fertile land that
spans from the
Persian Gulf up to
the coast of the
•What are the two
rivers that can be
BASED ON YOUR WORLD MAP, WHAT
IS THE CURRENT NAME OF THE AREA
WHERE MESOPOTAMIA USED TO BE?
Were there small villages
within the Fertile
Crescent even earlier
DURING THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD...
Communities thrived within and outside the
Jericho on the West bank of Israel around
Catal Huyuk and Hacilar in Anatolia (Turkey)
around 6000 BCE
Villages in Zagros Mountains found in the
border or Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Persia
(Iran) around 5700 BCE
WHAT COULD HAVE CAUSED FOR
SOME OF THESE COMMUNITIES TO
The environment have
reached its limit and capacity
to sustain life for some
ON THE OTHER HAND, THE SUMER CIVILIZATION
THRIVED AND WAS CONSIDERED TO BE THE
“CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION”.
CITIES OF SUMER:
CITY-STATES OF SUMER
Independent and autonomous
Rectangular in shape with wide roads and protected
with high and thick walls
The ziggurat is found at the center of the city and
became the point of reference for the layout of the
rest of the city.
Around the ziggurat are granaries, quarters of
officials and shops.
They are led by priest-kings who were mediators
between the gods and the people.
Their form of government is theocracy.
Largest structure in
A temple to honor
Polytheism - An
(god of the
(god of air), Enki
(god of the waters),
(goddess of the
A system of writing
Written by scribes
Creation of the first
transactions, myths, ess
ential traditions, epics
Written on clay tablets
Became the basis of
historians for the exact
date on which an event
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
The world’s first epic
It tells the adventures of Gilgamesh, king of
Uruk , who embarked on a quest for
immortality and failed.
It also has a“flood story” that is similar to the
“flood story” of Noah’s ark.
CODE OF UR-NAMMU
It was the first written set of laws
It divided society into two classes: free people and
Slaves usually worked as servants but also as
craftsmen. They were owned by their masters, but
their legal status was relatively free. They could give
evidence in court, get married and own possessions.
The years in which Ur-Nammu created his code are
therefore called "Year in which Ur-Nammu the king
put in order the ways from below to above", and "Year
Ur-Nammu made justice in the land".
CODE OF UR-NAMMU
1. If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed.
2. If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed.
3. If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to be imprisoned and pay 15
shekels of silver.
13. If a man is accused of sorcery he must undergo ordeal by water; if
he is proven innocent, his accuser must pay 3 shekels.
18. If a man knocks out the eye of another man, he shall weigh out ½ a
mina of silver.
19. If a man has cut off another man’s foot, he is to pay ten shekels.
20. If a man, in the course of a scuffle, smashed the limb of another man
with a club, he shall pay one mina of silver.
21. If someone severed the nose of another man with a copper knife, he
must pay two-thirds of a mina of silver.
22. If a man knocks out a tooth of another man, he shall pay two shekels
OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUMER
Wheel, 360 degree circle
Wheel-spun pottery, the sail
The decimal system
Sexagesimal - a numeral system with sixty as its
This is why we have 60 seconds=1 minute, 60
HISTORY OF SUMER
Sumer was established around 3500 BCE.
Due to rivalry over land and water, civil wars
among the city-states erupted and led to the
decline of the Sumerian civilization.
Around 2334-2400 BCE the Akkadians
conquered Sumer led by Sargon I and
unified the independent city-states.
1. CHOOSE ONE FROM THE MANY
DISCOVERIES OF SUMER
CIVILIZATION TO MANKIND.
2. EXPLAIN WHY THAT PARTICULAR
DISCOVERY IS VERY IMPORTANT TO
CHECKING OF GRESASAW ON SUMER
CIVILIZATION WILL BE ON THE NEXT