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U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals
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U5. cities, middle class and cathedrals

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High and Late Middle Ages in Europe.

High and Late Middle Ages in Europe.

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  • 1. Unit 5 CITIES, THE MIDDLE CLASS & CATHEDRALS 11- 15TH CENTURIES
  • 2. Chronology of the Middle Ages Start: Finish: 476 (fall of the WRE) 1453 (fall of Constantinople) or 1492 (discovery of America) • 5 – 10th Century Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages • 11 – 13th Century • 14 – 15th Century Late Middle Ages
  • 3. Chronology of the Middle Ages Subperiods in Spanish Alta Edad Media (5 – 10th Century) Baja Edad Media (11-15th Century) • Plena Edad Media (11 – 13th Century) • Crisis de la Edad Media (14 – 15th Century)
  • 4. Activity 1 a) When did the Middle Ages start & end? b) Link each period of the Middle Ages with its chronology.       Late Middle Ages 11 - 13th centuries. 5 - 10th centuries. High Middle Ages 14 - 15th centuries. Early Middle Ages
  • 5. HIGH MIDDLE AGES 11-13th Centuries
  • 6. General characteristics It was a time of prosperity & change in Europe. Agriculture progressed so economy improved Cities grew (VS villages) A new social class: the bourgeoisie (or middle class) Kings gained more power (VS nobles) Cultural changes: High Middle Ages · Universities · Gothic art
  • 7. 1.1. A patchwork of states (geography) Europe was still a mosaic of small kingdoms.
  • 8. Most important states  France & the Holy Roman Empire. Divided into feudal territories (counties, duchies…)
  • 9. Normans (Vikings) settled in several areas: • North of France (Duchy of Normandy) • England • Sicily • South of Italy Stop attacks (11th century)  PEACE & STABILITY FOR EUROPE!!!
  • 10. Muslims fought for territories in the south (Iberian Peninsula) & east (Byzantine Empire).
  • 11. 1.2. Political changes a) CONSOLIDATION OF THE ROYAL POWER:  Kings power increased (VS nobles) thanks to the economical support of the new social class (bourgeoisie) that emerged in the cities.  In exchange kings gave privileges to the cities:  Right to govern themselves (“charters”).  Allow them to organize trade fairs. b) ORIGIN OF PARLIAMENTS:  The Royal Council (nobles & clergy) was replaced by a new assembly that included nobles, clergy & city representatives. Finally “normal” people were politically represented!!!  Function: advise the king & pass new laws on taxation.  Different names for this assembly:  Parliament  England  Cortes  Spain  États généraux  France
  • 12. A city charter (also known as town charter or municipal charter) is a legal document that gives to a settlement and its inhabitants (the bourgeois – “burgueses”) the right to govern themselves independently. Cities were "free", in the sense that they were directly protected by the king, and were not part of a feudal fief.
  • 13. City charter of Bilbao. In Spanish we call the “Carta Puebla”, “Fuero” or “Carta de Privilegios”.
  • 14. Parliaments with representatives of the: -Nobility -Clergy -Cities (bourgeoisie)
  • 15. Activity Page 78: exercises 2, 3 & 4.
  • 16. 2. AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION Economy grew thanks to the agricultural progress. 2.1. CAUSES: Agriculture progressed due to a) Technological innovations that happened in the 11th century:  Three-field crop rotation (instead of the two-year rotation).  Mouldboard plough (instead of the Roman plough).  Other innovations: • Horse collar (instead of yoke) • Iron horseshoes to protect horses’ hooves. • Expansion of water mills (instead of windmills). b) New areas of land were cleared to cultivate them:  Forests were cut down (deforestation)  Wetlands were dried  Polders were build (Netherlands)
  • 17. Three-field crop rotation (instead of the two-year rotation).  Also known as triennial rotation.  Land divided in 3 parts: • Cereals • Pulses (legumbres) or oats (avena) • Left fallow  It reduced the amount of uncultivated land.
  • 18. Mouldboard plough:  Heavier, made deeper holes.  Allowed more air into the soil, so it was more productive.  Supported by wheels.  Pulled by horses, that moved faster than oxen.
  • 19. Horse collar (instead of yoke).  Distributes the load better, and its made with leather & filled with straw  avoid injuries.  Enables the horse to use its full strength when pulling. Yoke (yugo) Horse collar (collera)
  • 20. Water mills (instead of windmills).  Used to grind grain into cereals.  It was more productive since it didn’t depend on the weather.
  • 21. However, water mills weren’t invented in the High Middle Ages… They were already used in the Ancient Period!! We have some examples of Roman water mills in Spain, like the “Albolafia” water mill (Córdoba). What’s true is that during the High Middle Ages the use of water mills spread a lot! For example in England...: • 11th century  6,000 water mills • 14th century  10,000 - 15,000 water mills
  • 22. Horseshoes.  Protected horses’ hooves.  It’s not clear if it was invented in the High Middle Ages, but in this period its use spread a lot too.
  • 23. Dutch polders.  Land was reclaimed from the sea using dikes.
  • 24. 2. AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION 2.2. CONSEQUENCES: Improved techniques & more land being cultivated Incease in production Improvement in diet & life conditions Agricultural surplus Population increased: - 11th Cent.  36 mill. - 14th Cent.  80 mill. Increase in trade Workforce surplus Migrations from the countryside to the cities
  • 25. Activity  Page 80: exercises 1, 2 & 3.  What were the consequences of the agricultural expansion? Help yourself with the diagram you’ve copied, but you have to explain it with your own words, writing a full paragraph, using full sentences!!!
  • 26. 3. THE URBAN RENAISSANCE In the 11th century old Roman cities were revived & new cities were founded. • Why? Because of the increase in agricultural production  each fief produced more food than it needed so they could sell the extra food (agricultural surplus) in the markets. • Where? Around the markets that appeared: • Near castles & monasteries (wealthy people!) • Busy crossroads • Sea harbours
  • 27. A good example of a medieval city is Prague!!!
  • 28. • Characteristics? • Main professions: craftwork & trade. • Markets were held once a week & trade fairs once a year (attracted merchants from far places). • Port cities (Venice, Genoa, Marseille, Barcelona...) were important international trade centres  to exchange products with Byzantines & Muslims.
  • 29. • How were cities governed? • At the beginning  they were controlled by the feudal lord (noble/monastery) that owned the land where the city was established. • Later on  when the king gave a “charter” to a city, it began to be governed by itself.  “Charter”: document that gave the city the right to govern itself and it established its rights & privileges.  Cities were governed by a Community Council (Concejo Municipal): ‐ Its members were chosen by the guilds. ‐ It was presided by a mayor. ‐ They met in the town hall. ‐ Over time the government of the cities was in the hands of the wealthiest families in the city: the urban patriciate.
  • 30. Medieval town halls in Brussels & Leuven
  • 31. Activity  Page 82: exercise 1, 2 & 3.  What were the main economic activities (jobs) developed in the cities?  Define the following words: ◦ Charter ◦ Community Council ◦ Town hall ◦ Mayor
  • 32. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE 4.1. Daily life in Medieval cities (“Town life”): • Cities weren’t too big (<50,000). • Usually walled & organized around a main square, where the cathedral & town hall were generally located. • Crowded, noisy & dirty places: • Artisans working & selling their products. • Jesters, minstrels & troubadours performing. • Animals running about. • Beggars begging. • Narrow, unpaved streets. • Rubbish was thrown out of the window. • They were important cultural centres (schools & universities).
  • 33. Medieval cities were usually walled. When the city grew too much, they often built a new wall further away.
  • 34. BUFONES JESTERS were in charge of making people laugh. They had a wide variety of skills which could include acrobatics, juggling, magic, songs, music...
  • 35. MINSTRELS (or JONGLEUR) & TROBADOURS were in charge of entertaining people. They were story-tellers. JUGLARES & TROVADORES MINSTRELS: they memorized & recited poems, but didn’t composed them. They came from lower social classes and their role wasn’t as refined as the Troubadours’. TROUBADOUR: they were poet-musicians. They composed poems (romances) about love, heroes & chivalry that were recited as poems set to music. They came from upper classes.
  • 36. NARROW MEDIEVAL STREETS “Barrio gótico” (Barcelona) Medieval street in York (England) Medieval street in MontSaint Michel (France)
  • 37. Medieval cities were quite disgusting!! Mud, animas & human excrements were all around the place!! VIDEO: Filthy Medieval London
  • 38. Beggars, people drinking in the taverns…
  • 39. Activity 2 Write a composition describing how do you imagine a Medieval City smelled & looked like.
  • 40. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE 4.2. Urban social groups:  A new social class appeared in the cities: the BOURGEOISIE:  Inhabitants of the “bourgs” (cities).  Formed by artisans & traders.  It was the social class between the peasants & the nobles.  2 distinct groups: • High bourgeoisie  rich merchants, bankers, guild masters… Controlled the government of the cities (ruling class or urban patriciate). • Petite bourgeoisie  smaller merchants, guilds’ officers & apprentices, servants… They were the non-ruling class.  In the cities there were also:  Minority groups (Jews, Muslims) that lived separated in special quarters.  Marginalized people (beggars, disabled, unemployed…)
  • 41. High bourgeoisie VS Petite bourgeoisie
  • 42. Cordoba Jewish & Muslim quarters (“Juderías” y Morerías”) Toledo Alcalá de Henares Madrid Mulhouse (France)
  • 43. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE 4.3. The craftspeople:  Artisans were organized in GUILDS: associations of artisans who practiced the same craft. Each craft had its own guild.  Function of the guilds:  Control the quality & quantity of their production  decided raw materials used, manufacturing processes…  Regulated the prices of the products & the wages of its workers.  so everything cost the same in every shop!!!  Protect their members (helped if your shop was burn down, in case of illness, death…)  3 categories:  Masters  Owners of the workshops.  Officers  Earned a salary. Could become a master if he produced a “masterpiece”.  Apprentices  Learning the craft. Not paid. Lived in the master’s house.
  • 44. MEDIEVAL GUILDS: - Kept the “mysteries” (know-how) of their craft. - Were established by a charter given by the city. - Held the monopoly on trade in its craft within the city: it was forbidden by law for an artisan to run a business if he wasn’t a member of its corresponding guild. - Aimed to reduce free competition.
  • 45. HOME WORKSHOPS: craftmen worked & lived in the same place. Their houses usually had two floors:  GROUND FLOOR: • Workshop • Shop front (open to the street) • Kitchen • Pantry • Courtyard  FIRST FLOOR: • Bedrooms
  • 46. Activity 3 a) What’s the bourgeoisie? Explain its composition. b) Design a social pyramid for the social groups in the High Middle Ages. c) P. 85  exercise 1. d) Explain the structure of a home workshop. e) Define “Guild” & “Master”.
  • 47. MEDIEVAL RELIGION
  • 48. Directions: Copy these questions into your notes. Answer them as we go. First title your page: The Medieval Inquisition • When was the Inquisition? • Define: 1) the Inquisition 2) heretics • What were the 4 parts of the justice system? Explain each of them briefly. • Give two examples of torture/punishment techniques.
  • 49. What was the Inquisition? • The Inquisition began in 1227/31 AD. It lasted about 600 years, until 1834 AD. • Historians divide the Inquisition into two parts: the Medieval (Papal) Inquisition and the Spanish Inquisition.
  • 50. What was the Inquisition? • During the Inquisition, the Church hunted down and persecuted heretics, and the State punished them. • The Inquisition was the tribunal (judicial system) of the Church that went where it wanted, when it wanted, to put whom it wanted on trial.
  • 51. Who did the Inquisition put on trial? • The inquisition tried heretics, who were those that had committed an act of heresy. Heresy is any action that goes against the Church or church beliefs.
  • 52. What the Bible says... • If a prophet, or one who foretells by dreams, appears among you... and he says, ‘Let us follow other gods’... That prophet or dreamer must be put to death... You must purge evil from among you. • If your very own brother entices you, saying, ‘Let us go and worship other gods’... Do not yield to him or listen to him. Show him no pity... You must certainly put him to death. Your hand must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. Stone him to death. • If you hear it said about one of the towns the Lord your God is giving you to live in that wicked men have arisen among you and have let the people of their town astray... Then you must inquire, probe and investigate it thoroughly. And if it is true and it has been proved that his detestable thing has been done among you, you must certainly put to the sword all who live in that town. Destroy in completely, both its people and its livestock. • If anyone does not remain in me, he is like a branch that is thrown away and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and burned.
  • 53. The Justice System Investigation: When the Inquisition arrived in a new town their job was to identify the heretics. Trial: The trial favored the Church. An accused heretic’s best option was to confess “in full”, which meant confessing what they had done and what all the members of their family had done. Torture: The Inquisitors used torture to extract an “in full” confession.
  • 54. The Justice System Punishment: According to the Church, punishments were necessary to save the souls of heretics. But, if punishments were to result in death, they were carried out by the State.
  • 55. Torture and Punishment techniques
  • 56. Torture and Punishment techniques
  • 57. 5. MEDIEVAL RELIGION CRUSADES: military expeditions organized by the Pope & the Christian Kings to expel the Muslims from the Holy Land & stop their expansion.  There were 8 crusades (1095 – 1270).  Crusaders were nobles & knights from Christian kingdoms:  wore crosses on their clothes.  were forgiven for all their sins by the Pope.  After capturing territories from the Muslims, the lands were controlled by military orders and religious organizations formed by Knights (e.g.: Knights Templars, Order of the Holy Sepulchre…)
  • 58. CAUSES (Factors that enabled the Crusades to happen) • Turks had conquered the Holy Land (Jerusalem). • People were very naive (they believed everything that the church said). • The Pope didn’t like the division of Christianity since the East-West Schism of 1054 (orthodox VS catholic) and he wanted to reunify them. • Many unemployed knights (only the 1st son inherited land;Vikings had stopped their invasions...) who were bored and needed something to do and a way of achieving land. CONSECUENCES • TERRITORIALLY: they weren’t successful because Christians didn’t conquer the Holy Land. • However, they had important ECONOMIC & SOCIAL INFLUENCE: • Trade between the East & the West increased. • People became less trustful of the church. • Changes in mentality & way of life (fashion, food, spices, manners, weapons, architecture…).
  • 59. 5. MEDIEVAL CULTURE:  Early Middle Ages  education only interested the clergy and took place in monasteries.  High Middle Ages  the development of cities & trade increased the interest in education of the nobility & bourgeoisie to be able to do business & govern cities. There were 2 educational institutions:  CATHEDRAL SCHOOLS  At the beginning: they taught the future clergy.  Later on: they also taught lay students (from the nobility or high bourgeoisie) who wanted to be prepared for high position in city governments.  UNIVERSITIES  In the 12th Century many Cathedral Schools evolved into universities due to the will of learning without the Church’s control.  They were formed as guilds of learners known as “Universitas magistrorum et scholarium” which means “Corporation of masters & students”.  Taught in Latin.  Important medieval universities: Paris, Oxford, Bolonia, Salamanca…
  • 60. Medieval manuscript showing a meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. Oxford University
  • 61. The international language of learning during the Middle Ages was LATIN. Evidence of this is the fact that the quarter where the University of Paris (Collège de Sorbonne) was located is known as the “Latin Quarter”
  • 62. Activity 4 Why did the nobility & clergy began to be interested in education in the High Middle Ages? b) What was the main aim of Cathedral Schools? c) Explain the origin of Universities: a)  Why were they formed?  How were they formed?  Name 2 examples of universities born in the Middle Ages.. What did “Universitas magistrorum et scholarium” meant? e) What was the international language of learning used in all medieval universities? d)
  • 63. LATE MIDDLE AGES 14-15th Centuries
  • 64. 7. CRISIS OF THE 14th CENTURY During the 14th Century (Later Middle Ages) Europe suffered an important crisis. It marked a clear end to the earlier period of growth and prosperity between the 11th and the 13th centuries (High Middle Ages).
  • 65. CAUSES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS WARS FAMINE BLACK DEATH - Epidemic of the bubonic plague. England VS France (Hundred Years' War 1337-1475). Between feudal lords and kings. Climate changes Reduced harvests Less food Malnutrition - Killed ⅓ of European population (1348-52). - Origined in Asia; spread along the trade routes. - Factors: lack of hygiene, medicines, information... - Symptoms: buboes (lumps), black marks & fever. - Doctors were unable to control the disease. They used bleeding treatment to try to treat it. - Though it was spread by rats, people believed it was a punishment from God. Some hit themselves with leather whips to show repentance (flagellants).
  • 66. Hundred Years’ War (1337–1475) FRANCE (Valois dynasty) VS ENGLAND (Plantagenet/Anjou dynasty)
  • 67. Great Famine of 1315–1317 Illuminated manuscript about the Apocalypse in a Bible of the 14th Century. The “Death” sits on lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine ("Fames") points to her hungry mouth.
  • 68. The spread of the Black Death
  • 69. Symptoms of the plague
  • 70. ♫♫ Ring Around the Rosy ♫♫
  • 71. Consequences of the Black Death      Families were torn apart and villages deserted. Businesses collapsed and states were left bankrupt by loss of taxes. There was a strengthened belief in God, but an increased skepticism about the established Church. The shortage of labor shifted the balance of power between the lords and their tenants. Authority and tradition were no longer accepted with out question.
  • 72. CONSEQUENCES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS DROP IN POPULATION 1300: 80 million people 1400: 45 million people ECONOMIC RECESSION Caused by: - Fall in agricultural production (prices raised). - Less craftwork & trade due to a decrease in the demand for manufactured products (less population, less demand). SOCIAL CONFLICTS In the countryside: less people  lords received less feudal fees  lords increased taxes  peasants rebelled against the landowners. In the cities: the poorer people attacked: - The wealthier classes (urban patriciate) in demand of jobs, higher wages, positions in the administration... - Jews: due to a rumour that said that they had caused the Black Death by poisoning the water wells.
  • 73. Population began to grow again Agriculture, craftsmanship & trade recovered due to greater demand Search for new trade routes (fall of Constatinople, 1453) led to geographical discoveries New mentality (humanism) led to the European Renaissance Kings gained control over the feudal lords 15th Century recovery

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