• Save
Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century

on

  • 390 views

Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century. ...

Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century.

Much research both practitioner and academic has taken place to better
understand the challenges that this represents. This is not a new phenomenon,
there is material dating back centuries looking at or reflecting upon changing
the order of the day.

Coming forward in time, to just 50 years ago, the
observations written about are not so different from what is written today in
2013. The adoption of certain terms has occurred to help communicate and
offer consultancy services and promote better understanding. Examples are
“Change Management” and “Resistance to Change” however, the very nature of
adopting non-standardised terms has resulted in a range of different
interpretations, these terms we think we understand, but they clearly have
different meanings for different people as was identified in this research
project. What is common, if you ask someone their opinion regarding
“Resistance to Change”, is they have one, just may not be what you are
expecting.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
390
Views on SlideShare
390
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Hi Maria

    Thank you for the Like on the Slide-share. Given this was f interest to you, you might want to check this page out http://assentire.net/innovation/
    I have the same paper here, plus the Grow Through Change Canvas plus I also have a Innovation Audit based on the whole underlying research base. i am looking for a case study to try this audit with, let me know if you guys might be interested.

    Rod
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century Document Transcript

  • 1. Assentire Limited Innovation - Change - Facilitation Helping Organisations Grow Through Change Resistance to Change, a Leaders Perspective Excerpt from a postgraduate programme Coaching and Behavioural Change Original research 2011 - 2012 Henley Business School Author: Rod Willis Sponsor: Assentire Ltd Date of Issue: 25th November 2013 V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 1 of 14
  • 2.   Resistance to Change, a Leaders Perspective .................................................................... 1 Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................... 3 On resistance to change ....................................................................................................................... 4 Why evidence-based research is needed ...................................................................................... 5 The prime research context ................................................................................................................ 5 Some example questions ...................................................................................................................... 5 Summary findings .................................................................................................................................... 6 Resistance findings ................................................................................................................................. 7 The Resistance codes ....................................................................................................................... 7 The concepts ........................................................................................................................................ 7 The themes ........................................................................................................................................... 7 Themes emerging from the research .............................................................................................. 8 How to make a difference with autonomous motivation................................................... 9 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 10 The Grow Through Change framework – just another lens................................................. 11 References ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Special note: This white paper is based upon an evidence-based research project, exploring ‘Resistance to change, from a Leaders Perspective’. All rights reserved. Contact the sponsor if you would like to have access to further details behind the research, and its findings. Contact details are provided at the end of this document. V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 2 of 14
  • 3. Executive Summary Major change within organisations has become the norm in the 21st century. Much research both practitioner and academic has taken place to better understand the challenges that this represents. This is not a new phenomenon, there is material dating back centuries looking at or reflecting upon changing the order of the day. Coming forward in time, to just 50 years ago, the observations written about are not so different from what is written today in 2013. The adoption of certain terms has occurred to help communicate and offer consultancy services and promote better understanding. Examples are “Change Management” and “Resistance to Change” however, the very nature of adopting non-standardised terms has resulted in a range of different interpretations, these terms we think we understand, but they clearly have different meanings for different people as was identified in this research project. What is common, if you ask someone their opinion regarding “Resistance to Change”, is they have one, just may not be what you are expecting. Organisations comprise in the main of, Processes, Knowledge, Enabling Technologies and People. A transformational change is going to have to reconfigure these elements and the relationships between them in some way and given the number of change programmes that have not met the sponsors’ expectations, much research ensued and thousands of books have been written. One item that emerges quite prominently is “Resistance to Change” and not far behind, “Change Leadership”. This research project investigates “Resistance to Change”, specifically from the perspective of a “Change Leader”. The findings in this report are the result of prime research, having interviewed sixteen change leaders (past and present) with combined experiences spanning > 55 organisations operating within Oil and Gas, Professional and Financial Services, Public sector, comprising two District Councils and a Police Collaboration Programme. So what were the findings? The identification of three major themes comprising six concepts that enable anyone to view their change programme, to get a sense of are the right things being managed and is the change initiative being led in an appropriate manner. This is Probably the most helpful, but probably the most important discovery is important discovery is the realisation that in the majority of cases, leaders and the realisation… leaders managers do not have access to the necessary and managers do not knowledge and understanding to deal with many of the have access to the typical “Resistance to Change” symptoms identified necessary knowledge within this research. There is not a simple causal and understanding to relationship that drives these symptoms, more a system deal with… ‘Resistance of complex interrelationships, quite possible to work to Change’ with, with the appropriate knowledge and understanding. V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 3 of 14
  • 4. Unfortunately, this limited knowledge and understanding is most likely a be where the problem is as in the main, academic and practitioner training taken by the majority of managers and leaders do not cover the required people orientated material at the depth of We don’t know, what we understanding that is required. There are some people that don’t know. Just have had the good fortune to gain this knowledge from consider these words alternative disciplines and generously bring that into this and the sixty years of domain and others from the University of Life. What about little, or no improvement the hundreds and thousands of leaders and managers who in the success rate of have not had this good fortune, how much will this lack of change programmes understanding and capability impact industry and no wonder so many change programmes are not deemed as successful as they could have been. On resistance to change The term “Resistance to Change” is used quite commonly, however a standard definition is not so forthcoming, with the implication that it becomes open to interpretation, and potentially the cause of much miscommunication. To make the point clearly, here are a couple of definitions to consider. Individual/group resistance to change ‘Resistance to change can be defined as an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change. Resistance itself can take many different forms from subtle undermining of change initiatives or withholding of information to active resistance, for instance, through strikes’ (Daniels, 2011). Providing alternative perspectives ‘Resistance is a label generally applied by managers and consultants to the perceived behaviour of organisation members who seem unwilling to accept or help in implementing an organisational change (Coghlan, 1993). Resistance can be perceived through the pessimistic (problem focussed) or optimistic (solution focussed) frame. One is holding back and the other is offering further information. More than fifty years ago, in a report “How to Deal with Resistance to Change” by (Lawrence, 1954), Lawrence makes a key observation regarding how executives perceive resistance to change; “All too often when executives encounter resistance to change, they "explain" it by quoting the cliché that "people resist change" and never look further. Yet changes must continually occur in industry”. It seems to be that life and our view within industry of “Resistance to Change” for so many has just stood still in time. Quite an interesting observation as we are considering “Resistance to Change” also quite an irony if we take a few minutes to pause and reflect. V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 4 of 14
  • 5.   Why evidence-based research is needed • 70% of all change initiatives fail (HBR) • Resistance to Change is often cited as the number one reason why a change programme has not delivered to the level that was anticipated. Organisations need to respond to turbulent market conditions. Needing to achieve more with fewer resources is a common theme we hear daily in the media, be this public, private or non-profit sectors. We have made little improvement in the past 60 years! • • • http://hbr.org/product/hbr-s-10-must-reads-on-change-management-with-feat/an/12599-PBK-ENG The prime research context • • • Sixteen change leaders (past and present) via semi-structured interviews provided the prime data. Combined experiences spanning > 55 organisations. Operating within Oil and Gas, Professional and Financial Services, Public sector, including two District Councils and a Police Collaboration Programme. Some example questions • • • V01 When you think of the term "RESISTANCE TO CHANGE", what comes to mind? Is this the term you have used in the past or do you use any other terms? As you think of examples of Resistance to Change, do you perceive…? – Only Negative activity, if so why? – Only Positive activity, if so why? – Both Negative and Positive activities if so why? – Neither, please comment further Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 5 of 14
  • 6. Summary findings From the interviews, 518 quotes were grouped into one of three categories Resistance, Leadership and Motivation and allocated to one of the following identifiers. A: The Change Leadership's Map (how they see this domain) B: Change Leaders' Framing of Resistance (their subjective view) C: Specific Example of Drivers of Resistance (their experience and observation) D: Phases of Resistance (their perspective of time and the change dynamic) E: Individual's Psychological Needs Considered (their view of this domain) The result of this approach created the following view of the data. Resistance Category A: The Change Leadership's Map B: Change Leaders' Framing of Resistance C: Specific Example of Drivers of Resistance D: Phases of Resistance E: Individual's Psychological Needs Considered Leader Category A: The Change Leadership's Map B: Change Leaders' Framing of Resistance C: Specific Example of Drivers of Resistance D: Phases of Resistance E: Individual's Psychological Needs Considered Motivation Category E: Individual's Psychological Needs Considered Grand Total 315 119 41 82 46 27 161 56 49 27 13 14 42 42 518 When considering the categories, in the order of 8% of the data were aligned to Motivation, which was considered to be helpful incremental information. However in the order of 31% were relating to general “Leadership” and leaderships views and the remainder (in the order of 60%) “Motivation” insights to “Resistance to Change”. The data available for coming from the “Resistance to Change” comprised 315 data points, with a research further 161 in the leadership and 42 in the motivational domains. The decision was to focus on the data specifically relating to aspects of “Resistance to Change” and consider how a high level representation could be achieved for the “Leadership” and “Motivation” insights coming from the research. V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 6 of 14
  • 7.   Resistance findings There were 315 evidenced data points directly relating to “Resistance to Change”. In an article “The Problem of Change” (Burns, 1966), Burns highlighted nine reasons why people resent or resist change. 133 data points were mapped against one of the nine drivers 01 to 09, with the remaining 182 being allocated to new codes, 10 to 18. The Resistance codes Total 01: The Purpose is not Clear 9 02: When "they" are not involved in the planning (Tipping Point included) 36 04: The habit patterns of the work group or individual are ignored 16 05: Poor communication regarding the Change (Process/Content) 27 06: There is Fear of Failure 13 07: Excessive work pressure is involved 2 08: The "Cost" is too high, or the reward is inadequate given the change 5 09: The present system seems satisfactorily 25 10: "Sins" of the past 15 11: Lack of Trust/Transparency in the Sponsor/Leadership Team 24 12: When there is a lack of "Soft-skills" integrated into the change 29 13: When the change is in conflict with the individual's "Personal-System" 46 14: When there is a conflict between Personal Career and Business objectives 17 15: When inadequate Training/Support program is provided 12 16: The Assimilation capacity of a group of individual is reached 17: A: When the Change-Cycle or B: When an individual's Transition is not supported appropriately 18: When people have not updated their view of the world in line with the harsh reality "Group Think" 8 Grand Total 315 22 9 There was further investigation to see if Concepts were emerging as a result of these codes and also Themes from the emerging concepts. The concepts Purpose, Relationship Health (or Culture), Communications, Change Dynamics, Personal Dynamics and Group Dynamics. The themes A: Leading and Managing Change B: Ensure a safe environment to enable learning and change and C: Leading and Managing Individual and Group Transition V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 7 of 14
  • 8. Themes emerging and Psychological Levels A: Leading and Managing Change 1: Purpose 3: Communications 4: Change Dynamics B: Ensure a safe environment to enable learning and change 2: Relationship Health C: Leading and Managing Individual and Group Transition 5: Personal Dynamics 6: Group Dynamics Grand Total Level 1-3 Level 4-6 9 27 36 30 12 68 5 18 98 76 34 217 Resistances to Change Themes and Concepts v Psychological Levels Psychological Level- Heading Level definition 01: Environment 02: Behaviour 03: Capabilities & Skills 04: Beliefs/Values 05: Identity 06: Beyond Identity There are a significant number of quotes/codes in the Level 4-6 column. Psychological Levels is not a domain the typical manager or Psychological Levels leader has been trained to work within. They may have been is NOT a domain the trained in the “University of Life”, but that can be somewhat typical manager or “hit-or-miss” depending on the individual concerned and the leader … why would supporting or otherwise environment they are operating we expect success within. from them? Following is a listing of practitioner publications that explore the Themes detailed above if you wish to dig deeper. A: Leading and Managing Change • Purpose (Heron, 1999, Pink, 2011, Jung, 1995, Sinek, 2011) • Communication (Patterson, 2002, Wright, 2009, Gallwey, 1986) • Change Dynamic (Black, 2008, Conner, 2006, Hurst, 2002, Kim and Mauborgne, 2003) B: Ensure a safe environment to enable learning and change • Relationship Health (Covey, 2006, Kotter and Cohen, 2002, Welsh NHS Confederation, 2008, Schutz, 1994) C: Leading and Managing Individual and Group Transition • Group Dynamic (Jaques and Salmon, 2008, Senge, 1994, Senge, 2006, Thornton, 2010) • Personal Dynamic (Argyris, 2008, Cartwright, 2004, Deci, 1997, Hawkins and Smith, 2006, Lawrence and Nohria, 2002) V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 8 of 14
  • 9.   How to make a difference using autonomous motivation In the paper “Beyond talk: creating autonomous motivation through selfdetermination theory” Stone et al (2009) discuss the underlying psychological needs to bring about autonomous motivation. If the “Resistance to Change” Concepts are mapped to their recommended framework designed to create enduring (autonomous) motivation, we can see that twelve of the eighteen concepts could be mapped directly to items 1 through 6 and also indicated by “*” as a prefix. What to do operationally if you are perceiving Resistance A B C 01: Ask Open questions and invite participation in problem solving* Resistance-02: When "they" are not involved in the planning (Tipping Point included) X Resistance-10: "Sins" of the past X 02: Actively Listen and acknowledge employee perception* Resistance-01: The Purpose is not Clear X Resistance-05: Poor communication regarding the Change (Process/Content) X Resistance-08: The "Cost" is too high, or the reward is inadequate given the change X Resistance-09: The present system seems satisfactorily X 03: Offer choices within structure including the clarification of responsibilities* Resistance-04: The habit patterns of the work group or individual are ignored X 04: Provide sincere, positive feedback that acknowledges intuitive and factual, non-judgmental feedback* Resistance-11: Lack of Trust/Transparency in the Sponsor/Leadership Team X Resistance-18: When people have not updated their view of the world in line with the harsh reality "Group Think" X 05: Minimise coercive controls such as rewards and comparisons with others* Resistance-07: Excessive work pressure is involved X 06: Develop talent and share knowledge to enhance competency and autonomy* Resistance-06: There is Fear of Failure X Resistance-15: When inadequate Training/Support program is provided X 07: Actively look for conflict of interests without judgment or blame and negotiate the change Resistance-13: When the change is in conflict with the individual's "Personal-System" X Resistance-14: When there is a conflict between Personal Career and Business objectives X 08: Integrate Monitoring and support for both the Change-Cycle and Individual's Transition Resistance-12: When there is a lack of "Soft-skills" integrated into the change Resistance-17: A: When the Change-Cycle or B: When an individual's Transition is not supported appropriately X X 09: Continuously monitor and control the Assimilation demand hold change back where required Resistance-16: The Assimilation capacity of a group of individual is reached Table 1 What to do operationally if you perceive Resistance Heading descriptions of the associated Theme: A: Leading and Managing Change, B: Ensure a safe environment to enable learning and change, C: Leading and Managing Individual and Group Transition V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 9 of 14 X
  • 10. This would suggest that if the leadership function were to focus on Autonomous Motivation using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) they would inherently be reducing the likelihood of twelve of the eighteen “Resistance to Change” Resistance codes. Based on the findings of the research three further actions were identified items 7-9, then the remaining items could potentially be addressed as well; 07: Actively look for conflict of interests without judgment or blame and negotiate the change. 08: Integrate Monitoring and support for both the Change-Cycle and Individual's Transition. 09: Continuously monitor and control the Assimilation demand hold change back where required. Conclusion This research project set out to get an understanding of Leader’s perspectives of the drivers behind “Resistance to Change”. Did it achieve that objective? At one level no, as the way the question is phrased, suggests Leaders of Change need the potential of a causal relationship. What has unfolded to be aware how their from the Themes, Concepts, Codes and their change initiatives are interrelatedness, is a simple causal relationship is too performing against the reductionist. This is due to the many cross connections and Concepts associated the complexity in this field. At another level, the research with “Resistance to has enabled the creation of a different view of how one can Change”. consider Change programmes. The Grow through Change Framework captures the three Themes that emerged from the research specific to “Resistance to Change”, the need to have an awareness of the six “Resistance to Change” Concepts and the 18 codes beneath, an awareness of motivational and leadership theory and practice. You need to know and understand these major themes Leading and Managing Change Ensure a safe environment to enable learning and change Leading and Managing Individual and Group Transition V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 10 of 14
  • 11. The Grow Through Change framework – just another lens The Leader(s) of Change need to create/maintain a “safe” environment that enables learning and change. This is achieved primarily through clear leadership, making sure the “purpose” is known, understood and aligned as best as possible to each group and individual. Appropriate communication and an awareness of the Change Dynamics such that they support each other and continue to focus everyone towards the compelling “purpose”. If you perceive “Resistance to Change”, ask yourself, your leadership and management team (be honest and open without blame or reprisal), do you all have the necessary Skills, Knowledge and Understanding to lead your organization, group or an individual through Change and Transition? Material to review to explore Transformational Leadership • (Rooke and Torbert, 2005, Jr., 2006, Collins, 2005, Barrett, 2011, Michael J. Zickar, 2008) (Kegan and Lahey, 2009) If you have an interest to explore transformational leadership, you can find more here. http://goo.gl/M8ONx5 V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 11 of 14
  • 12.   References ARGYRIS, C. 2008. Teaching Smart People How to Learn, Harvard Business School Press. BARRETT, R. 2011. The New Leadership Paradigm, lulu.com. BLACK, J. S. 2008. IT Starts with One: Changing Individuals Changes Organizations, Prentice Hall. BURNS, J. E. 1966. THE PROBLEM OF CHANGE. Industrial Management, 8, 1. CARTWRIGHT, T. 2004. Developing Your Intuition: A Guide to Reflective Practice, Center for Creative Leadership. COGHLAN, D. 1993. A person-centred approach to dealing with resistance to change. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 14, 10. COLLINS, J. 2005. Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve. Harvard Business Review, 83, 136-146. CONNER, D. R. 2006. Managing at the Speed of Change, Villard Books. COVEY, S. M. R. 2006. The Speed of Trust: The One Thing That Changes Everything, Simon & Schuster. DANIELS, K. 2011. Change management [Online]. CIPD. Available: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/changemanagement.aspx [Accessed]. DECI, E. 1997. Why We Do What We Do, Penguin Books. GALLWEY, W. T. 1986. The Inner Game of Tennis, Pan Books. HAWKINS, P. & SMITH, N. 2006. Coaching, mentoring and organizational consultancy : supervision and development, Maidenhead, Berkshire, Open Univ. Press. HERON, J. 1999. The Complete Facilitator's Handbook, Kogan Page. HURST, D. K. 2002. Crisis and Renewal: The History of a Great Railroad: Meeting the Challenge of Organizational Change, Harvard Business School Press. JAQUES, D. & SALMON, G. 2008. Learning in groups : a handbook for face-to-face and online environments, London [u. a.], Routledge. JR., R. J. A. 2006. The Leadership Circle Profile: breakthrough leadership assessment technology. Industrial and Commercial Training, 38, 175-184. JUNG, C. G. 1995. Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Mariner Books. KEGAN, R. & LAHEY, L. 2009. Immunity to Change: How to Overcome It and Unlock the Potential in Yourself and Your Organization, Harvard Business School Press. KIM, W. C. & MAUBORGNE, R. 2003. Tipping Point Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 81, 60-69. KOTTER, J. P. & COHEN, D. S. 2002. The heart of change: real-life stories of how people change their organizations, Harvard Business School Press. LAWRENCE, P. R. 1954. How to Deal with Resistance to Change. Harvard Business Review, 32, 49-57. LAWRENCE, P. R. & NOHRIA, N. 2002. Driven: How Human Nature Shapes Our Choices Jossey Bass V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 12 of 14
  • 13. MICHAEL J. ZICKAR, P. D. 2008. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES AND VALIDATION OF THE LEADERSHIP CIRCLE PROFILE. Institute for Psychological Research and Application DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY. PATTERSON, K. 2002. Crucial conversations: tools for talking when stakes are high, McGraw-Hill Professional. PINK, D. 2011. Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, Canongate Books Ltd ROOKE, D. & TORBERT, W. R. 2005. 7 Transformations of Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 83, 66-66. SCHUTZ, W. 1994. The Human Element: Productivity, Self-Esteem and the Bottom Line, Jossey Bass. SENGE, P. M. 1994. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies for Building a Learning Organization, Nicholas Brealey Publishing. SENGE, P. M. 2006. The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization, Random House Business; 2nd Revised edition edition (6 April 2006). SINEK, S. 2011. Start With Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone To Take Action, Penguin. STONE, D. N., DECI, E. L. & RYAN, R. M. 2009. Beyond talk: creating autonomous motivation through self-determination theory. Journal of General Management, 34, 75-91. THORNTON, C. 2010. Group and Team Coaching (Essential Coaching Skills and Knowledge), Routledge. WELSH NHS CONFEDERATION. 2008. Managing Transitions by William Bridges [Online]. the voice of the NHS organisations in Wales. Available: http://www.welshconfed.org/companyData/1898/resources/Review Bridges1.pdf [Accessed 25-3-2012 2012]. WRIGHT, M. 2009. Gower Handbook of Internal Communication, Gower. Rod Willis is an APECS Accredited Executive Coach Assentire Ltd, PO Box 4481, Maidenhead, SL60 1FY, UK May 2013 V01 www.assentire.net Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 13 of 14 T: +44 (0) 1628 632 340 M: +44 (0) 7788 457 202 rod.willis@assentire.net
  • 14. Rod Willis MSc MBA FRSA Director at Assentire Ltd Rod Willis is an APECS Accredited Executive Coach Accredited Supervisor using Coaching Signatures Profile™ Before setting up as an independent consultant and Executive Coach, Rod spent more than 25 years in the Electronic Manufacturing Industry working for a global leader in Semiconductor Test, working with Blue-Chip clients across Europe and Asia. His philosophy is one of Continuous Improvement, working with clients to improve both efficiency and efficacy. He has a "hands on" approach and stays involved with client projects through to the achievement of agreed results working on Process Improvement, Enabling Technology and specialising on the People side of the equation. Rod works with Individuals, Groups and the Organisation as a whole. Our Aim To maximise an Individual's Leadership potential, keeping your best talent, by helping organisations and people Grow Through Change. What We Do Assentire helps individuals and organisations going through transition, learn more effectively from their experience by helping them to work ON the business, to enhance the performance of key individuals and teams to support the business. We Specialise In: • Performance improvement through Leadership Team Alignment • Professional Supervision for organisational and individual Reflective Learning Our Clients We work with a number of clients ranging from charities, commercial organisations to talented individuals that want to make a difference, often focusing on helping people and organisations going through Transition. Keeping In Touch If you would like further information, contact rod.willis@assentire.net or call +44(0) 1628 632340 Rod directly at To subscribe to our monthly Newsletter or follow us on twitter and Facebook please visit our website www.assentire.net. V01 Rod Willis - Assentire Ltd © Page 14 of 14