PHYSICS HOLIDAYS HOMEWORK CONTRIBUTION OF SOME SCIENTIST IN THE FIELD OF PHYSICS MADE BY :- SHREY VERMA 9TH - A
C.V.RAMAN Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born at Trichinopoly in Southern India on November 7th, 1888. His father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics so that from the first he was immersed in an academic atmosphere. He entered Presidency College, Madras, in 1902, and in 1904 passed his B.A. examination, winning the first place and the gold medal in physics; in 1907 he gained his M.A. degree, obtaining the highest distinctions.
Some of Raman's early memoirs appeared as Bulletins of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (Bull. 6 and 11, dealing with the "Maintenance of Vibrations"; Bull. 15, 1918, dealing with the theory of the musical instruments of the violin family). He contributed an article on the theory of musical instruments to the 8th Volume of the Handbooks der Physik, 1928. In 1922 he published his work on the "Molecular Diffraction of Light", the first of a series of investigations with his collaborators which ultimately led to his discovery, on the 28th of February, 1928, of the radiation effect which bears his name ("A new radiation", Indian J. Phys., 2 (1928) 387), and which gained him the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Other investigations carried out by Raman were: his experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934-1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light. In 1948 Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behavior of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. His laboratory has been dealing with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behavior of numerous iridescent substances (laboratories, pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls).
When light is scattered from a molecule most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of light (approximately 1 in 107 photons) is scattered at optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. The process leading to this inelastic scatter is the termed the Raman effect. Raman scattering can occur with a change in vibration, rotational or electronic energy of a molecule.
The distortion of a molecule in an electric field is determined by its Polaris ability . The Raman Effect is used in materials analysis. The frequency of light scattered from a molecule may be changed based on the structural characteristics of the molecular bonds. A monochromatic light source (laser) is required for illumination, and a spectrogram of the scattered light then shows the deviations caused by state changes in the molecule.
Raman microscopy is a very specialized optical microscopy. As in any optical microscopy its spatial resolution is close to the micron. In Raman microscopy the sample is illuminated with monochromatic light (a laser) and the light scattered by the material is analyzed by a conventional optical microscope coupled to a Raman spectrometer or a very sophisticated filter. This process in conjunction with infrared microscopy is called "chemical imaging" - which is in itself a fascinating field - it now finds applications in everything from thin films and transistors to dyes and pigments!
NEWTON He was born on 4 January 1643 – 31 march 1727. His Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica , published in 1687, is said to be the greatest single work in the history of science. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion , laying the groundwork for classical mechanics , which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution .
In mechanics, Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum . In optics , he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum . He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound .
ALBERT EINSTEIN ( March 14 , 1879 – April 18 , 1955 ) was a German -born theoretical physicist . He is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass–energy equivalence , E = mc 2 . Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect ." 
Einstein's many contributions to physics include his special theory of relativity , which reconciled mechanics with electromagnetism , and his general theory of relativity , which extended the principle of relativity to non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation . His other contributions include relativistic cosmology , capillary action , critical opalescence , classical problems of statistical mechanics and their application to quantum theory , an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules , atomic transition probabilities , the quantum theory of a monatomic gas , thermal properties of light with low radiation density (which laid the foundation for the photon theory), a theory of radiation including stimulated emission , the conception of a unified field theory , and the geometrization of physics. Einstein published over 300 scientific works and over 150 non-scientific works.   Einstein is revered by the physics community,  and in 1999 Time magazine named him the " Person of the Century ". In wider culture the name "Einstein" has become synonymous with genius .
ARCHIMEDES with designing innovative machines , including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water, and ( c . 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician , physicist , engineer , inventor , and astronomer . Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity . Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics and the explanation of the principle of the lever . He is credited setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors. [
The most commonly related anecdote about Archimedes tells how he invented a method for measuring the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According to Vitruvius , a new crown in the shape of a laurel wreath had been made for King Hiero II , and Archimedes was asked to determine whether it was of solid gold , or whether silver had been added by a dishonest goldsmith.  Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so he could not melt it down in order to measure its density as a cube, which would have been the simplest solution. While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water rose as he got in. He realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown. For practical purposes water is incompressible  , so the crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the weight of the crown by the volume of water displaced, its density could be obtained. The density of the crown would be lower if cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying " Eureka !" "I have found it!" ( Greek : "εύρηκα!")
The story about the golden crown does not appear in the known works of Archimedes, but in his treatise On Floating Bodies he gives the principle known in hydrostatics as Archimedes' Principle . This states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.  While Archimedes did not invent the lever , he wrote the earliest known rigorous explanation of the principle involved. According to Pappus of Alexandria , his work on levers caused him to remark: "Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth." ( Greek : "δος μοι πα στω και ταν γαν κινάσω")  Plutarch describes how Archimedes designed block and tackle pulley systems, allowing sailors to use the principle of leverage to lift objects that would otherwise have been too heavy to move. 
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