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U1.early middle ages


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  • 2.  PREHISTORY (4,2 m.y.a. – 3,000 BC)  ANCIENT AGE (3,000 BC – 476 AD)  MIDDLE AGES (476 – 1453/92):  EARLY MIDDLE AGES  5th – 10th Centuries  HIGH MIDDLE AGES  11th - 13th Centuries  LATE MIDDLE AGES  14th - 15th Centuries  MODERNAGE (1453/92 – 1789)  CONTEMPORARY AGE (1789 –TODAY)
  • 3.  98 – 117 AD  EmperorTrajan.The Roman empire reaches it’s largest extension. From:  EUROPE: British Isles, Rhine & Danube rivers  ASIA: Tigris river  AFRICA: Sahara Desert BRITISH ISLES
  • 4.  395  EmperorTheodosius. Division of the Empire between his sons:  Western Roman Empire (capital: Rome) Honorius  Eastern Roman Empire (capital: Constantinople) Arcadius ROME CONSTANTINOPLE
  • 5.  Western Roman Empire (capital: Rome) Honorius ▪ 476: falls due to the invasion of the Germanic Tribes or “barbarians”. ▪ Last emperor = Romulus Augustulus (10 years old!)  deposed by a barbarian military chief, ODOACER. ▪ Germanic Kingdoms  each tribe assumed the power in the territories in which they were settled:  Visigoths  most of Hispania  Franks  Gaul (France)  Ostrogoths  Italian Peninsula  Angles and Saxons  Britain
  • 6.  Eastern Roman Empire (capital: Constantinople) Arcadius ▪ Known as Byzantine Empire because the capital (Constantinople) had been settled over an old Greek colony called BYZANTIUM. ▪ 1453: falls to the OttomanTurks. •Byzantium •Constantinople •Istanbul
  • 7.  So far we have…. ▪ Germanic kingdoms in the former W.R.E. ▪ Byzantine empire in the E.R.E.  But in the 7th century a 3rd civilization aroused nearby!!! ISLAM ▪ Religion of the Muslims. ▪ Mohammad is its prophet & founder. ▪ Origined in the city of Mecca, in the Arabian Peninsula.
  • 8.  CONCLUSION: from the beginning of the 7th century 3 civilizations were going to fight for the dominion of the former territories of the Roman Empire:  Germanic kingdoms (Catholic Christians)  West  Byzantine empire (Orthodox Christians)  East  Islamic empire (Muslims)  South East
  • 9.  In a map depict the situation of Europe & the Middle East at the beginning of the 7th Century. To do so locate: ▪ Territories of the W.R.E. (Germanic kingdoms) ▪ Territories of the E.R.E. (Byzantine Empire) ▪ Territories were Islam was founded.  P.13. Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4.
  • 10.  Initial territories of the Byzantine Empire (395AD):  Balkans  Greece  Asia Minor  Syria  Egypt
  • 11.  During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe.  5 periods: 1) Protobyzantine Era  5th Century 2) Golden Age: reign of Justinian  6th Century 3) Retreat of Byzantium  7th – 8th Century 4) Age of recovery  9th – 10th Century 5) Decline and collapse  11th – 15th Century
  • 12. 1) PROTOBYZANTINE ERA  5th Century Unlike the W.R.E, the Byzantine emperors were able to resist the barbarian’s attacks thanks to greater financial resources which enabled them to… Pay foreign mercenaries. Placate invaders by paying them tributes. Fortify the walls of Constantinople.
  • 13. 476: theW.R.E. falls, and Constantinople becomes the sole capital of the Empire. At the end of the 5th Century: the Germanic tribes were too busy consolidating their new monarchies, so they lost their interest in the Byzantine territories.
  • 14. 2) THE GOLDEN AGE:THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN  6th Century The height of Byzantine history was the reign of Emperor Justinian (527-565) and his wife EmpressTheodora. Justinian intended to reestablish the unity and splendor of the former Roman Empire.
  • 15. The empire reached it’s largest extension. Justinian’s military conquests:  Italy  Sicily  Corsica  Sardinia  Balearic Islands  Territories in the South of Hispania  Territories in the North of Africa
  • 16. TO WHICH GERMANIC TRIBES DID THE NEW TERRITORIES CONQUERED BY JUSTINIAN BELONGED TO???  Italy  Sicily  Corsica  Sardinia  Balearic Islands  Territories in the South of Hispania  Territories in the North of Africa
  • 17.  Besides the military triumphs, Justinian's reign was also to be remembered due to several cultural achievements: • THE CODE OF JUSTINIAN: Justinian revised and gathered the old Roman laws, added new ones, and created a new codification of laws: the CorpusJuris Civilis (“body of civil law”). It has provided the foundation for most modern European law systems. One of the laws in Justinian's Code: “A PERSON IS INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY”.
  • 19.  It was also a period of economic prosperity due to… • Dynamic trade through the Mediterranean • Development of important manufacturing industries (tapestries, jewels, silk…) Byzantine wedding ringByzantine silk
  • 20. 3) RETREAT OF BYZANTIUM  7th – 8th Century The empire fell into a period of difficulties:  Financial crisis due to the cost of Justinian’s military campaigns.  Religious crisis due to the internal struggles between iconoclasts (who ban religious images) and iconodules (who venerate religious images ).  Territorial losses: for example  VISIGOTHS  conquered South Hispania.  ISLAM  conquered the Holy Land, Syria & Egypt (the richest provinces) & the north ofAfrica.  Other losses  N. Italy, Corsica, Sardinia… The loss of these territories meant that now most Byzantine territories had a Greek culture.This fact led to a change in the official language of the Empire from Latin to Greek.
  • 21. The Byzantine Empire was able to survive to the Muslims’ attacks due to their superior fleet and the use of the “Greek Fire” (a mysterious incendiary weapon!).
  • 22. The Byzantine Empire at the end of the 8th Century (year 800). The Byzantine Empire at the end of Justinian's reign in the 6th Century (year 565)
  • 23. 4) AGE OF RECOVERY  9th – 10th Century The Islamic Empire was in crisis, so Byzantine emperors were able to regain some territories (ej: North of Syria). In the religious aspect a new problem aroused: the rivalry between the pope in Rome & the patriarch in Constantinople (who refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope).This confrontation led to the East–West Schism (1054): the division of the Church into two independent parts: Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church
  • 24. The Byzantine Empire at the end of the 8th Century (year 800). The Byzantine Empire at the beginning of the 11th Century (year 1025).
  • 26. 5) DECLINEAND COLLAPSE  11th – 15th Century Normans  invaded the Italian territories. Byzantines asked the European States to help them fight against the Turks.Together they carried out several crusades: religious wars undertaken to restore Christian religion in the Holy Land (which was now under Muslim control).They successfully pushed back theTurks, but instead of giving those territories back to the Byzantines, the crusaders established several kingdoms of their own.
  • 27. Map of the Crusader States created by the European crusaders after helping the Byzantines push back the Turks.
  • 28. In 1453, theTurks finally conqueredConstantinople and renamed it “Istanbul”.The Byzantine Empire had reached its end. Animation of the end of the Byzantine Empire: &y=43.224388770681&nd=0&d=1100A1150A1200A1250A1300A1 350A1400A1450A1453&di=1100&tm=p&ly=yyyy&fi=- 500&ff=1500&sp=2&e=0&rp=0&re=0&nv=2
  • 29.  Who were these people?:  Trajan  Theodosius  Romulus Augustulus  Odoacer  Muhammad  Theodora  Explain the East-West Schism.  What were the two main cultural achievements of emperor Justinian?  Do you think that the European States really helped the Byzantines to fight against the Turks in the 11-15th centuries?
  • 30. BYZANTINE EMPIRE BASILEUS He has total power: Army Administration (formed by lots of civil servants) Church is controlled by the… Sub-divided into… THEMATAS (provinces) STRATEGOS (political & military chief. They were under direct control of the Basileus) Each themata was governed by a… He controls…
  • 31. Legal system based on Roman laws  Code of Justinian (Corpus Juris Civilis ). One of the laws in Justinian's Code: “A PERSON IS INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY”.
  • 32. AGRICULTURE: employed most of the population:  Who owns the land? Nobles & monasteries (the Church)  Who works the land? Serfs & slaves
  • 33. TRADE & MANUFACTURES: also very important due to the strategic position of Constantinople between Europe, Asia, the Mediterranean Sea & the Black Sea  all type of products were traded…
  • 34.  Fill in a map with the products that the Byzantine Empire traded with:  China  India  Northern Europe
  • 35.  China:  Silk SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  • 36.  India:  Spices  Ivory  Pearls SPICES IVORY PEARLS SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  • 37.  Northern Europe:  Amber  Furs  Grain SPICES IVOY PEARLS SILK AMBER FURS GRAIN = CONSTANTINOPLE
  • 38. With all those products, artisans were able to develop rich manufactures:  Tapestries  Jewels  Artistic objects Byzantine wedding ring Byzantine silk Byzantine sword with gems Byzantine chalices
  • 39.  BYZANTINE ART = evolution of the Roman art + influences of oriental art.  Most important forms of art: Churches Mosaics Icons
  • 40.  BYZANTINE CHURCHES: characteristics: Use of the Greek-cross plan. Greek Cross VS Latin Cross
  • 41. Use of semicircular arches. Semicircular arch VS Other type of archs
  • 42. Use of large domes over pendentives resting on pillars. Dome Pendentive Pillar/pier
  • 43. Use of half-domes and buttresses to download the heavy weight of the central dome.
  • 44. Built with bricks, sometimes covered with marble.
  • 45. Decorated with rich mosaics.
  • 46.  BYZANTINE CHURCHES: best examples: Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Turkey) St. Mark’s inVenice (Italy)
  • 47.  Give the concept for the following definitions: ENGLISH SPANISH DEFINITION Church in which the arms (nave and the transept) are of equal length. The main body of a church, where most seats are located. Transept Transepto Transverse section of a church, which lies across its main body. An arch that is exactly half a circle. A hemispherical roof A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular dome and a square base on which the dome is set. A vertical support for a structure. Generally it’s square or rectangular. A stone or brick structure that supports the weight of something above it. A type of hard stone that’s usually white Image made by putting together small pieces of colored ceramic, stone or glass.
  • 48. Byzantine churches were built with ______, though sometimes they were covered with _______ and decorated with rich ________. Usually they were built using a ______ - ____ plan. In them we can find ______________ arches and large ______ over _____________ that rest on _______. To download the heavy weight of the central dome Byzantines used _____-_______ and _______________.
  • 49.  BYZANTINE MOSAICS: Used to decorate the walls and domes of the churches. Made with tessellas: small, coloured pieces of ceramic, stone or glass. Use of golden backgrounds to create a glittering and luxurious effect that reflected the power and wealth of the Byzantine Empire. They represented religious or imperial themes.
  • 50. Empress Theodora and her attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy). Emperor Justinian and his attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy).
  • 51. Christ Pantocrator ("All-powerful"). This depiction can be found in many byzantine churches: Hagia Sophia, Cefalu Cathedral (Sicily),…
  • 52.  BYZANTINE ICONS: Religious images painted on wood. Themes: Christ, theVirgin, saints. Characteristics of the painted figures: Flat and one-dimensional Rigid and unnatural expression. Use of gold paint to represent the radiance of Heaven.
  • 53.  St. Mark’s church inVenice has a G_____-c____ plan.The crossing (area where the n____ and the t_______ intersect) is covered with a large d____ over p__________. There are several s_____________ archs.The walls and the dome are covered with bright m_______ made with t_________ (small coloured pieces of c_________, s______ or glass). G________ backgrounds have been use to create a luxurious effect.
  • 54.  395: EmperorTheodosius divides the Roman Empire. Honorius inherits the W.R.E.  476: W.R.E. falls due to the invasion of the GermanicTribes.The Franks assumed the power in north Gaul. The first Frankish king was Clovis, an impressive military commander from the Merovingian dynasty. His main achievement was to expel theVisigoths from south Gaul (507). ROME CONSTANTINOPLE
  • 55. Clovis, first king of the Franks. He belonged to the Merovingian dynasty. (481-511)
  • 56.  7th CENTURY: Merovingian kings left government affairs in the hands of the Mayors of the Palace, who became the real power. This position was hereditary in the family of Charlemagne’s ancestors.  8th CENTURY:  The Mayor of the PalaceCharles Martel (Charlemagne’s grandfather) defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Poitiers (732). This victory forced the Muslims to retreat to the Iberian Peninsula, and consolidated the power of the Mayors of the Palace.  In 751 his son, Pippin the Short (Charlemagne’s father) deposed the last Merovingian king (Childeric III) with the Pope’s approval.This was the start of the Carolingian dynasty.  In 768 his son, Charlemagne became king of the Franks. He was the greatest Carolingian monarch.
  • 57. Pippin the Short being crowned king of the Franks by the Pope (751) Fight between a Muslims and Franks at the Battle of Poitiers (732)
  • 58.  CHARLEMAGNE’S REIGN (768-814):  In 768 he became king of the Franks.  He wanted to reestablish the unity and splendour of the oldW.R.E. He conquered:  North of Italy from the Lombards  Central Europe from the Bavarii and the Avars  North of Germany from the Saxons.  In 800 he was crowned emperor by the Pope in St.Peter’s Church in Rome.  In 814 he died, and his son Louis the Piadous became king.When he died the empire was divided between his 3 sons in the Treaty ofVerdun (843). The empire of Charlemagne collapsed due to internal disputes and foreign invasions, particularly theVikings.
  • 59. Territories at the death of Charlemagne (814) Territories at the death of Pippin the Short (768)
  • 60. Map of Europe after theTreaty ofVerdun (843)
  • 61. Old St.Peter’s Church in Rome Charlemagne crowned emperor on Christmas day, 800 by Pope Leo III in St. Peter’s Church in Rome.
  • 62.  POLITICAL ORGANIZATION:  Pope  religious power  King/Emperor  military & political power. His capital was inAachen (Germany). To control the territory it was divided it into:  COUNTIES: territories ruled by a count who was chosen by the emperor. He was in charge of carrying out imperial commands, collecting taxes, administering justice…  MARCHES: territories on the borders of the Empire that had to be defended.They were ruled by a marquis, military governors in charge of defending the frontiers of the Empire.
  • 63.  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: very hierarchical. EMPEROR NOBILITY & CLERGY FREE PEOPLE (most of them peasants; some merchants & artisans) SERFS Political & military power. Owners of the land. Nobles were in charge of political or military duties (counts, marquises, knights…) Laboured the lord’s lands (beginning of FEUDALISM!) Laboured the lord’s lands and belonged to their lord.
  • 64.  FEUDALISM: system in which every person had to swear loyalty to the person above them in return for something else (lands, shelter, protection…)
  • 65.  HERALDRY: the practice of creating or studying coats of arms (or heraldic badges), a symbol of a family's identity and values.  Heraldic badges seem to have been first used by counts & marches in Carolingian times during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814 AD).  They began to be used due to the need to distinguish participants quickly and easily in combat. Each knight chose symbols and colors to represent his family.These coats of arms have been passed down throughout generations. Make groups of four, and create a Coat of Arms to represent your clan!!!!
  • 66. Coat of Arms of the Count of Paris Coat of Arms of the County of Aquitaine Coat of Arms of the Marquis of Roquefort A very common symbol in French heraldry is the “Fleur-de- lis”. Some historians think that the three leaves represent the medieval social classes: those who worked, those who fought and those who prayed. Others think that it comes from the legend of Clovis who had received them from the Holy Virgin at his coronation, meaning that the Franks’ authority came directly from God.
  • 67. 1º) SELECT A SHIELD ngboy/createacoatofarms.asp
  • 70. 4º) DESIGN A MANTLING (a piece of ornamental cloth depicted issuing from a helmet and surrounding a shield)
  • 73.  Inspired in Roman culture.  Most important architectural achievement: Charlemagne’s palace in Aachen (Germany) of which today only the Palatine Chapel remains.  Language: Latin  Illuminated manuscript: manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of goldwork decoration (decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations).  Small sculptures
  • 74. The Palace of Aachen was a group of buildings with residential, political and religious purposes chosen by Charlemagne to be the centre of power of the Carolingian Empire. It was located in Aachen (Germany). Council Hall Thermae Palatine Chapel Main door Hot Springs Emperor’s private residence Treasure Hall Most of it was built in the 790s. Today only the Palatine Chapel remains.
  • 75. The Palatine Chapel was the basis for today’s Aachen Cathedral.
  • 76. Octagonal plan Exterior
  • 77. Octagonal dome covered with mosaics Semicircular arches
  • 78. Charlemagne’s throne
  • 79. Charlemagne’s sculpture in bronze (24 cm high) Ivory plaque, probably of a book cover.