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Construction Materials
 

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Presentación de los materiales de construcción de Ana Mª López Barroso y Rocío Espinosa Portero (3º E)

Presentación de los materiales de construcción de Ana Mª López Barroso y Rocío Espinosa Portero (3º E)

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    Construction Materials Construction Materials Presentation Transcript

    • CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
    • Index:
      • Materials used in constuction
      • Construction of buildings
      • Construction machines
      • Environmental impact of buildings
    • Materials used in construction
      • Materials used in construction are those that are employed in the edification. In construction we can exploit different types of materials:
      • · Petrous or stony materials
      • · Aglomerative materials
      • · Concrete
      • · Ceramic materials
      • · Other materials
    • Petrous or stony materials
      • Compact rocks: they are blocks of limestone, marble, granite, slate, sandstone, etc...
      • Disintegrated rocks: they are fragments of rocks of variable size. In construction we use:
      • > Clay: it can absorb water.
      • > Arids or fragments of the disgregation of rocks. They can be sand, gravel,...
    • Aglomerative rocks
      • When they are mixed with water they turn pasty and when they solidify they adquire lightnessg
      • · Lime : to obtain this material we heat limestone.
      • · Gypsum : it is mineral in powder and, when we add water to it, we use it to cover walls or roofs. There are three types:
      • > Black with impurities.
      • > White without impurities.
      • > Plaster.
      • · Cement : it´s the most used aglomerant. There are a lot of types (metallurgical,...). The most employed is Portland cement, which is made up of a mix of limestone and clay and it is cooked in a rotative oven.
    • Concrete
      • It is a mixture of arids, aglomerants and water. There are different types of concrete, but the most used are:
      • Regular concrete: it includes powdered cement mixed with water.
      • Cellular concrete: it is concrete produced by the addition of an air entraining agent to the concrete or a lightweight aggreggate like expanded clay pellets or cork granules.
      • Cyclopean concrete: it is made up of cement, water and big arids (of more of 30 cm of diameter).
      • Reinforced concrete: inside of it there is an armor made up of steel bars that can be tense before the concrete solidifies, or after.
    • Ceramic materials
      • They are pieces fabric with molded clay and cooked in an oven. The process of elaboration:
      • Mixing and molding: clay and water are mixed together and then it is molded.
      • Cooked in oven: the molded material is heated inside ovens with differents temperatures so it doesn´t break.
      • There are different types of ceramic materials:
      • Bricks: they are pieces of cooked clay. There are two types, thin bricks and ordinary bricks.
      • Tiles: they are square or rectangular pieces. We used them for the tiled of walls.
      • Roof tiles: they are employed in roofs and covers.
      • Porcelain: it is covered with varnish. It is used in baths,...
    • Other materials
      • Metals; those we use in construction are:
      • > Steel.
      • > Aluminium.
      • > Copper.
      • Woods: it is very use in doors, floors,...
      • Plastics: their use is more common now. They are used in cables, plugs, insulators, outlets,...
      • Glass: they are used in windows, doors, decoration,...
    • Building constructiong
      • The construction of a building is a long and complex process that is compound of several phases, and a lot of material is employed. The different phases are:
      • Preparation of the land: by clearing-up the field, demolition and nivelation.
      • Cimentation: it the placement of the base of the building. It is underground and the main elements used are blocks, piles,…
    • Building construction
      • Structure elevation: we build the stilts and the shields. Some metallic structures are made up of steel beams, but most of structures are made up of reinforced concrete.
      • Water covering: it consists of the building of the roof, which depends a lot of the climate of the place. The most employed materials are zinc plates, slate and tiles.
    • Building construction
      • Pavements placement: above the plates of each floor we place marble, wood,…
      • Elevation of walls: it consists of the construction of walls and partitions that close and divide the different floors. For this phase we use ordinary bricks.
      • Placement of instalacion: water, electricity, gas, television,… They are made up by specialised workers.
      • Finished works: the consits of the fines jobs that specialised workers do too.
    • Construction machines
        • In construction several types of machines are used:
        • Diggers and loaders. They are used in excavation and land's movements.
        • Cranes are used for hoisting heavy materials. They consist of three parts: the tower, the feather and the counterweight.
    • Construction machines
      • Lorries transport materials.
      • Bulldozers are used in the nivelation of the field and rollers are employed to compact the land.
      • To prepare the concrete we use a concrete mixer.
    • Environmental impact of buildings (I)
      • A building causes an environmental impact since the construction materials are obtained.
      • In Europe, a 40% of the energy used is employed in the construction sector, and most of the energy is spent in heating of buildings, and a big part of materials are employed in construction too.
    • Environmental impact of buildings (II)
      • The way a person uses the energy spent in the building influence a lot in the environmental impact.
      • The uncontrolled construction of building affects a lot in the natural habitat. There are a lot of cases of illegal buildings or building corruption.
    •