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  • 1. Introduction to Computers
  • 2. Objectives Define the term computer Identify the components of a computer Explain why a computer is a powerful tool Differentiate among the various categories of software Describe the categories of computers and their uses Identify the various types of computer users p. 1.2
  • 3. The Digital Revolution
    • Where can you find computers?
    • Computers are everywhere
    p. 1.2 Fig. 1-1
  • 4. What Is a Computer?
    • What is a computer?
    • An electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory
      • accepts data
      • manipulates the data according to specified rules
      • produces results
      • stores the results for future use
    p. 1.4
  • 5. What is a Computer?
    • What are hardware and software?
    p. 1.4 Software The series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks Hardware The electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer
  • 6.
    • What is the information
    • processing cycle?
    What is a Computer? p. 1.5 Input Any data or instructions you enter into a computer Output Data that has been processed into information Storage Area in a computer that can hold data and information for future use Communication The capability of communicating with other computers Process Manipulate the input (data) to produce output (information)
  • 7. The Components of a Computer
    • What are common computer hardware components?
    speaker p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 printer scanner speaker PC camera microphone digital camera system unit keyboard modem monitor mouse
  • 8. The Components of a Computer
    • What is an input device?
    • Any hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer
    p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 Click to view Web Link then click Input Devices scanner microphone keyboard mouse PC camera digital camera
  • 9. The Components of a Computer
    • What is an output device?
    • Any hardware component that can convey information to a user
    p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 Click to view Web Link then click Output Devices printer monitor speakers
  • 10. The Components of a Computer
    • What is the system unit ?
    • Sometimes called a chassis
    • A box-like case made from metal or plastic that protects the internal electronic components of the computer from damage
    • Circuitry in the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard
    p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 CD-RW drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive hard disk drive floppy disk drive Zip ® disk drive
  • 11. The Components of a Computer
    • What are internal components and external devices?
    p. 1.6 External Device Also called a peripheral Attaches to the system unit Internal Component Resides inside the system unit
  • 12. The Components of a Computer
    • What is storage?
    • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
    p. 1.7 Click to view Web Link then click Storage Devices
    • Storage Device
    • Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium
    • Devices often function as source of input because they transfer items from storage into memory
    • Storage Medium
    • Physical material on which a computer keeps the data, instructions and information
  • 13. The Components of a Computer
    • What are common storage devices or drives?
    p. 1.7 Fig. 1-3 CD-RW drive hard disk drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive ZIP ® drive floppy disk drive
  • 14. Why Is a Computer So Powerful?
    • What characteristics make a computer powerful?
    p. 1.8 Speed Billions of operations can be carried out in a single second Reliability Dependable because components have a low failure rate so they produce consistent results Communications Two connected computers can share stored data, instructions, and information Storage Enormous amounts of data can be stored and made available for processing anytime it is needed Accuracy If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the results are error-free — garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) accuracy of output depends on accuracy of input
  • 15. Categories of Computers
    • What are the categories of computers?
    p. 1.19 Fig. 1-20
  • 16. Personal Computers
    • What is a personal computer?
    • A computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
    p. 1.19
    • Two major categories
    • Desktop
    • Notebook
    Microprocessor The single chip that performs all the processing functions on a personal computer
    • Contains at least
    • One Input device
    • One output device
    • One storage device
    • Memory
    • A processor
  • 17. Personal Computers
    • What are the two most popular series of personal computers?
    p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 The PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system The Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS)
  • 18. Personal Computers
    • What is a desktop computer?
    • Designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table
    p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23 Click to view Web Link then click Personal Computers
  • 19. Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Tower model
      • Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically
    p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23
  • 20. Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • All-in-one computer
      • Less expensive desktop that combines he monitor and system unit into a single device
    p. 1.21 Fig. 1-24
  • 21. Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Workstation
      • More expensive and powerful desktop designed for work that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities
    • Stand-alone
      • Can perform the information processing cycle operations without being connected to a network
    p. 1.21
  • 22. Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Server
      • Powerful desktop that manages the resources on a network
    • Clients or workstations
      • Other computers on network that access the contents of the storage area on the servers
    p. 1.22 Fig. 1-25
  • 23. Personal Computers
    • What is a notebook computer?
    • Also called a laptop
    • Portable, personal computer small enough to fit on your lap
    • Generally more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities
    Click to view video p. 1.22 Fig. 1-26
  • 24. Handheld Computers
    • What is a handheld computer?
    • Also called a palmtop computer
    • Small computer that fits in your hand
    p. 1.23 Fig. 1-27 Click to view Web Link then click Handheld Computers
  • 25. Handheld Computers
    • How do you input data with a handheld computer?
    p. 1.23
    • Some support voice input
    • Others use a stylus
      • A stylus looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure, instead of ink to write
    • Some have small keyboards
  • 26. Handheld Computers
    • What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
    • One of the most popular handheld computers in use today
    • Provides personal organizer functions
      • Calendar
      • Appointment book
      • Address book
      • Calculator
      • Notepad
    p. 1.23 Fig. 1-28
  • 27. Handheld Computers
    • What are Web-enabled handheld computers?
    • Allow you to access the Internet wirelessly
    p. 1.24 Fig. 1-29 Web-enabled two-way pager Web-enabled cellular telephone Web-enabled handheld computer
  • 28. Internet Appliances
    • What is an Internet appliance or information appliance?
    • Computer with limited functionality whose main purpose is to connect to the Internet from home
    p. 1.24 Fig. 1-30
  • 29. Mid-Range Servers
    • What is a mid-range server?
    • More powerful and larger than a workstation computer
    • Supports up to 4,000 users
    • Often connected via a personal computer or terminal
    • Once known as a minicomputer
    p. 1.25 Fig. 1-32
  • 30. Mid-Range Servers
    • What is a terminal?
    p. 1.25
    • Sometimes called dumb terminals
      • No processing power
      • Cannot stand alone
      • Must be connected to a server to operate
    Device with a monitor and keyboard used to access a server
  • 31. Mainframes
    • What is a mainframe?
    • Large, expensive, very powerful computer
    • Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously
    • Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information
    p. 1.26 Fig. 1-33
  • 32. Supercomputers
    • What is a supercomputer?
    • Fastest, most powerful computer
    p. 1.26 Fig. 1-34
    • Able to process more than 12 trillion instructions per second
  • 33. Computer Software
    • What is a computer program?
    • A series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do
    Click to view Web Link then click Computer Programs p. 1.10 Directs computer to perform alternative operations Prints a report Stores information on disk Allows you to input data and stores it in memory Uses data in memory in calculations Displays information on monitor Compares values stored in memory
  • 34. Computer Software
    • What is system software?
    • Programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices
    p. 1.12 Operating System (OS) Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices Utility program Type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
  • 35. Computer Software
    • What is application software?
    • Programs that perform specific tasks for users
    Click to view Web Link then click Application Software p. 1.13 Word processing software Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Suite Four popular software applications bundled together as a single unit Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Word processing software
  • 36. Elements of an Information System
    • What is an information system?
    • For an information system to provide accurate, timely, and useful information, each element must be present and all of the elements must work together
    p. 1.27 Fig. 1-35 Click to view Web Link then click Minorities in Technology Click to view Web Link then click Women in Technology 1. Hardware 2. Software 1. Hardware 3. Data 1. Hardware 2. Software 4a. People (IT personnel) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4b. People (users) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 5. Procedures 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 4b. People (users)
  • 37. What is a Computer?
    • Who is a user?
    • Someone that communicates with a computer
    • Someone who uses the information it generates
    p. 1.4
  • 38. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are five categories of computer users?
    p. 1.28 Fig. 1-36 Large Business Home Mobile Small Office/Home Office Power
  • 39. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What software is available for a home user?
    p. 1.29 Fig. 1-37 research finance and business management Web access entertainment
  • 40. Examples of Computer Usage
    • How do computer companies accommodate children?
    • Many manufacturers design special hardware for children
    p. 1.30 Fig. 1-38
  • 41. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is the digital divide?
    • Idea that you can separate people of the world into two distinct groups
      • Those who have access to technology with the ability to use it
      • Those who do not have access to technology or are without the ability to use it
    p. 1.30 Click to view video
  • 42.
    • What hardware and software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?
    Examples of Computer Usage Web access spreadsheet
    • Desktop usage
    • Local Area Network (Lan)
    • Productivity software
    • Specialty software
    • Web usage
    p. 1.31 Fig. 1-39
  • 43. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What new computer trends concern a small office/home office (SOHO) user?
    • E-mail
      • Communicate with others
    • E-commerce
      • Conduct financial business on the Web
    • Web cam
      • Allows a SOHO user to show the world a live view of some aspect of their business
    p. 1.31
  • 44. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is a mobile user?
    • Travel to and from a main office to conduct business
    • Hardware
      • Notebook computers
      • Handheld computers
      • Web-enabled cellular telephones
    • Software
      • Productivity
      • Presentation
    p. 1.32 Fig. 1-40
  • 45. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are the needs of the large business user?
    • Network
      • Local area network (LAN)
      • Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • Large business Web site
    • Sales management
    • Accounting
    • Desktop publishing
    • Information systems department
    • Productivity software
    • Scheduling
    • Web access
    p. 1.33 Fig. 1-41
  • 46. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is a kiosk?
    • A freestanding computer
    • Usually has multimedia capability and a touch screen
    • Used by a large business to provide information to the public
    p. 1.34 Fig. 1-43 Click to view video
  • 47. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is telecommuting?
    • A work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace
    • Often communicate with the office using some communications technology
    p. 1.34 Fig. 1-44
  • 48. Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are the needs of a power user?
    • Requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer
    • Types of power users
      • Engineers
      • Architects
      • Desktop publishers
      • Graphic artists
    • Typically work with multimedia
      • Combines text, graphics, sound, video, an other media elements into one application
    p. 1.35 Fig. 1-45
  • 49.
    • What are data and information?
    p. 1.4 Fig. 1-2 Data Collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful
  • 50. Summary of Introduction to Computers
    • What is a computer?
    • The components of a computer
    • Why is a computer so powerful?
    • Computer software
    • Categories of computers
    • Personal computers
  • 51. Summary of Introduction to Computers (cont.)
    • Handheld computers
    • Internet appliances
    • Mid-range servers
    • Mainframes
    • Supercomputers