U4&6. middle ages in the iberian peninsula

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U4&6. middle ages in the iberian peninsula

  1. 1. 2º ESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  2. 2. 1st Millennium BC PRE-ROMAN PEOPLE: - 1st) Colonisers (Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians) & Tartessians. - 2nd) Iberians & Celts. 218 BC – 476 AD ROMAN HISPANIA 476 – 711 VISIGOTH KINGDOM 711 – 1492 Coexistence of: - AL-ANDALUS (south) - CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (north)
  3. 3.  711 - 1492: some parts of the Iberian Peninsula were ruled by the Moors and other parts by the Christians. The territories ruled by each of them varied along history:
  4. 4.  711-722: The Moors conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula. The territory under their control is known as Al-Andalus.  722-1492: Christian kingdoms of the north of the Iberian Peninsula fought to regain control over the territories ruled by the Moors. This historical process which lasted over 7 centuries is known as the “Reconquista”.
  5. 5. ACTIVITY 1: Explain with your own words the political situation in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492.
  6. 6. EUROPE IBERIAN.PEN. (Al-Andalus area) 8th Century 9th Century 10th Century 11th Century MOORSBEGINCONQUEST700 800 900 1000 1100 711 1031 DESINTEGRATIONOFTHECALIPHATE. 1stTAIFAS 756 ABDERRAMANI.BEINNINGOF INDEPENDENTEMIRATE CALIPHATEOFCORDOBA 929 INDEPENDENT EMIRATE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA DEPENDENT EMIRATE 732 BATTLEOFPOITIERS (MuslimsVSFranks,withCharles MartelasMayorofPalace. STARTCAROLINGIAN DINASTY(PippintheShort) 751 768 CHARLEMAGNE CHARLEMAGNEDIES 814 843 TREATYOFVERDUN.UNITY LOSS FEUDALISM CAROLINGIANSMEROVINGIANS
  7. 7. 11th Century 12th Century 13th Century 14th Century 15th Century 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1031 DISINTEGRATIONOFTHECALIPHATE.1STTAIFAS CAPTUREOFTOLEDO.ARRIVALOFTHEALMORAVIDS 1085 ALMORAVID EMPIRE 1stTAIFAS 1145 DISINTIGRATIONOFTHEEMPIRE.2NDTAIFAS 2ndTAIFAS ALMOHAD EMPIRE ALMOHADSUNIFYAL-ANDALUS 1172 1212 BATTLENAVASDETOLOSA. 3rdTAIFAS 1265 NASRID KINGDOM OF GRANADA 1492 CAPTUREOFGRANADABYTHECATHOLICMONARCHS CHRISTIANCONQUERALLTHETAIFASEXCEPTGRANADA HIGH MIDDLE AGES (Renaissance of cities) LATE MIDDLE AGES
  8. 8. Instead of studying these units chronologically (as in the book), we are going to study them territorially. So…  1st  We’ll study the Muslim area: AL-ANDALUS:  Unit 4: pages 62-67  Unit 6: pages 98-101  2nd  We’ll study the Christian area: CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS:  Unit 4: pages 68-71  Unit 6: pages 102-109
  9. 9. ‫األندلس‬ • Unit 4: pages 62-67 • Unit 6: pages 98-101
  10. 10. DEPENDENT EMIRATE 711-756 INDEPENDENT EMIRATE 756-929 CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA 929-1031 TAIFAS & NORTH- AFRICAN RULERS 1031 - 1265 NASRID KINGDOM OF GRANADA 1265 - 1492  Early 8th century: Muslims conquered most of the Iberian Pen. They called this territory Al-Andalus.  We can distinguish different periods in the history of Al-Andalus:
  11. 11. CALIPHATE CHRON OLOGY WHO WHERE THE CALIPHS? CAPITAL CONQUESTS / EXTENSION ORTHODOX 632 - 661 Family and closest friends of Muhammad. Medina (Saudi Arabia) Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, Mesopotamia and Persia (Irak and Iran). UMAYYAD 661 - 750 Ummayad family Damascus (Syria) Biggest extension of the empire: WEST  North of Africa, Iberian Pen. EAST  India and border of China. ABBASID 750 - 1258 Abbasid family Baghdad (Iraq) The expansion ended (only some minor conquests: Crete and Sicily). In 1258 the Mongolians conquered Baghdad. Remembering the Islamic Empire
  12. 12. VIDEO ABOUT THE CONQUEST ACTIVITY 2: answer the questions as you watch the video about the Muslim conquest of the iberian peninsula a) What tribe of indigenous people from Northern Africa did the Islamic Empire convert? b) What soldiers of the Islamic Empire were sent to invade the Iberian Peninsula: the Berbers, the Arabs, or both? c) What Berber lead the Islamic Army in the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula? d) When did Islam crossed the Strait of Gibraltar? How many years had passed since the birth of this religion? e) What civilization did the Islamic Army defeat in their first battle in the Iberian Peninsula? Who was the leader of this civilization? What is the name of the battle?
  13. 13.  711: Muslim army led by the general Tarik crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to plunder the area.  Army formed by Arabs but mostly Berbers.  Visigoth king Don Rodrigo was defeated & killed the at the battle of Guadalete.  Easy victory  encouraged them to advance further. In 4 years they had conquered most of the Peninsula. This rapid conquest was possible because of:  Superior power of the Muslim army  Visigoths’ political conflicts (Don Rodrigo VS Witiza’s followers)  Support that Muslims received from some Jews and Visigoth nobles that agreed to surrender in exchange for being allowed to keep their properties. VIDEO ABOUT THE CONQUEST
  14. 14. Don Rodrigo, the last Visigoth king, died in the Battle of Guadalete (711)
  15. 15. 711 712 715 Asturias 722 Umayyads Umayyads Umayyads Umayyads
  16. 16.  After the conquest, Al-Andalus became a DEPENDENT EMIRATE: kora (province) that depends politically & religiously on the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus. The capital of the emirate was Córdoba. VIDEO ABOUT THE CONQUEST
  17. 17.  722: Don Pelayo (Visigoth noble) led a revolt in Asturias and defeated the Muslims in the battle of Covadonga. This battle is taken as the beginning of the “Reconquista”. Don Pelayo and the Battle of Covadonga (722), beginning of the RECONQUISTA.
  18. 18. Monument to Don Pelayo in Covadonga (Asturias) The KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS was the first Christian Kingdom of the North of Spain after the beginning of the RECONQUISTA
  19. 19. ACTIVITY 3: Answer to the following questions a) Define:  Tarik  Berbers  Don Rodrigo  Don Pelayo  Emirate b) Explain the beginning of “La Reconquista”.
  20. 20. Do you remember…?? In Arabia, in 750, the Abbasid dynasty deposed the Umayyads, killing all of them. But one of them achieved to escape: ABDERRAMAN I!!!
  21. 21.  756: escaping from the Abbasids, the Umayyad prince Abderraman I arrived in the Iberian Peninsula and established the INDEPENDENT EMIRATE.  He deposed the emir (Yusuf) taking advantage of the local tensions between Arabs & Berbers.  It was:  Politically independent  But it still recognized the religious authority of the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad.  During this period Al-Andalus had to confront several conflicts:  Against the Christian Kingdoms  advancing from the North.  Against the Franks  since Charlemagne conquered Girona (785) and Barcelona (801), establishing the Spanish March.  Against the Muladi rebellion  Iberians converted to Islam, who felt discriminated.
  22. 22.  929: Abderraman III (emir since 912) proclaimed himself Caliph, leading to a political & religious independence from the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. His reign was the period of greatest splendour of Al-Andalus:  He ended internal rebellions.  Controlled the expansion of the Christians in the north, which had to pay tributes to the Muslims so they wouldn't be attacked.  Cordoba became the most prosperous capital in the West.
  23. 23.  The prosperity continued under other caliphs like Hisham II. He was only 10 years old when he became caliph, so the real power was in hands of his regent and vizier Almanzor, who achieved great successes over the Christian Kingdoms (eg: plunders of Santiago, Barcelona…).
  24. 24.  After Almanzor's death (1002) the caliphate fell into crisis due to a civil war between... Followers of Almanzor’s son Followers of Hisham II V.S. From 1031 onwards, Al-Andalus suffered a great instability  1031: the governors of the provinces (koras) declared their independence  the Caliphate of Cordoba was disintegrated into 28 small independent Muslim kingdoms called “Taifas”.
  25. 25. ACTIVITY 4: Answer to the following questions a) Define:  Abderraman I  Abderraman III  Almanzor  Caliphate  Hispanic March b) Explain what happened to the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031 and why.
  26. 26. ACTIVITY 5: Copy & fill in the chart Al-Andalus: historical periods (8th – 11th Century) PERIOD CHRON OLOGY MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE? RELIGIOUS INDEPENDENCE? AL-ANDALUS IS GOVERNED BY A… DEPENDENT EMIRATE INDEPENDENT EMIRATE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA
  27. 27. 1) Fill in the column “CHRONOLOGY” by looking for the corresponding dates in your book. 2) Fill in the column “MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS” by placing each statement in the corresponding box!! You have to put 2 in each box. • Abderraman III declares religious independence of Baghdad. Golden age: end internal rebellions, control of Christian Kingdoms, prosperity... • Visigoths defeated at the battle of Guadalete (711). Al-Andalus becomes a dependent emirate of the Caliphate of Damascus. • Abderraman I, only survivor of the Umayyads, arrives in Al- Andalus and declares himself an independent emir. • Beginning of the Reconquista at the battle of Covadonga (722). • Conflicts against: Christians of the North, Franks & Muladi rebellion. • Almanzor (vizier of Hishan II) achieves great successes over the Christian Kingdoms. After his death: disintegration of Caliphate into 28 independent kingdoms called Taifas.
  28. 28. 3) Fill in the columns “POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE?” & “RELIGIOUS INDEPENDECE?” answering YES or NO. 4) Fill in the column “AL-ANDALUS IS GOVERNED BY A…” using the following options: • Emir (with political power, but recognizes the religious authority of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad) • Caliph (with political and religious power) • Emir (without political or religious power)
  29. 29.  2nd) Despite the parias, the Reconquista continued and the Christians (Alfonso VI, king of CyL) conquered the Taifa of Toledo in 1085. This conquest was seen by the Muslims as the “beginning of the end” of Al-Andalus  to avoid it, the Taifas asked for help to the Muslim Empire that was ruling in the North of Africa: THE ALMORAVID EMPIRE.  The Taifas competed among themselves for territory & cultural prestige. This made them very weak, and the Christians exploited this weakness:  1st) Took tributes (“parias”) from the Taifas.  1031: the Caliphate of Cordoba had disintegrated into 28 TAIFAS  small independent Muslim kingdoms.
  30. 30.  In 1085 the Almoravids came to the Peninsula and defeated the Christians at the Battle of Sagrajas (1086).  They reunified Al-Andalus again.  Their rigidness led them to an internal crisis in 1145:  In N. Africa  they were deposed by a new dynasty, the Almohads  In Al-Andalus  it disintegrated again and formed the 2nd TAIFAS.
  31. 31.  The koras of Al-Andalus remained independent until 1172, when they were reunified again by another north- African Empire: THE ALMOHADS.
  32. 32.  1172: the Almohads reunified Al-Andalus again.  1195: Battle of Alarcos  the Almohads defeated Alfonso VIII (K.Castilla), stopping the Reconquista for a while.  1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa  the Almohads were defeated by the Christians. This battle had 2 consequences:  Christians reached the Valley of Guadalquivir.  Al-Andalus was disintegrated again into the 3rd TAIFAS.
  33. 33. BATTLE OF LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA (JAEN, 1212) It was a decisive turning point in the Reconquista, since it enabled the Christians to reach the Valley of Guadalquivir. In the following 50 years they were able to reduce Al-Andalus to Granada.
  34. 34.  They were gradually conquered by the Christians:  Crown of Castilla: Córdoba, Jaen, Sevilla, Cadiz & Murcia.  Crown of Aragón: Mallorca, Valencia.  1265: Al-Andalus reduced to the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada. Iberian Peninsula in 1265
  35. 35.  Survived for more than 200 years due to:  The mountainous relief and building of many fortresses.  Their location, which enabled them to develop a rich trade.  Support of Muslims from N.Africa  Payment of “parias” to the Kings of Castilla.
  36. 36.  1492: after a 10-years war, the Catholic Monarchs captured Granada. The Reconquista had finished!!
  37. 37. BOABDIL EL CHICO, the last Mulsim king of Al-Andalus. Scenes of the series “Isabel” (RTVE): • Surrender of Granada. • El suspiro del moro.
  38. 38. ACTIVITY 6: Answer to the following questions a) Define:  Parias  Almoravids  Almohads b) Explain why in 1085 the kings of the Taifas asked for help to the Almoravids. c) Explain the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, why was it important and what happened to Al- Andalus after it. d) Why was the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada able to resist the Christians for over 200 years? Who was the last Muslim king of Al-Andalus?
  39. 39. ACTIVITY 7: fill in the timeline of Al-Andalus including the events that took place in the following years:  711  722  756  929  1031  1085  1086  1145  1172  1195  1212  1265  1492
  40. 40. Governmental organization The government of al-Andalus changed from being an emirate to a caliphate. Emirate Caliphate
  41. 41. Al-Andalus was divided into 6 regions (“nabiya”). Each region was subdivided into several provinces called “koras”. Interior regions Border regions (marches) Al-Garb Al-Tagr al-Ala (Superior march. Capital: Zaragoza) Al-Musata Al-Tagr al-Awsat (Intermediate march. Capital: Toledo) Al-Xarq Al-Tagr al-Adna (Inferior march. Capital: Merida) Territorial organization
  42. 42. Territorial organization Each kora had a political administrator, the wali, and a judge, the kadi. An army made up of essentially mercenaries was key to controlling the territory.
  43. 43. Trade was very profitable due to the strategic location of al- Andalus, lying between Africa and Europe. The basis of the economy was agriculture. The climate was very dry. The products that the Muslims brought with them from the East, such as oranges, cotton, rice and saffron, required more water. So they had to build good irrigation systems. They built waterwheels in the rivers that dumped the water into channels, which carried the water to the town and fields. This made agriculture much more productive. Economy
  44. 44. What groups existed in their diverse society? Society in Al-Andalus
  45. 45. The Arabs The Arabs in al-Andalus... • Were Muslims (like the Berbers). • Were the minority. There were not many Arabs, but they had most of the privileges. • Were given the best land. • Occupied the highest positions in administration and the army. • Were the aristocracy.
  46. 46. The Berbers The Berbers in al-Andalus... • Were Muslims (like the Arabs). They were a Muslim group from Northern Africa. • Were the majority. There were many Berbers, but they had few privileges. • Were the ordinary soldiers in the Muslim Army. The Berbers were the soldiers who led the conquest.
  47. 47. Muladies The Muladies in al-Andalus... • Were Christian converts to Islam. • Many people converted so they eventually became the majority of the population. • Some converted because Muslims paid less taxes than non-Muslims.
  48. 48. The Mozarabs in al-Andalus... • Were Christians who kept their religion and culture. • At first, some Christians had important jobs in the government, but gradually they lost influence. Mozarabs
  49. 49. The Jews in al-Andalus... • Were mostly merchants. • They played an important role in the economy of al-Andalus. Jews
  50. 50. In the beginning, the Muslim rulers treated the Christians and Jews quite well, so most of them stayed in al-Andalus. The conflicts that took place were not just between Muslims and Christians: sometimes the Berbers rebelled against the Arabs. Later, there was less tolerance of non-Muslims so Christians and Jews escaped to the Christian kingdoms in the north.
  51. 51. ACTIVITY 8: Answer to the following questions a) Question 1 from the book. b) What groups lived in Hispania before the Muslim invasion in 711? c) What social groups in al-Andalus were Muslims? d) Draw a social pyramid to represent the society of al-Andalus. Make sure your pyramid illustrates the power of the group and the size of the group.
  52. 52. • Unit 4: pages 68-71 • Unit 6: pages 102-109
  53. 53.  Early 8th century: some Christians resisted the Muslim conquest in mountainous areas in the north (Cantabrian Mts. & Pyrenees).  Gradually these areas developed into independent kingdoms known as the CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS.
  54. 54. Evolution of the Christian kingdoms
  55. 55.  We can distinguish two areas where independent Christian Kingdoms appeared:  CANTABRIAN AREA:  Kingdom of Asturias (later Kingdom of Leon)  County of Castilla (later Kingdom of Castilla)  PYRENEAN AREA:  Kingdom of Pamplona (later Kingdom of Navarra)  County of Aragón (later Kingdom of Aragón)  Catalan Counties 1037: unified  Kingdom of Castilla y León
  56. 56. REMEMBER!!!!  722: Don Pelayo defeated the Muslims at the battle of Covadonga., establishing the first Christian Kingdom:  Kingdom of Asturias.  Later on, one of its counties became independent:  Kingdom of Castilla
  57. 57.  It was created after the battle of Covadonga (722), when Don Pelayo and the local inhabitants (Astures) defeated the Muslims. The capital was established in Oviedo.  Early 10th Century: the kingdom had expanded until the Duero River, so to have a better control over the territory the capital was moved to León. From then on it was known as the Kingdom of León.  End 10th century the expansion stopped due to Almanzor’s plunder campaigns. Asturias 722
  58. 58. (Don Pelayo & Alfonso I)
  59. 59.  The Kingdom of Asturias was frequently attacked by the Muslims through its eastern border. For that reason, they established several counties to defend the kingdom. They were ruled by counts, and many castles where built. Can you guess why is it called “Castilla”!!?!?!  10th Century: these counties where unified by the count Fernán Gonzalez.  1030: Castilla was unified with the Kingdom of Pamplona. (marriage: Sancho III el Mayor of Pamplona & Fernan Gonzalez’s great-granddaughter)  1035: Castilla was inherited by Fernando I, so it became an independent kingdom.  1037: Fernando I defeated the king of León (Bermudo III) and formed the Kingdom of Castilla y León.
  60. 60. The Kingdom of Castilla has its origin in a group of counties created in the eastern border of the Kingdom of Asturias to prevent Muslim’s attacks. Fernán González unified them in 931.
  61. 61. 1035: when Sancho III el Mayor died, he divided the territories of the Kingdom of Pamplona among his sons. The county of Castilla was inherited by Fernando I. 1037: Fernando I unified Castilla & León (Kingdom of Castilla & León) by defeating the king of Leon (Bermudo III).
  62. 62. REMEMBER!!!!  732: Charles Martel defeated the Muslims at the battle of Poitiers.  By the beginning of the 9th Century Charlemagne had conquered Girona (785) & Barcelona (801), so all along the Pyrenees he established the Spanish March, which was formed by several counties that were the origin of three Christian Kingdoms:  Kingdom of Pamplona  Kingdom of Aragón  Catalan Counties
  63. 63.  9th Century: a Vascon family (the Aristas), gained independence both from the Muslims (711-799) & the Franks (799-810), and established the Kingdom of Pamplona.  11th Century: the kingdom was at its peak under Sancho III el Mayor, who ruled over Pamplona, Aragón & Castilla. He died in 1035 and divided his territory among his sons:  Pamplona  for García III  Castilla  for Fernando I  Aragón  for Ramiro I Now they become independent kingdoms
  64. 64.  9th Century: it was a county under control of the Franks, but it soon became independent. (810, Aznar I Galíndez).  10th Century: it was made part of the Kingdom of Pamplona. (marriage of the daughter of the count of Aragón with the king of Pamplona -García Sánchez I)  1035: Sancho III el Mayor died and his son Ramiro I inherited the territories of Aragon and made it an independent kingdom.
  65. 65.  End 8th Century: the area was conquered by the Franks (785, Girona - 801, BCN) and became part of the Spanish March.  End 9th Century (878): Wilfredo el Velloso unified all the Catalan Counties.  End 10th Century (988): they become independent from the Franks, since they didn’t help the Count of Barcelona (Borrell II) when the city was plundered by Almanzor (985).
  66. 66. Iberian peninsula (8th-11th century) AL-ANDALUS (SOUTH) Dependent Emirate of Damascus (711-756) Independent Emirate (756-929) Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (NORTH) KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS Origin: battle of Covadonga (722), Don Pelayo & the Astures defeated the Muslims. Capital established in Oviedo. Early 10th Century: kingdom had expanded until to the Duero River. Capital moved to Leon to control the territory better  Kingdom of León. End 10th Century: expansion stopped due to Almanzor’s plunder campaigns. COUNTY OF CASTILLA Origin: as a group of counties in the Eastern border of the Kingdom of Asturias to stop Muslim’s attacks. Ruled by counts; many castles. 10th Century: these counties where unified by the count Fernán Gonzalez 1030: annexed to the Kingdom of Pamplona (marriage). 1035: Castilla was inherited by Fernando I (son of Sancho III el Mayor of Pamplona); it became an independent kingdom. 1037: Fernando I defeated the king of León  Kingdom of Castilla y León. KINGDOM OF PAMPLONA 9th Century: a Vascon family gained independence both from the Muslims & the Franks (Spanish March), and established the Kingdom of Pamplona. 11th Century: the kingdom was at its peak under Sancho III el Mayor, who ruled over Pamplona, Aragón & Castilla. He died in 1035 and divided his territory among his sons: - Pamplona  Garcia III - Castilla  Fernando I - Aragón  Ramiro I KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN 9th Century: it began as a county under control of the Franks (Spanish March), but it soon became independent. 10th Century: annexed to the Kingdom of Pamplona (marriage). 1035: Aragon was inherited by Ramiro I (son of Sancho III el Mayor of Pamplona); it became an independent kingdom. CATALAN COUNTIES End of the 8th Century: conquered by the Franks and became part of the Spanish March. End of the 9th Century: Wilfredo el Velloso unified all the Catalan Counties. End 10th Century: they become independent from the Franks, since they didn’t help the Count of Barcelona when the city was plundered by Almanzor.
  67. 67. ACTIVITY 1: fill in a blank map with the situation of the Iberian Peninsula in 1035. IBERIAN PENINSULA IN 1035
  68. 68. KINGDOM OF LEON KINGDOM OF PAMPLONA IBERIAN PENINSULA IN 1035
  69. 69. ACTIVITY 2: answer to the following questions. a) Which was the first Christian Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula? b) Explain the origin of the Kingdom of Castilla. c) What’s the common origin of the Kingdom of Pamplona, the Kingdom of Aragon, and the Catalan Counties? d) Who was Sancho III el Mayor? What happened to his kingdom when he died? e) How many independent “Christian Kingdoms” existed in the Iberian Peninsula in 1035? And in 1037?
  70. 70. Evolution of the Christian kingdoms
  71. 71.  Between the 11th – 15th centuries, the Christian Kingdoms evolved until only 4 remained by the end of the 15th Century:  Kingdom of Portugal  Crown of Castilla  Kingdom of Navarra  Crown of Aragon  By the early 16th century (1512), there were only 2 kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula:  Spain  Portugal 1479: unification of Castilla & Aragon. 1512: annexation of Navarra)
  72. 72.  11th Century: it was a county of the Kingdom of Castilla & León (1096).  1143: it became an independent kingdom, when the count of Portugal (Alfonso Enríquez) and the King of Castilla y Leon (Alfonso VII) signed the Treaty of Zamora.
  73. 73.  11th -12th Century: Castilla & León, that had been unified by Fernando I in 1037, went through several unifications & divisions.  1143: the county of Portugal became an independent kingdom.  1230: Fernando III definitely unifies Castilla & León. It becomes the CROWN OF CASTILLA.  1479: dynastic union of the Crowns of Castilla (Isabel) & Aragón (Fernando): Catholic Monarchs.  Territorial conquests: IN AL-ANDALUS:  1085: Toledo by Alfonso VI  12th century: Cuenca  13th century: after Las Navas de Tolosa (1212):  Cordoba, Jaen & Sevilla by Fernando III  Cádiz & Murcia by Alfonso X  1492: Nasrid Kingdom of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN: Canary Islands, Melilla, America…
  74. 74.  1035: Sancho III el Mayor divided it between his sons:  Pamplona  Garcia III  Castilla  Fernando I  Aragón  Ramiro I  1512: annexed to Spain. Territorial conquests: Navarra wasn’t able to expand due to the expansion of the Crowns of Castilla and Aragon.
  75. 75.  1035: Aragon became an independent kingdom under Ramiro I.  1137: Petronila (heiress of Aragon) married Ramón de Berenguer IV (count of Barcelona). This marriage meant the unification of the Kingdom of Aragón and the Catalan Counties, that became the CROWN OF ARAGÓN.  1479: dynastic union of the Crowns of Castilla (Isabel) & Aragón (Fernando): Catholic Monarchs. Territorial conquests:  IN AL-ANDALUS:  1118: Zaragoza  12th Century: Lleida by Ramón de Berenguer IV  13th Century: Mallorca, Valencia by Jaime I  IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: Sicily, Sardinia, Naples…
  76. 76.  Dynastic union: union of several kingdoms that are governed by the same king. However, each kingdom is independent and keeps its own institutions and laws.
  77. 77. INTERACTIVE MAP OF THE CROWN OF ARAGON http://www.explorethemed.com/AragonMed.asp?c=1
  78. 78. Iberian peninsula (11th-15th century) AL-ANDALUS (SOUTH) 1st Taifas (1031-1085) Almoravid Empire (1085-1145) 2nd Taifas (1145-1172) Almohad Empire (1172-1212) 3rd Taifas (1212-1265) Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (1265-1492) CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (NORTH) KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL 11th Century: it was a county of the Kingdom of Castilla & León. 1143: it became an independent kingdom, when the count of Portugal (Alfonso Enríquez) and the King of Castilla y Leon signed the Treaty of Zamora. CROWN OF CASTILLA 11th -12th Century: Castilla & León, that had been unified by Fernando I in 1037, went through several unifications & divisions. 1143: the county of Portugal became an independent kingdom. 1230: Fernando III definitely unifies Castilla & León. It becomes the CROWN OF CASTILLA. 1479: dynastic union of the Crowns of Castilla (Isabel) & Aragón (Fernando): Catholic Monarchs. Territorial conquests: IN AL-ANDALUS: 1085: Toledo by Alfonso VI 12th Century: Cuenca 13th Century: after Las Navas de Tolosa (1212): - Fernando III: Córdoba, Jaen, Sevilla. - Alfonso X: Cadiz, Murcia 1492: Nasrid Kingdom of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN: Canary Islands, Melilla, America. KINGDOM OF NAVARRA 1035: Sancho III en Mayor divided it between his sons: - Pamplona  Garcia III - Castilla  Fernando I - Aragón  Ramiro 1512: it was annexed to Spain. Territorial conquests: Wasn’t able to expand due to the expansion of the Crowns of Castilla and Aragon. CROWN OF ARAGÓN 1035: Aragon became an independent kingdom under Ramiro I. 1137: Petronila (heiress of Aragón) married Ramón de Berenguer IV (count of Barcelona, unifying the Kingdom of Aragon and the Catalan Counties, becoming the CROWN OF ARAGÓN. 1479: dynastic union of the Crowns of Castilla (Isabel) & Aragón (Fernando): Catholic Monarchs. Territorial conquests: IN AL-ANDALUS: 1118: Zaragoza 12th Century: Lleida by Ramón de Berenguer IV 13th Century: Mallorca, Valencia by Jaime I 1492: Nasrid Kingdom of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: Sicily, Sardinia, Naples.
  79. 79. ACTIVITY 3: answer to the following questions. a) What’s the origin of Portugal? When was it made independent? b) When did the Catalan counties & Aragon unified? c) Explain the unification of the territories of the Iberian Peninsula (except Portugal): steps & type of union. d) What way did the foreign expansion of Castilla & Aragón directed? e) Put the following territories in the corresponding column: America, Sevilla, Valencia, Sardinia, Cordoba, Naples, Lleida, Murcia, Toledo, Cuenca, Zaragoza, Jaen, Sicily, Canary Islands, Mallorca, Melilla, Cadiz, Crown of Castilla Crown of Aragon
  80. 80. The Crown of Castilla & the Crown of Aragon had different political organizations.
  81. 81.  The Christian kingdoms were governed by kings, but the extent of power was different in each territory: UNITARIAN MONARCHY: territory was a single entity, all power was centralised in the king. It was characterized by the principle of authoritarianism. Crown of Castilla FEDERAL MONARCHY: territory was composed of several kingdoms (Aragon, Catalonia, Mallorca & Valencia) which had certain independence (own institutions, laws…). It was characterized by the principle of pactism (the central government had to reach agreements with the regional “Cortes”). Crown of Aragon
  82. 82.  Kings were helped in government by…  Beginning: the Royal Council (Curia Regis)  assembly of nobles & clergy.  Late 12th Century onwards: the Cortes  assembly of nobles, clergy & city representatives (bourgeoisie). FUNCTION OF THE “CORTES”:  IN CASTILLA: the main function was to impose taxes. They didn’t have power to approve laws, they only gave advice to the king.  IN ARAGÓN: each kingdom had its own Cortes. They had power to approve the laws that the king gave to them. They created the Generalitat, a permanent institution that supervised the agreements between the king and the Cortes, and controlled the army.
  83. 83. The “Cortes”, presided by the king
  84. 84. ACTIVITY 4: answer to the following questions.  Page 105:  Exercise 1-a  Exercise 2  Explain the differences between the Cortes of Castilla and the ones of Aragon.
  85. 85. As the Reconquista captured lands from the Muslims, different methods of repopulating the land were used.  COUNCIL REPOPULATION  REPOPULATION BY MILITARY ORDERS  REPOPULATION BY DISTRIBUTION REPOPULATION = occupation of conquered territories.
  86. 86. Characteristics:  Occupied territory was divided into councils formed by a fortified town.  Since these territories were threatened by Muslim’s attacks, the king gave “fueros” (charters) with important privileges to people that moved to this areas. COUNCIL REPOPULATION:  Between the Duero & the Tajo; Ebro valley.
  87. 87. FUERO OF SEPULVEDA (Segovia): http://breviariocastellano.blogspot.com.es/2006/01/texto-de-fuero-de-seplveda-traducido-y.html
  88. 88. Characteristics:  Used in dangerous scarcely populated frontier areas.  Depended on military orders composed of warrior- monks, that in exchange received large manors called maestrazgos. REPOPULATION BY MILITARY ORDERS  Between the Tajo & Sierra Morena; Valleys of Turia & Jucar.
  89. 89. Can you guess which military order repopulated the area around present-day Ciudad Real? The 4 main military orders: • In Castilla: Calatrava, Santiago y Alcántara. • In Aragón: Montesa.
  90. 90. Characteristics:  Land was distributed according to the contribution made to the conquest of the territory:  Nobles received large territories (latifundia).  Peasants received small portions of land. REPOPULATION BY DISTRIBUTION  Guadalquivir valley; Murcia; Levante; Balearic Islands.
  91. 91.  Most activity: agriculture  In dry lands: cereals, olive trees and vines (Mediterranean triad)  In irrigated areas: fruits and vegetables  In Castilla, sheep herding was also very important  In the cities:  Castilla: wool textiles  Crown of Aragon: linen & cotton textiles
  92. 92. Mediterranean triad in drier lands Fruits & vegetables in irrigated areas
  93. 93. Sheep herding in Castilla The trade fair of Medina del Campo (Valladolid) was key in the international wool trade
  94. 94. KING • Privileged groups: special laws, no taxes, access to important positions in administration… HIGH NOBILITY & HIGH CLERGY LOW NOBILITY & LOW CLERGY •THE COMMONS  non- privileged groups NON-CHRISTIANS (JEWS, MUDEJARES, JUDEOCONVERSOS & MORISCOS) CITIES (11th century onwards) -URBAN OLIGARCHY (wealthy merchants, bankers…) -SMALLER MERCHANTS & CRAFTSPEOPLE -POOR PEOPLE (begged or worked for very little wages) COUNTRYSIDE -FREE PEASANTS -SERFS THAT WORKED IN NOBLES’ FIEFS
  95. 95. Social Divisions __________________________________________ Had special privileges like legal rights, exemption from taxes, and access to important positions in administration. First strata...
  96. 96. __________________________________________ Had special privileges like legal rights, exemption from taxes, and access to important positions in administration. First strata... Clergy and Nobility
  97. 97. The ruling class of wealthy merchants, bankers & guilds’ masters. The middle class of smaller merchants and craftspeople A class of poor people without a trade that either begged or worked for very little wages Second strata... Social Divisions
  98. 98. The ruling class of wealthy merchants, bankers & guilds’ masters. The middle class of smaller merchants and craftspeople A class of poor people without a trade that either begged or worked for very little wages Thecommons Urbansociety Peasants
  99. 99. The ruling class of wealthy merchants, bankers & guilds’ masters. The middle class of smaller merchants and craftspeople A class of poor people without a trade that either begged or worked for very little wages Thecommons Urbansociety Peasants Urban oligarchy
  100. 100. Social Divisions Second strata...Third strata...
  101. 101. Those who lived in the special quartersMudejares: were the Muslims who kept their religion. They worked as craftspeople or as farmers.
  102. 102. Those who lived in the special quartersJews: were the Jews that kept their religion. They worked as lawyers, doctors, craftspeople or moneylenders.
  103. 103. Those who lived in the special quarters Moriscos: were the Muslims that converted to Christians (most were forced to convert or leave in 1502 by the Catholic Monarchs.
  104. 104. Those who lived in the special quarters Judeoconversos: were the Jews that converted to Christians (most were forced to convert or leave in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs
  105. 105. Medieval quarters in Alcalá de Henares The cities had separate areas for Muslims (morerías) and Jews (juderías).
  106. 106. During the Middle Ages what three cultures coexisted in the Iberian Peninsula? Difficulties Benefits...
  107. 107. 1st period (12th century) • The greatest works of the Arabic-speaking world were translated into Latin. 2nd period (13th century) • Alfonso X el Sabio wanted the common people to be able to read the works being translated, so he promoted the translations into Castellano rather than Latin. This fact boosted Castellano as a higher learning language both in science and literature. Toledo School of Translators  Toledo was re-conquered in 1085, and it became an important center of cultural exchange: “The City of the Three Cultures“.  Instead of destroying all the Muslim books & libraries, the kings of Castilla promoted the collaboration of Christians, Jews & Muslims, who worked together translating Classical Greek and Arab texts into Latin & Castellano.  The school was most well-known for its translations of works about philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine…  The work done in Toledo transmitted the classical culture to the rest of Western Europe, bringing a cultural renaissance.  It had two periods of splendor:
  108. 108. The TOLEDO SCHOOL OF TRANSLATORS enabled the transmission of Ancient Greek & Arab knowledge into Western Europe, that had suffered a lack of cultural output during the Early Middle Ages (“Dark Ages”).

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