Jun 27, 2009
Introduction to Computers
Objectives Define the term computer Identify the components of a computer Explain why a computer is a powerful tool Differentiate among the various categories of software Describe the categories of computers and their uses Identify the various types of computer users p. 1.2
The Digital Revolution p. 1.2 Fig. 1-1
Where can you find computers?
What Is a Computer? An electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory manipulates the data according to specified rules p. 1.4
stores the results for future use
What is a Computer? p. 1.4 Software The series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks Hardware The electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer
What are hardware and software?
What is a Computer? p. 1.5 Input Any data or instructions you enter into a computer Output Data that has been processed into information Storage Area in a computer that can hold data and information for future use Communication The capability of communicating with other computers Process Manipulate the input (data) to produce output (information)
The Components of a Computer speaker p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 printer scanner speaker PC camera microphone digital camera system unit keyboard modem monitor mouse
What are common computer hardware components?
The Components of a Computer p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 Click to view Web Link then click Input Devices scanner microphone keyboard mouse PC camera digital camera
Any hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer
The Components of a Computer What is an output device? p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 Click to view Web Link then click Output Devices printer monitor speakers
Any hardware component that can convey information to a user
The Components of a Computer What is the system unit ? Sometimes called a chassis A box-like case made from metal or plastic that protects the internal electronic components of the computer from damage p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 CD-RW drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive hard disk drive floppy disk drive Zip ® disk drive
Circuitry in the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard
The Components of a Computer p. 1.6 External Device Also called a peripheral Attaches to the system unit Internal Component Resides inside the system unit
What are internal components and external devices?
The Components of a Computer p. 1.7 Click to view Web Link then click Storage Devices Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium Devices often function as source of input because they transfer items from storage into memory
Physical material on which a computer keeps the data, instructions and information
The Components of a Computer p. 1.7 Fig. 1-3 CD-RW drive hard disk drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive ZIP ® drive floppy disk drive
What are common storage devices or drives?
Why Is a Computer So Powerful? p. 1.8 Speed Billions of operations can be carried out in a single second Reliability Dependable because components have a low failure rate so they produce consistent results Communications Two connected computers can share stored data, instructions, and information Storage Enormous amounts of data can be stored and made available for processing anytime it is needed Accuracy If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the results are error-free — garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) accuracy of output depends on accuracy of input
What characteristics make a computer powerful?
Categories of Computers p. 1.19 Fig. 1-20
What are the categories of computers?
Personal Computers What is a personal computer? p. 1.19 Microprocessor The single chip that performs all the processing functions on a personal computer
A computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
Personal Computers p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 The PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system The Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS)
What are the two most popular series of personal computers?
Personal Computers What is a desktop computer? p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23 Click to view Web Link then click Personal Computers
Designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table
Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations? p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23
Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically
Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations? p. 1.21 Fig. 1-24
Less expensive desktop that combines he monitor and system unit into a single device
Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations? More expensive and powerful desktop designed for work that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities p. 1.21
Can perform the information processing cycle operations without being connected to a network
Personal Computers What are some desktop computer variations? Powerful desktop that manages the resources on a network p. 1.22 Fig. 1-25
Other computers on network that access the contents of the storage area on the servers
Personal Computers What is a notebook computer? Portable, personal computer small enough to fit on your lap Click to view video p. 1.22 Fig. 1-26
Generally more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities
Handheld Computers What is a handheld computer? Also called a palmtop computer p. 1.23 Fig. 1-27 Click to view Web Link then click Handheld Computers
Small computer that fits in your hand
Handheld Computers p. 1.23 How do you input data with a handheld computer? A stylus looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure, instead of ink to write
Some have small keyboards
Handheld Computers What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)? One of the most popular handheld computers in use today p. 1.23 Fig. 1-28
Provides personal organizer functions
Handheld Computers What are Web-enabled handheld computers? p. 1.24 Fig. 1-29 Web-enabled two-way pager Web-enabled cellular telephone Web-enabled handheld computer
Allow you to access the Internet wirelessly
Internet Appliances What is an Internet appliance or information appliance? p. 1.24 Fig. 1-30
Computer with limited functionality whose main purpose is to connect to the Internet from home
Mid-Range Servers What is a mid-range server? More powerful and larger than a workstation computer Supports up to 4,000 users Often connected via a personal computer or terminal p. 1.25 Fig. 1-32
Once known as a minicomputer
Mid-Range Servers p. 1.25 Sometimes called dumb terminals Device with a monitor and keyboard used to access a server
Must be connected to a server to operate
Mainframes Large, expensive, very powerful computer Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously p. 1.26 Fig. 1-33
Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information
Supercomputers p. 1.26 Fig. 1-34 Fastest, most powerful computer
Able to process more than 12 trillion instructions per second
Computer Software What is a computer program? Click to view Web Link then click Computer Programs p. 1.10 Directs computer to perform alternative operations Prints a report Stores information on disk Allows you to input data and stores it in memory Uses data in memory in calculations Displays information on monitor Compares values stored in memory
A series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do
Computer Software p. 1.12 Operating System (OS) Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices Utility program Type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
Programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices
Computer Software What is application software? Click to view Web Link then click Application Software p. 1.13 Word processing software Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Suite Four popular software applications bundled together as a single unit Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Word processing software
Programs that perform specific tasks for users
Elements of an Information System What is an information system? p. 1.27 Fig. 1-35 Click to view Web Link then click Minorities in Technology Click to view Web Link then click Women in Technology 1. Hardware 2. Software 1. Hardware 3. Data 1. Hardware 2. Software 4a. People (IT personnel) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4b. People (users) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 5. Procedures 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 4b. People (users)
For an information system to provide accurate, timely, and useful information, each element must be present and all of the elements must work together
What is a Computer? Someone that communicates with a computer p. 1.4
Someone who uses the information it generates
Examples of Computer Usage p. 1.28 Fig. 1-36 Large Business Home Mobile Small Office/Home Office Power
What are five categories of computer users?
Examples of Computer Usage p. 1.29 Fig. 1-37 research finance and business management Web access entertainment
What software is available for a home user?
Examples of Computer Usage How do computer companies accommodate children? p. 1.30 Fig. 1-38
Many manufacturers design special hardware for children
Examples of Computer Usage What is the digital divide? Idea that you can separate people of the world into two distinct groups Those who have access to technology with the ability to use it p. 1.30 Click to view video
Those who do not have access to technology or are without the ability to use it
Examples of Computer Usage Web access spreadsheet p. 1.31 Fig. 1-39
What hardware and software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?
Examples of Computer Usage What new computer trends concern a small office/home office (SOHO) user? Conduct financial business on the Web p. 1.31
Allows a SOHO user to show the world a live view of some aspect of their business
Examples of Computer Usage Travel to and from a main office to conduct business p. 1.32 Fig. 1-40
Web-enabled cellular telephones
Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user? p. 1.33 Fig. 1-41
Information systems department
Examples of Computer Usage Usually has multimedia capability and a touch screen p. 1.34 Fig. 1-43 Click to view video
Used by a large business to provide information to the public
Examples of Computer Usage A work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace p. 1.34 Fig. 1-44
Often communicate with the office using some communications technology
Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user? Requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer Typically work with multimedia p. 1.35 Fig. 1-45
Combines text, graphics, sound, video, an other media elements into one application
p. 1.4 Fig. 1-2 Data Collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful
What are data and information?
Summary of Introduction to Computers The components of a computer
Why is a computer so powerful?
Summary of Introduction to Computers (cont.)