O It is a process of exchange of ions
between the insoluble resin and the
O R-H + A+ < -- > R-A +H+
O R is the insoluble matrix of the ion
O R-H is cation exchanger.
O H+ replaces every A+ ions in the exchange
process and electron neutrality is
O Ion exchange is a natural process
occurring in tissues of plants and
animals, soils and minerals.
O Assists to remove the cations and
anions present in the water solution.
O The treatment of radioactive and
non-radioactive chemical species.
alkalization, demineralization, nitrat
e removal, condensate polishing.
and pollution control.
Effect of Ions
manufacturing process are affected by the
calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium
and anions such as sulphate, chloride, nitrate
O Strongly acidic
O Strongly basic
O Weakly acidic
O Weakly basic
Naturally occurring and synthetic
O Inorganic ion exchangers have greater
selectivity and better disposal options
than organic resin
O organic ion exchangers are reliable
and efficient in water coolant systems
clinoptilolite are naturally occurring
inorganic ion exchangers.
O Polysaccharides such as cellulose, algic
acid, straw and peat, proteins such as
charcoals, liquites and coals are naturally
occurring organic ion exchangers.
hexacyanoferrates are inorganic synthetic