The Indian Freedom Struggle


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The Indian Freedom Struggle Including its various stages from beginning to ending

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The Indian Freedom Struggle

  1. 1.  Presented By- Students of class X-D
  2. 2.  "Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom." This was the speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru, as the Prime Minister of an Independent India, addressing the constituent assembly and the Indian nation on 15 th august 1947. Now, as we are about to celebrate 66 years of our Independence, we pay our tributes to all those people, who had laid down their lives in an attempt to liberate India from the clutches of British imperialism.
  3. 3.   The freedom struggle had various stages, in the form of many rebellions and armed revolts. There were many rebellions, throughout the nation during the first 100 years of British rule.
  4. 4.    This traditional opposition finally culminated in the revolt of 1857, in which princely rulers, soldiers as well as peasants, alike took part. The revolt was a product of the accumulated grievances of all these people towards British imperialism. Though a failure, it produced many heroes and also created unity among all Indians..
  5. 5.     Mangal Pandey is considered as one of the greatest heroes of the Revolt of 1857. Some of the other people, who fought in this revolt, were Rani Lakshmi Bai, Tantia Tope, and Nana Sahib. The revolt shook the very foundations of British rule in India. Finally, it led to the power of India to be transferred from the British East India Company to the British crown
  6. 6.  Nationalism is the feeling of oneness among the people living in a territory.
  7. 7.     The period from 1885 to 1905 was the time for sowing the seeds of Indian nationalism. The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885, under the leadership of A.O. Hume, a retired British civil servant. In 1905, Viceroy Curzon initiated the partition of Bengal to curb the nationalist feelings among the people of India. This led to the launch of the Swadeshi movement and boycott of British goods and contrary to Curzon's plan, led to the unity of all Indians.
  8. 8.   Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh advocated for Swaraj, a year later. In1919, there was a widespread national campaign against the Rowlatt Act, under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai and others, in which he was injured fatally.
  9. 9.     It was at this time that Gandhi appeared on the scene. His main contribution was his non-violent revolution and Satyagrah. He believed in truth, nonviolence and love for fellow human beings. Gandhi launched the Salt Satyagraha, starting his march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi
  10. 10.       Non co operation was launched under Gandhiji’s leadership in 1920. It aimed at protesting against the injustices done to Punjab and Turkey and to attain Swaraj. Educated middle class led the movement in towns and cities. Educational institutions, Law courts and foreign goods were boycotted. Peasants organized movements against Talukdars and Landlords in villages under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra. Tribal people started an armed struggle in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. Workers in the plantations of Assam started a struggle to get the right to free movement.
  11. 11.    Khadi clothes were very costly. The poor were not able to buy them. Indians boycotted British institutions like law courts and educational institutions. But alternative institutions did not come up. So people had to stop boycott. Gandhi ji had to call off this movement due to widespread violence and the incident of Chauri Chaura.
  12. 12.     On 13 April 1919, a public meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to protest against the arrests of national leaders. Many villagers who came to attend a fair were also present in the park. General Dyer reached the meeting place along with the British troops. He ordered the troops to fire. The firing lasted for nearly 10 minutes. More than thousand people were killed and many were wounded. This incident is called Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  13. 13.     In the Kakori conspiracy case, Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfakullah Khan were hanged. Chandra Shekhar Azad and Khudiram Bose were some of the important revolutionary leaders of the time. On March 1931, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged, following a series of conspiracies. There were other revolutionary groups like the Chittagong group led by Surya Sen.
  14. 14.      It was a statutory commission set up by the British under Sir John Simon. It was asked to study the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Indians opposed the Simon Commission because: All the members of the commission were English men. There was no Indian in it. It did not provide any hope of Swaraj to Indians.
  15. 15.      It was also an important stage for our independence. The Congress session was held at Lahore in 1929 under the President ship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Following decision were taken: The Congress declared Poorna Swaraj as its aim. It was decided to celebrate 26 January every year as Independence Day. It was decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement to win Poorna Swaraj.
  16. 16.     Gandhiji decided to inaugurate the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt law. Gandhiji and 78 of his followers started a march on foot from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi [Dandi March]. When they reached Dandi. Gandhi ji prepared salt by using sea water, broke the salt law and inaugurated the Movement. The government imposed heavy tax on salt. Moreover, the production of salt was the monopoly of the government. So the price of salt was very high. Therefore, Gandhiji opposed the salt law.
  17. 17.      People broke salt law in many places. Foreign goods were boycotted. Liquor shops were picketed. Government servants resigned their jobs. Forest laws were broken. People refused to pay taxes. Leaders were arrested. Workers attacked government offices. Gandhiji called off the movement on 5 March 1931 under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference. It was restarted when Gandhiji returned from London. It was finally called off in 1934.
  18. 18.     The arbitrary entry of India into the war was strongly opposed by Subhash Chandra Bose, who had been elected President of the Congress twice, in 1937 and 1939. After lobbying against participation in the war, he resigned from Congress in 1939 Subhash Chandra Bose, with the help of Japan, preceded fighting the British forces and not only freed Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the Britishers but also entered the north-eastern border of India. But in 1945 Japan was defeated and Netaji proceeded from Japan through an aeroplane to a place of safety but met with an accident and it was given out that he died in that air-crash itself. "Give me blood and I shall give you freedom" - was one of the most popular statements made by him, where he urges the people of India to join him in his freedom movement.
  19. 19.     In August 1942, Gandhiji started the 'Quit India Movement' and decided to launch a mass civil disobedience movement 'Do or Die' call to force the British to leave India. The movement was followed, nonetheless, by largescale violence directed at railway stations, telegraph offices, government buildings, and other emblems and institutions of colonial rule. There were widespread acts of sabotage, and the government held Gandhi responsible for these acts of violence, suggesting that they were a deliberate act of Congress policy. However, all the prominent leaders were arrested, the Congress was banned and the police and army were brought out to suppress the movement.
  20. 20.     At last on June 3 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten declared they would leave india. But a Very big price was paid by people. The Britishers left India By dividing the country in two parts Pakistan was officially announced to be a separate nation and given an independent status on 14 August 1947. At midnight, on 15 August 1947, India was declared to be an independent nation by her first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.