Known knowns & unknown unknowns


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Facilitating metacognition in the online classroom

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  • Ask the question, elicit response, fill in with information. Tie back to Rumsfeld quote knowing and not knowing about knowing
  • Pintrichstudents who know about general strategies for thinking and problem solving are more likely to use them when confronting different classroom tasks (Bransford et al., 1999; Schneider & Pressley, 1997; Weinstein & Mayer, 1986)metacognitive knowledge of all these different strategies seems to be related to the transfer of learning; that is, the ability to use knowledge gained in one setting or situation in another (Bransford et al., 1999)
  • Online classroom discussions should be a significant part of the class experience and should be weighted as such, providing rubrics & examples will help you accomplish this.
  • Online classroom discussions should be a significant part of the class experience and should be weighted as such, providing rubrics & examples will help you accomplish this.
  • Ask for examples of recent learning- gardening, cooking, gaming, tax lawStudents’ level of Strategic knowledge, Self-knowledge & knowledge about cognitive tasks
  • Ask each to choose a learning goal right now; from memory, where do mining events occur
  • Ask them to choose strategy related to the learning goal
  • Ask them to choose strategy related to the learning goal
  • Choose a strategy; write a specific discussion prompt that leads students from backtrack to goal, to:Create memoriesCreate pathsCreate epiphany-ready moments
  • Known knowns & unknown unknowns

    1. 1. Known knowns & unknown unknowns Facilitating metacognition in the online classroom Dr. L. Roxanne Russell, Georgia State University
    2. 2. Ummm…Donald Rumsfeld? What is metacognition? There are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we now know we dont know. But there are also unknown unknowns; there are things we do not know we dont know.
    3. 3. Benefits of Metacognitive Strategies For your courses  Increased material comprehension  Better alignment of responses to assignments  Better discussions  More clearly articulated arguments Lifelong  Increased ability to learn independently  Better critical thinking skills  Better interdiscpilinary application of knowledge
    4. 4. Online discussions Complaints & problems with online discussion Praises & benefits of the online classroom
    5. 5. Benefits of Online discussions In writing  Time to prepare  Record of learning stepping stones Participation requirements  Graded  Guided
    6. 6. Be the expert, Think like a novice What have you learned recently? What was your approach? What did you need? What stands out in your memory? Why?
    7. 7. Discussion Mining Focus on one or two objectives  Choose a learning goal Mine the classroom  Misconceptions  Preconceptions  Tangents  Epiphanies  Levels of confidence Backtrack from goal
    8. 8. Introduction Strategies Predicting outcomes  What information will you need to successfully answer this discussion question? Misconception/Preconception check  Use true/false or definitive statements to ask students to commit to knowledge or opinions
    9. 9. In-progress Strategies Self-questioning  What question must you ask to continue this process or solve this problem? What questions do you want to ask me or a peer about this process? Self-challenging  Allow choices, then question. Why did you make this choice? Easier or more challenging? If you could change your choice now, would you?
    10. 10. Wrap-up Strategies Self-assessing learning  Rate your learning experience from 1-10. Why did you give yourself this rating? Learning reflection  Have students examine all configurations  Knownknowns, known unknowns, unknown knowns, unknown unknown unknowns
    11. 11. Ideas What thinking strategies are specific to your discipline and course objectives?  e.g. the writing process, the scientific method, flow charts, logical reasoning When are different steps appropriate?  How do you determine? How could you teach students about these strategies and when to use them in your curriculum?
    12. 12. Barriers What would make this approach difficult in your online discussions? How can you determine if the approach is worth overcoming the barriers?
    13. 13. Benefits How could this approach improve student learning? Could this approach save you time?
    14. 14. Implementing Determine learning goals Start weekly discussion threads  Establish high standards for participation grading (provide rubrics & examples) Mine discussions Choose strategies to connect discussions to goals Experiment and redesign
    15. 15. References Seminal  Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry.American Psychologist, 34, 906-911. Benefit Claims  Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.  Schneider, W., & Pressley, M. (1997). Memory development between two and twenty. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  Weinstein, C.E., & Mayer, R. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan. Application  Darling-Hammond, L., Austin, K., Cheung, M., & Martin, D. (n.d.). Thinking about thinking: Metacognition. Retrieved July 30, 2009, from  Kuhn, D., & Dean Jr., D. (2004). Metacognition: A bridge between cognitive psychology and educational practice. Theory Into Practice 43(4), 268-273.  Paris, S., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B.F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 15-51). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  Pintrich, P.R., McKeachie, W.J., & Lin, Y. (1987). Teaching a course in learning to learn. Teaching of Psychology, 14, 81-86.  Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.