1. Unit 5
2. Chronology of the Middle Ages
476 (fall of the WRE)
1453 (fall of Constantinople) or
1492 (discovery of America)
• 5 – 10th
• 11 – 13th
• 14 – 15th
3. Chronology of the Middle Ages
Alta Edad Media (5 – 10th Century)
Baja Edad Media (11-15th Century)
• Plena Edad Media (11 – 13th Century)
• Crisis de la Edad Media (14 – 15th Century)
4. Activity 1
When did the Middle Ages start & end?
Link each period of the Middle Ages with
Late Middle Ages
11 - 13th centuries.
5 - 10th centuries.
High Middle Ages
14 - 15th centuries.
Early Middle Ages
6. General characteristics
It was a time of prosperity & change in Europe.
(or middle class)
· Gothic art
7. 1.1. A patchwork of states (geography)
Europe was still a mosaic of small kingdoms.
8. Most important states  France & the Holy Roman Empire.
Divided into feudal territories (counties, duchies…)
9. Normans (Vikings) settled in several areas:
• North of France (Duchy of Normandy)
• South of Italy
Stop attacks (11th century)  PEACE & STABILITY FOR EUROPE!!!
10. Muslims fought for territories in the south (Iberian
Peninsula) & east (Byzantine Empire).
11. 1.2. Political changes
a) CONSOLIDATION OF THE ROYAL POWER:
 Kings power increased (VS nobles) thanks to the economical
support of the new social class (bourgeoisie) that emerged in
 In exchange kings gave privileges to the cities:
 Right to govern themselves (“charters”).
 Allow them to organize trade fairs.
b) ORIGIN OF PARLIAMENTS:
 The Royal Council (nobles & clergy) was replaced by a new
assembly that included nobles, clergy & city representatives.
Finally “normal” people were politically represented!!!
 Function: advise the king & pass new laws on taxation.
 Different names for this assembly:
 Parliament  England
 Cortes  Spain
 États généraux  France
12. A city charter (also known as town charter or municipal charter) is a
legal document that gives to a settlement and its inhabitants (the
bourgeois – “burgueses”) the right to govern themselves independently.
Cities were "free", in the sense that they were directly protected by
the king, and were not part of a feudal fief.
13. City charter of Bilbao.
In Spanish we call the “Carta Puebla”, “Fuero” or “Carta de Privilegios”.
14. Parliaments with
representatives of the:
Page 78: exercises 2, 3 & 4.
16. 2. AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION
Economy grew thanks to the agricultural progress.
2.1. CAUSES: Agriculture progressed due to
a) Technological innovations that happened in the 11th century:
 Three-field crop rotation (instead of the two-year rotation).
 Mouldboard plough (instead of the Roman plough).
 Other innovations:
• Horse collar (instead of yoke)
• Iron horseshoes to protect horses’ hooves.
• Expansion of water mills (instead of windmills).
b) New areas of land were cleared to cultivate them:
 Forests were cut down (deforestation)
 Wetlands were dried
 Polders were build (Netherlands)
17. Three-field crop rotation
(instead of the two-year
 Also known as triennial rotation.
 Land divided in 3 parts:
• Pulses (legumbres) or oats
• Left fallow
 It reduced the amount of
18. Mouldboard plough:
 Heavier, made deeper holes.
 Allowed more air into the soil, so it was more productive.
 Supported by wheels.
 Pulled by horses, that moved faster than oxen.
19. Horse collar (instead of yoke).
 Distributes the load better, and its made with leather & filled
with straw  avoid injuries.
 Enables the horse to use its full strength when pulling.
20. Water mills (instead of windmills).
 Used to grind grain into cereals.
 It was more productive since it
didn’t depend on the weather.
21. However, water mills weren’t invented in the High Middle
Ages… They were already used in the Ancient Period!!
We have some examples of Roman water mills in Spain, like the
“Albolafia” water mill (Córdoba).
What’s true is that during the High Middle Ages the use of
water mills spread a lot! For example in England...:
• 11th century  6,000 water mills
• 14th century  10,000 - 15,000 water mills
 Protected horses’ hooves.
 It’s not clear if it was
invented in the High
Middle Ages, but in this
period its use spread a lot
23. Dutch polders.
 Land was reclaimed from the
sea using dikes.
24. 2. AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION
Improved techniques & more land being
Incease in production
Improvement in diet & life conditions
- 11th Cent.  36 mill.
- 14th Cent.  80 mill.
Increase in trade
Migrations from the countryside to the
80: exercises 1, 2 & 3.
were the consequences of the
Help yourself with the diagram you’ve copied, but you
have to explain it with your own words, writing a full
paragraph, using full sentences!!!
26. 3. THE URBAN RENAISSANCE
In the 11th century old Roman cities were revived & new cities
• Why? Because of the increase in agricultural production  each fief
produced more food than it needed so they could sell the extra food
(agricultural surplus) in the markets.
• Where? Around the markets that appeared:
• Near castles & monasteries (wealthy people!)
• Busy crossroads
• Sea harbours
27. A good example of a
medieval city is Prague!!!
28. • Characteristics?
• Main professions: craftwork & trade.
• Markets were held once a week &
trade fairs once a year (attracted
merchants from far places).
• Port cities
 to exchange
29. • How were cities governed?
• At the beginning  they were controlled by the feudal lord
(noble/monastery) that owned the land where the city was established.
• Later on  when the king gave a “charter” to a city, it began to be
governed by itself.
 “Charter”: document that gave the city
the right to govern itself and it established
its rights & privileges.
 Cities were governed by a Community
Council (Concejo Municipal):
‐ Its members were chosen by
‐ It was presided by a mayor.
‐ They met in the town hall.
‐ Over time the government of
the cities was in the hands of
the wealthiest families in the
city: the urban patriciate.
30. Medieval town halls in
Brussels & Leuven
82: exercise 1, 2 & 3.
were the main economic activities
(jobs) developed in the cities?
the following words:
◦ Community Council
◦ Town hall
32. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE
4.1. Daily life in Medieval cities
• Cities weren’t too big (<50,000).
• Usually walled & organized around a
main square, where the cathedral &
town hall were generally located.
• Crowded, noisy & dirty places:
• Artisans working & selling their products.
• Jesters, minstrels & troubadours
• Animals running about.
• Beggars begging.
• Narrow, unpaved streets.
• Rubbish was thrown out of the window.
• They were important cultural centres
(schools & universities).
33. Medieval cities were usually walled. When the city
grew too much, they often built a new wall further
JESTERS were in charge of making people laugh.
They had a wide variety of skills which could include
acrobatics, juggling, magic, songs, music...
35. MINSTRELS (or JONGLEUR) & TROBADOURS
were in charge of entertaining people. They were
MINSTRELS: they memorized
& recited poems, but didn’t
composed them. They came
from lower social classes and
their role wasn’t as refined as
TROUBADOUR: they were
poet-musicians. They composed
poems (romances) about love,
heroes & chivalry that were
recited as poems set to music.
They came from upper classes.
36. NARROW MEDIEVAL
Medieval street in
37. Medieval cities were quite disgusting!! Mud, animas &
human excrements were all around the place!!
VIDEO: Filthy Medieval London
38. Beggars, people drinking in the taverns…
39. Activity 2
Write a composition describing
how do you imagine a Medieval City
smelled & looked like.
40. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE
4.2. Urban social groups:
 A new social class appeared in the cities: the BOURGEOISIE:
 Inhabitants of the “bourgs” (cities).
 Formed by artisans & traders.
 It was the social class between the peasants & the nobles.
 2 distinct groups:
• High bourgeoisie  rich merchants, bankers, guild masters… Controlled
the government of the cities (ruling class or urban patriciate).
• Petite bourgeoisie  smaller merchants, guilds’ officers & apprentices,
servants… They were the non-ruling class.
 In the cities there were also:
 Minority groups (Jews, Muslims) that lived separated in special quarters.
 Marginalized people (beggars, disabled, unemployed…)
41. High bourgeoisie
Jewish & Muslim quarters
(“Juderías” y Morerías”)
Alcalá de Henares
43. 4. SOCIETY & DAILY LIFE
4.3. The craftspeople:
 Artisans were organized in GUILDS: associations of artisans who
practiced the same craft. Each craft had its own guild.
 Function of the guilds:
 Control the quality & quantity of their production  decided raw
materials used, manufacturing processes…
 Regulated the prices of the products & the wages of its workers.  so
everything cost the same in every shop!!!
 Protect their members (helped if your shop was burn down, in case of
 3 categories:
 Masters  Owners of the workshops.
 Officers  Earned a salary. Could become a master if he produced a
 Apprentices  Learning the craft. Not paid. Lived in the master’s house.
44. MEDIEVAL GUILDS:
- Kept the “mysteries” (know-how) of their craft.
- Were established by a charter given by the city.
- Held the monopoly on trade in its craft within the city: it
was forbidden by law for an artisan to run a business if he
wasn’t a member of its corresponding guild.
- Aimed to reduce free competition.
45. HOME WORKSHOPS: craftmen worked & lived in the same
place. Their houses usually had two floors:
 GROUND FLOOR:
• Shop front
(open to the
 FIRST FLOOR:
46. Activity 3
What’s the bourgeoisie? Explain its
Design a social pyramid for the social
groups in the High Middle Ages.
P. 85  exercise 1.
Explain the structure of a home
Define “Guild” & “Master”.
48. Directions: Copy these questions into your
notes. Answer them as we go.
First title your page: The Medieval Inquisition
• When was the Inquisition?
• Define: 1) the Inquisition
• What were the 4 parts of the justice system?
Explain each of them briefly.
• Give two examples of torture/punishment
49. What was the Inquisition?
• The Inquisition began
in 1227/31 AD. It
lasted about 600
years, until 1834 AD.
• Historians divide the
Inquisition into two
parts: the Medieval
and the Spanish
50. What was the Inquisition?
• During the Inquisition, the Church hunted down and
persecuted heretics, and the State punished them.
• The Inquisition was the tribunal (judicial system) of the
Church that went where it wanted, when it wanted, to
put whom it wanted on trial.
51. Who did the Inquisition put on trial?
• The inquisition tried
heretics, who were
those that had
committed an act of
heresy. Heresy is any
action that goes
against the Church
or church beliefs.
52. What the Bible says...
• If a prophet, or one who foretells by dreams, appears among you... and
he says, ‘Let us follow other gods’... That prophet or dreamer must be
put to death... You must purge evil from among you.
• If your very own brother entices you, saying, ‘Let us go and worship
other gods’... Do not yield to him or listen to him. Show him no pity...
You must certainly put him to death. Your hand must be the first in
putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. Stone him to
• If you hear it said about one of the towns the Lord your God is giving
you to live in that wicked men have arisen among you and have let the
people of their town astray... Then you must inquire, probe and
investigate it thoroughly. And if it is true and it has been proved that his
detestable thing has been done among you, you must certainly put to
the sword all who live in that town. Destroy in completely, both its
people and its livestock.
• If anyone does not remain in me, he is like a branch that is thrown away
and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and
53. The Justice System
arrived in a new
town their job
was to identify
Trial: The trial favored the Church. An
accused heretic’s best option was to
confess “in full”, which meant confessing
what they had done and what all the
members of their family had done.
Torture: The Inquisitors
used torture to extract
an “in full” confession.
54. The Justice System
to the Church,
necessary to save the
souls of heretics. But,
if punishments were
to result in death,
they were carried out
by the State.
55. Torture and Punishment techniques
56. Torture and Punishment techniques
57. 5. MEDIEVAL RELIGION
CRUSADES: military expeditions organized by the
Pope & the Christian Kings to expel the Muslims from
the Holy Land & stop their expansion.
 There were 8 crusades (1095 – 1270).
 Crusaders were nobles & knights from Christian kingdoms:
 wore crosses on their clothes.
 were forgiven for all their sins by the Pope.
 After capturing territories from the Muslims, the lands were
controlled by military orders and religious organizations
formed by Knights (e.g.: Knights Templars, Order of the
(Factors that enabled the Crusades to happen)
• Turks had conquered the Holy Land
• People were very naive (they believed
everything that the church said).
• The Pope didn’t like the division of
Christianity since the East-West
Schism of 1054 (orthodox VS
catholic) and he wanted to reunify
• Many unemployed knights (only the
1st son inherited land;Vikings had
stopped their invasions...) who were
bored and needed something to do
and a way of achieving land.
• TERRITORIALLY: they weren’t
successful because Christians
didn’t conquer the Holy Land.
• However, they had important
ECONOMIC & SOCIAL
• Trade between the East & the
• People became less trustful of
• Changes in mentality & way
of life (fashion, food, spices,
59. 5. MEDIEVAL CULTURE:
Early Middle Ages  education only interested the clergy and took
place in monasteries.
High Middle Ages  the development of cities & trade increased the
interest in education of the nobility & bourgeoisie to be able to do
business & govern cities. There were 2 educational institutions:
 CATHEDRAL SCHOOLS
 At the beginning: they taught the future clergy.
 Later on: they also taught lay students (from the nobility or high bourgeoisie)
who wanted to be prepared for high position in city governments.
 In the 12th Century many Cathedral Schools evolved into universities due to
the will of learning without the Church’s control.
 They were formed as guilds of learners known as “Universitas magistrorum et
scholarium” which means “Corporation of masters & students”.
 Taught in Latin.
 Important medieval universities: Paris, Oxford, Bolonia, Salamanca…
60. Medieval manuscript
showing a meeting of
doctors at the
University of Paris.
61. The international
the Middle Ages
Evidence of this is the
fact that the quarter
where the University of
Paris (Collège de
Sorbonne) was located is
known as the
62. Activity 4
Why did the nobility & clergy began to be
interested in education in the High Middle Ages?
b) What was the main aim of Cathedral Schools?
c) Explain the origin of Universities:
 Why were they formed?
 How were they formed?
 Name 2 examples of universities born in the Middle
What did “Universitas magistrorum et scholarium”
e) What was the international language of learning
used in all medieval universities?
64. 7. CRISIS OF THE 14th CENTURY
During the 14th Century (Later Middle Ages) Europe
suffered an important crisis. It marked a clear end to the
earlier period of growth and prosperity between the 11th
and the 13th centuries (High Middle Ages).
65. CAUSES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS
- Epidemic of the bubonic plague.
- Killed ⅓ of European population (1348-52).
- Origined in Asia; spread along the trade routes.
- Factors: lack of hygiene, medicines,
- Symptoms: buboes (lumps), black marks & fever.
- Doctors were unable to control the disease. They
used bleeding treatment to try to treat it.
- Though it was spread by rats, people believed it
was a punishment from God. Some hit themselves
with leather whips to show repentance
66. Hundred Years’ War (1337–1475)
67. Great Famine
about the Apocalypse in a
Bible of the 14th Century.
The “Death” sits on lion
whose long tail ends in a
ball of flame (Hell).
Famine ("Fames") points
to her hungry mouth.
68. The spread of the
69. Symptoms of the plague
70. ♫♫ Ring Around the Rosy ♫♫
71. Consequences of the
Families were torn apart and
Businesses collapsed and states were left
bankrupt by loss of taxes.
There was a strengthened belief in God, but an
increased skepticism about the established
The shortage of labor shifted the balance of
power between the lords and their tenants.
Authority and tradition were no longer
accepted with out question.
72. CONSEQUENCES OF THE 14th CENTURY CRISIS
1300: 80 million
1400: 45 million
- Fall in agricultural
- Less craftwork &
trade due to a
decrease in the
In the countryside:
less people  lords received less
feudal fees  lords increased
taxes  peasants rebelled
against the landowners.
In the cities: the poorer people
- The wealthier classes (urban
patriciate) in demand of jobs,
higher wages, positions in the
- Jews: due to a rumour that said
that they had caused the Black
Death by poisoning the water
routes (fall of
led to the