Transcript of "Task based learning historical background (1)"
TASK BASED LEARNINGHistorical Background
INTRODUCCIÓN A look in-to Task Based Learning as languagelearning method. Preceding Learning Methods
WHAT IS TASK BASED LEARNING? Task-based language learning(TBLL), also known as task-based languageteaching (TBLT) or task-based instruction (TBI)focuses on the use of authentic language and onasking students to do meaningful tasks using thetarget language. Such tasks can include visiting adoctor, conducting an interview, or calling customerservice for help. Assessment is primarily based ontask outcome (in other words the appropriatecompletion of tasks) rather than on accuracy oflanguage forms. This makes TBLL especially popularfor developing target language fluency and studentconfidence.
DEFINITION OF A TASK According to Rod Ellis (2007), a task has four maincharacteristics: A task involves a primary focus on (pragmatic)meaning. A task has some kind of ‘gap’. The participants choose the linguistic resourcesneeded to complete the task. A task has a clearly defined outcome.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Task-Based Learning, one of the most talked-about recent methods, can be traced back to the‘strong’ Communicative Approach, whereteaching is done entirely through communicativetasks. There is no set grammar syllabus. Focusingon language use after a task has been completed iswidely accepted as an aid to acquisition, and taskrepetition gives students the chance to practice newlanguage.
THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHThe Communicative Approach grew out of sociolinguisticsin the 1970s and the view that there is more to communicationthan just grammar and vocabulary. Communication involves‘communicative competence’ – the ability to make yourselfunderstood in socially appropriate ways. Nowadays most teachers and students take the need for realcommunication in class for granted, but English as a ForeignLanguage (EFL) history clearly shows that this has not alwaysbeen the case! Within the Communicative Approach itself theprecise role of communication is debated. The so-called‘weak’ form of the approach sees communicative activities asopportunities for students to practice new language anddevelop fluency. A weak version of language teaching usingthis approach might simply mean adding more opportunities tocommunicate to a traditional grammar based curriculum.
THE ‘STRONG’ COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The ‘strong’ Communicative Approach on the other handstates that language is acquired through communication. It is notjust a question of using communicative activities to activatepassive knowledge of the language that has been pre-taught atan earlier stage. The belief is that communicative confidence onlydevelops if students are thrown in at the deep end and requiredto carry out tasks that demand real-life communication. Ratherthan a communicative activity being a chance for students toshow what they can do or to use what they have learned, it isthrough working on a task that the students learn what they need.It is impossible to make sense of current EFL teaching, especiallyin the west, without reference to the Communicative Approach.The weak Communicative Approach has had the most far-reaching impact on the EFL world, probably because itsacceptance meant adapting rather than rejecting existingmaterials and methodology. The strong Communicative Approachhas been very influential in the development of Task BasedLearning.
REFRENCES A Brief History of Teaching Approaches andMethodshttp://compartiroposingles.bigforumpro.com/t4-a-brief-history-of-teaching-approaches-and-methods Task-based language learningFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Task-based_language_learning
TASK-BASED LEARNING(TBL)-A model of organising lessons.COMPONENTS OF TBL:Pre-task Task cycle LanguagefocusTeacher´s rolePlanningReportTaskAnalysisPractice
WHAT TBL OFFERSMotivationPrivate andpublicReflection
GENERAL PRINCIPLES ANDCHARACTERISTICS OF TBL*It`s based on the use of tasks.*Students learn by interacting.*It`s focused on the use of authentic language.*Errors are part of a natural learning.*The focus is on process rather than product.
MY APPRECIATION OF TASK BASE LEARNING. Bringing the real world into the classroom.
WHAT A TEACHER NEEDS TO HAVE ….. Ability to commuicate their love of knowledge andlearning. Kind Hearted and compassion... Great enthusiam combined with a goodimagination…. Considerable fluency with the power of speechcombined with the powers of illustration. Strong belief in the importance of instruction for thebetterment of all . Great powers of observation. Willingness to reflect and modify instruction. Your goal should not be perfection,butimprovement. A good Rapport with the students.
WOULD YOU LIKE TO INCORPORATE SOME OFTHE IDEAS PROPOSED BY THE METHOD INTOYOUR TEACHING? WHY?,WHY NOT?.
WHAT A TEACHER NEEDSPatiencecompassionobservationknowledgeenthusiamCommunicative
WHAT A TEACHER NEEDS.instructionimaginationStrong beliefillustrativewillingnessunderstandingPositiverapport
ADVANTAGES The tasks are closer to real-life communicativesituation. A natural context is developed from the students’experiences with the language that is personalized andrelevant to them. Students are more motivated to absorb the language
Give teachers the opportunity to asses learners’progress Progress by encouraging students to plan and be moreambitious in the language they use There is an emphasis on (problem-solving) tasks and thestudents’ own personalities and responsability for theirown learning has to go together with more formallanguage work.
DISADVANTAGES Task-based learning requires a high level ofcreativity and initiative on the part of the teacher. Ifthe teachers are limited to more traditional roles ordo not have time and resources to implement task-based learning teaching this type of teaching maybe impossible. Some learners revert to mother tongue when thingsget difficult or if the group feels impatient.
CONCLUSIONS Historical Background.- Underlying principles of the method.- Activities.- Appreciation.-
REFERENCES http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/a-task-based-approach http://www.yde.yildiz.edu.tr/uddo/belgeler/inca-FundaHatip-TBL.htm The practise of English Language Teaching by JeremyHarmer
TELL ME AND I FORGETSHOW ME AND I REMEMBERINVOLME AND I UNDERSTANDYOUR GOLD SHOULD NOT BE PERFECTION,BUT IMPROVEMENT…
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