Coagulation and Flocculation

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Brief introduction of coagulation and flocculation filtration process

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Coagulation and Flocculation

  1. 1. COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION Anup Ghimire, Rock Face Limited
  2. 2. COAGULATION  Colloidal particles: suspended in drinking water  Colloids are minerals such as silt, clays, silica, hydroxides and metallic salts and organic particles such as humic and fluvic acids, colour and surfactants.
  3. 3. …COAGULATION  Hydrophilic: Affinity for water  soap, starch, proteins and detergents  Hydrophobic  metal oxides and clay
  4. 4. …COAGULATION  Coagulation and flocculation remove colour and particulate matter including protozoa, viruses, bacteria and iron, manganese, tastes and odours from water
  5. 5. …COAGULATION  Coagulation involves the neutralization of suspended solids by adding coagulants in the water which forms micro flocs after sticking together
  6. 6. …COAGULATION  Coagulation process is faster and involves high-energy mixing which neutralizes electrical charges of the particles and facilitates floc formation.
  7. 7. FLOCCULATION  Flocculation is a slow and gentle mixing process.  The destabilized particles are agglomerated to form large visible flocs
  8. 8. …FLOCCULATION  Pin flocs and visible flocs are produced at the flocculation stage when micro flocs are allowed to mix slowly. Pin flocs are filtered from water by sedimentation. Coagulants can be mineral or organic.
  9. 9. …FLOCCULATION  Iron salts and aluminium salts are mineral coagulants used in water treatment and polyamines, polydadmac, dicyandiamide resins, and melamine-formaldehyde resins are organic coagulants.

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