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U2. islam & its expansion U2. islam & its expansion Presentation Transcript

  • 2ºESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  • • Islam originated in the Arabian Peninsula, in the geographical area known as the Near East. Near East (Oriente Próximo) • Confluence between Asia & Africa. It’s in-between:  Mediterranean Sea  Red Sea  Indian Ocean  Persian Gulf 1.1. Birthplace of Islam: ARABIA
  • • It’s a very desert area.
  • – In the interior  tribes of nomadic Bedouins: • Lived from transporting goods & people across the desert. • Practised an animistic religion (worship of natural elements as plants & animals). – In the coasts  settled tribes: • Lived from agriculture & trade. • Practised polytheism. They had 2 things in common… • Arabic language •Cult of the black stone in the sanctuary of the Kaaba (in Mecca). • In the early 7th Century (before Muhhamad), Arabia was inhabited by different tribes...
  • Bedouins The term "Bedouin” comes from the Arabic word “badawi” (‫ي‬ِ‫َو‬‫د‬َ‫ب‬), and it means "those in the desert".
  • Sanctuary of the Kaaba (Mecca) According to the Muslim tradition, the Kaaba was first built by Adam, but it was destroyed in the Flood. Later, Ibrahim (Abraham) rebuild the Kaaba on the old foundations. Centuries later men forgot about it significance and began practicing idolatry in it, until the times of Muhammad, when it became again the house of God (Allah).
  • The black stone inside the sanctuary of the Kaaba (Mecca) It is said that it was brought by Archangel Gabriel to Abraham: "It descended from Paradise whiter than milk, but the sins of the sons of Adam made it black.”
  • • The main city in Arabia was Mecca because: – It was a crossroads for the trade caravans that came from the Far East. – Location of the Kaaba (pilgrimage place).
  • • During the 7th Century, Muhammad will bring all these tribes together under a common religion: ISLAM
  • Activity 1 a) Copy the map of the geographical location of the Arabian Peninsula (p.26). Include: – Mediterranean Sea – Red Sea – Indian Ocean – Persian Gulf b) Write 3 modern countries that can be found today in the Arabian peninsula. c) What did they have in common the different tribes that inhabited the Arabian peninsula in the early 7th Century? d) Why was the city of Mecca so important? – Mecca – Medina (Yathrib) – Jerusalem – Egypt
  • 1.2. Mohammad and the origin of Islam • Mohammad is the prophet of ISLAM: – Born in Mecca in 570 AD. – According to the legend, when he was forty (611) the archangel Gabriel appeared before him and told him to preach a new religion, ISLAM: • Its only god is Allah. • Its sacred book is the Koran. • Its believers are the Muslims. • Muslims have to accept the five pillars of Islam. • Other cultural practices of Muslims are: – Not drinking alcohol – Not eating pork – Not gambling – Accepting polygamy (not in every Islamic country!!!!) • Some Muslim countries follow the Islamic law (“Sharia”).
  • Very few countries apply the Sharia as their main legal system (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Iraq, Afghanistan). Adultery, homosexuality… are condemned to death penalty, for example by stoning.
  • 1.3. Five pillars of Islam 1) Declaration of faith: there’s no God but Allah and Muhammad is its prophet. 2) Prayer: Muslims have to pray 5 times a day facing Mecca. 3) Alms-giving (limosna): give money to those who need it. 4) Fasting (ayuno): abstain from food from dawn until sunset during the month of Ramadan. 5) Pilgrimage: all Muslims have to go to Mecca at least once in their life. The “Hand of Fatima” is used to represent the Five Pillars of Islam.
  • Activity 2 Draw a Hand of Fatima in your notebook, and write each pillar in a different finger. 1) Declaration of faith: there’s no God but Allah and Muhammad is its prophet. 2) Prayer: Muslims have to pray 5 times a day facing Mecca. 3) Alms-giving (limosna): give money to those who need it. 4) Fasting (ayuno): abstain from food from dawn until sunset during the month of Ramadan. 5) Pilgrimage: all Muslims have to go to Mecca at least once in their life.
  • Activity 3 (for homework!) Search the newspapers (on paper, or online) to find a news story about a case in which the Sharia (Islamic law) has been applied. Stick it in your notebook and… a) Copy the headline (titular) & the subhead (subtítulo). b) Indicate the source (fuente): say the newspaper where you took it from, and the section where it appeared. Example: “El País; economy section”. c) Date: when was the news published and when did the events took place. d) Summary: use your own words to explain briefly what has happened. e) Personal opinion: give your opinion giving valid arguments (explain why!). Give possible solutions, compare the case with similar cases in other countries… Always be respectful.
  • 2. EXPANSION OF ISLAM 2.1. BEGINNING OF ISLAM: (during Mohammad’s life) • 611: archangel Gabriel appeared before Mohammad and told him to preach Islam. • 611-622: Mohammed preached Islam in Mecca. He became enemy of rich merchants & authorities because Islam denied polytheism, and Mecca’s wealth was based in the pilgrimage to the Kaaba which had a polytheistic nature. • 622: Mohammad & his followers escaped from Mecca to Yathrib (which was soon renamed Medinat un-Nabi = “City of the Prophet“). This event is known as Hijra, and is taken as the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
  • 2. EXPANSION OF ISLAM 2.1. BEGINNING OF ISLAM: (during Mohammad’s life) • 622-630  Muhammad lived in Medina, where he became a religious & military leader: – He created the first Umma (unified community of Muslim believers). – He organised an army. • 630  He conquered Mecca, and continued the expansion of Islam across the rest of the Arabian Peninsula. • 632  Muhammad died having achieved the unification of the Arabic tribes under a common political & religious leader. CONCLUSION: Mohammad had not only created a new religion... He had also unified Arabia!!!
  • In the map, colour in the territories through which Islam was spread during Muhammad's life (622-632). Activity 4. Expansion of Islam
  • a) What is the Hijra (Hegira)? b) What are the two main achievements of Muhammad? c) Make a timeline about Muhammad’s life that includes the following dates. Remember that timelines have to be proportional: • 570 • 611 • 622 • 630 • 632 Activity 5
  • 2. EXPANSION OF ISLAM 2.2. THE CREATION OF A GREAT EMPIRE: Muhammad’s successors, the caliphs (“successor”), continued to conquer territories and to expand Islam. They created a huge empire. This expansion was possible due to several factors: • The dissemination of the Islamic faith • A powerful, organized army • Desire for benefits that come after a war • The weakness of their opponents (Byzantines & Persians where weakened due to fights between them, so they couldn’t confront the Muslims). Stages of the conquest: a) RASHIDUN / ORTHODOX CALIPHATE b) UMAYYAD CALIPHATE c) ABBASID CALIPHATE
  • In the map, colour in the territories through which Islam was spread during the Orthodox (632-661) & the Umayyad (661-750) caliphates. Activity 4. Expansion of Islam (cont.)
  • CALIPHATE CHRONO LOGY WHO WHERE THE CALIPHS? CAPITAL CONQUESTS / EXTENSION ORTHODOX Family and closest friends of Muhammad. Medina (Saudi Arabia) Biggest extension of the empire: WEST  North of Africa, Iberian Pen. EAST  Indus Valley (Pakistan), Turkestan (border of China). The expansion ended (only some minor conquests: Crete and Sicily). In 1258 the Mongolians conquered Baghdad. Activity 6: Stages of the conquest Copy & complete the chart.
  • 3. ORGANISATION OF THE EMPIRE: politics POLITICAL ORGANISATION CALIPH Had complete political & religious power. VIZIER Like a Prime Minister. Helped the caliph to govern. EMIRS / VALIS Governors of the provinces (“koras”) KADIS Judges that applied the laws (administer justice) DIWANS Royal treasurers that collected taxes: - Everyone: according to their owned land - Non-muslims: practicing their religion
  • 3. ORGANISATION OF THE EMPIRE: society SOCIAL ORGANISATION ARISTOCRACY - Arabic origin. - A lot of political & economic power (fortunes & lands from military conquests; important political positions) FREE PEOPLE (traders, artisans, farmers) MUSLIMS (“Mawalis”) NON-MUSLIMS (“Dimmis”): Christians & Jews were free, but had to pay more taxes. SLAVES - War prisoners & central Africans. - Worked in mines, domestic service, agriculture.
  • 3. ORGANISATION OF THE EMPIRE: economy ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURE New crops: rice, sugar cane, saffron. Improved irrigation techniques (due to scarcity of water): canals & water wheels. Nomadic cattle farming in desert areas: sheep & camels. CRAFTWORK Small workshops where artisans lived & worked. Main crafts: - Carpets - Tapestries - Leather goods - Cotton & linen textiles - Perfumes - Etc… TRADE Strategic position between Europe, the East (Silk Route) and Africa. Products sold in the souks (markets of the cities) Traded products: - Metals - Silk - Leather goods - Textiles - Salt - Spices - Slaves
  • WATER WHEEL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzzSLqPc kZM&feature=player_embedded#!
  • CRAFTWORK & TRADE IN THE SOUKS Leather tanning in Fez (Morocco)
  • CRAFTWORK & TRADE IN THE SOUKS Leather goods
  • CRAFTWORK & TRADE IN THE SOUKS Spices (Dubai souk) Saffron Arabian food
  • CRAFTWORK & TRADE IN THE SOUKS Textiles & carpets
  • City structure
  • The medina (city) was surrounded by walls. • Inside the walls is the medina (divided into quarters) • Outside the walls is the arrabal • (Marrakech, Morocco)
  • Medina: • Divided into quarters • Protected by walls and gated entrances • Densely populated with irregular pattern of buildings and streets • Streets were narrow and winding
  • Public spaces: Mosque - Islamic place of worship Souk(s) - commercial quarter / market Public baths – (hamman) used by everyone in the city Fortress (alcazaba) - built on highest part of medina. Protects the city from enemy attacks Inside the Medina
  • Mosques • Hassan II Mosque (Casablanca, Morocco) •Minaretistallestintheworld(210m) •7thlargestmosqueintheworld •Holds25,000worshippersinside
  • Souks Leather, spices, textiles, jewelry, woodwork, etc.
  • Public baths (hamman)
  • Fortress (alcazaba) Alhambra, Granada: palace and fortress built in the 10th century
  • Fez (Morocco)
  • Tunis (Tunisia)
  • Houses and their design
  • Few windows, covered with latticework (celosía)  to keep cool and private. Centered around a courtyard (interior patio). Usually 2 floors: Ground floor: kitchen, living room, store rooms. 1st floor: bedrooms. Muslim houses
  • Muslim houses “RIAD”: traditional Muslim houses. Fez (Morocco). Courtyard
  • Muslim houses Living room Latticework on a window
  • Define the following words: • Medina • Arrabal • Mosque • Souk • Hamman • Alcazaba Activity 7
  • 4.1. MUSLIM CULTURE MUSLIM CULTURE: Very rich & original since they mixed: Their own culture Muslims made contributions in: - Science (maths, medicine…) - Humanities (e.g.: Literature  “A Thousand and One Nights”) Culture of conquered territories (oriental & classical): Greco- Roman, Persians, Egyptians, Indian… Oriental inventions that reached Europe thanks to the Islamic empire: - Paper - Gunpowder - Compass
  • The main frame story concerns a king and his new bride. He is shocked to discover that his brother's wife is unfaithful; discovering his own wife's infidelity has been even more flagrant, he has her executed: but in his bitterness and grief decides that all women are the same. The king, Shahryar, begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning, before she has a chance to dishonor him. Eventually the vizier, whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins (and only begins) a new one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion, postpones her execution once again. So it goes on for 1,001 nights.
  • 4.1. MUSLIM CULTURE • Arabs also contributed a lot to the Spanish language!! After Latin, Arab is the language that more vocabulary has provided to our language.  AGRICULTURE & FOOD: acequia, alcachofa, algodón, azúcar, albaricoque, aceite, albahaca, albóndiga, almíbar,…  TRADE & MANUFACTURES: aduana, tarifa, arancel, alfarero, alcancía, abalorio, alicates…  CONSTRUCTION: adoquín, alcázar, alcoba, adobe, alcantarilla, azotea, azulejo…  WAR: alférez, almirante, arsenal…  PLACES: Alcalá, Guadalquivir, Algeciras, Guadalajara…  MATHS: álgebra, algoritmo,…  ASTRONOMY: cenit, almanaque,…  MEDICINE: jaqueca, jarabe
  • 4.2. MUSLIM ART • Muslim art was very conditioned by the first pillar of Islam… Can you remember which was this 1st pillar? FAITH: there’s no God but Allah and Muhammad is its prophet. This implied that idolatry was forbidden, so they couldn’t make representations of human figures that represented deities (holy beings). Therefore, the MAIN ARTISTIC ACHIEVEMENTS WERE IN ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN.
  • • Basic building materials: BRICK WOOD PLASTER
  • • Different kinds of arches supported by columns or pillars Horseshoe arch Polylobed arch (arco de herradura) (arco polilobulado)
  • • Vaulted roofs (byzantine influence!): vaults (bóvedas) & domes (cúpulas)
  • • Very decorated interiors with marble, coloured tiles, plaster or wood. Different motifs: Arabesque motifs (floral designs) Geometric motifs (interlacing  “lacería”) Calligraphic motifs (texts from the Koran)
  • Mosques (Mezquita) 1) Prayer room: covered area with columns and arches. - Kiblah (3)  wall that faces Mecca towards which prayers are directed. - Mihrab (4) small niche or room where a Koran was kept. 2) Courtyard: entrance area with a fountain where the attendants wash and purify themselves (ablutions). This is a ritual that all Muslims must perform before praying. 5) Minaret: tower from which the muezzin used to call Muslims to prayer five times a day.
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Fountain in the courtyard: a Muslim practising the ritual of the ablution before entering into the prayer room.
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Prayer hall
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Mihrab and minbar (pulpit from which the imam or religious leader leads the prayer).
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Muezzin calling the faithful to prayer from the minaret. Listen to it…!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--_GmNo-gYc
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Some important mosques: -Damascus (Syria)
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Most important mosques: -Kairouan (Tunisia)
  • Mosques (Mezquita) Most important mosques: - Cordoba (Spain)
  • Palaces - Where caliphs lived - Two parts: - Public area: rooms for receiving important people (ambassadors, government officials,…) - Private area: baths, harem… where the caliph and his family lived. - They had beautiful gardens with fountains