U1.early middle ages


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U1.early middle ages

  2. 2. a) What event marks the beginning of History? b) Which are the 4 periods in History?
  3. 3.  PREHISTORY (4,2 m.y.a. – 3,000 BC) ----------------  ANCIENT AGE (3,000 BC – 476 AD)  MIDDLE AGES (476 – 1453/92):  Early Middle Ages  5th – 10th Centuries  High Middle Ages  11th - 13th Centuries  Late Middle Ages  14th - 15th Centuries  MODERN AGE (1453/92 – 1789)  CONTEMPORARY AGE (1789 –TODAY)
  4. 4.  1st Century AD  EmperorTrajan. In 117AD the Roman empire reached it’s largest extension. BRITISH ISLES
  5. 5.  395  EmperorTheodosius. Division of the Empire: ROME CONSTANTINOPLE  Western Roman Empire capital: Rome  Eastern Roman Empire capital: Constantinople
  6. 6. ▪ 476: fell due to invasion of the GermanicTribes (“barbarians”). ▪ Last emperor = Romulus Augustulus (10 years old!)  deposed by ODOACER (barbarian military chief). ▪ Each Germanic tribe assumed the power in the territories in which they were settled, and founded the GERMANIC KINGDOMS:  VISIGOTHS  Iberian Peninsula  FRANKS  Gaul (France)  OSTROGOTHS  Italian Peninsula  VANDALS  North Africa  ANGLES & SAXONS  Britain  Western Roman Empire (capital: Rome)
  7. 7.  Eastern Roman Empire (capital: Constantinople) ▪ Known as Byzantine Empire. WHY? Because the capital (Constantinople) had been settled over an old Greek colony called “BYZANTIUM”. ▪ 1453: falls to the OttomanTurks. Byzantium = Constantinople = Istanbul
  8. 8.  So far we have…. ▪ GERMANIC KINGDOMS  in the former W.R.E. ▪ BYZANTINE EMPIRE  in the E.R.E.  But in the 6 - 7th Century… a new civilization was arousing nearby!!! ISLAM ▪ Religion of the Muslims. ▪ Mohammad is its prophet & founder. ▪ Origined in the city of Mecca, in the Arabian Peninsula.
  9. 9.  CONCLUSION: at the beginning of the 7th century 3 civilizations were going to fight for the dominion of the territories of the former Roman Empire:  Germanic kingdoms  Catholic Christians  Byzantine empire  Orthodox Christians  Islamic empire  Muslims
  10. 10.  In the map locate: ▪ Territories of the Germanic kingdoms ▪ Territories of the Byzantine Empire ▪ Territories were Islam was founded.  Say which Germanic tribe settled in the following territories after the fall of Rome: ▪ Italian Peninsula ▪ Iberian Peninsula ▪ North of modern-day France ▪ North Africa  P.13. Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4.  Who were the following people? Why are they important in understanding the Roman Empire?: ▪ Trajan ▪ Theodosius ▪ Odoacer ▪ Romulus Augustulus
  11. 11.  Byzantine Empire = at the beginning (395 AD) it occupied the territories of the former Eastern Roman Empire:  Balkans  Greece  Asia Minor  Syria  Egypt
  12. 12.  During most of its existence, the Byzantine empire was the most powerful economic, cultural & military force in Europe.  3 periods: 1) Protobyzantine Era  5th Century 2) Golden Age: reign of Justinian  6th Century 3) Retreat & decline of Byzantium  7th – 15th Century
  13. 13. 1) PROTOBYZANTINE ERA  5th Century Unlike the W.R.E (that was conquered in 476), the Byzantine empire was able to resist the barbarians’ attacks (Germanic invasions) due to greater financial resources that enabled them to… Pay foreign mercenaries. Pay tributes to placate invaders. Fortify the walls of Constantinople.
  14. 14. After the fall of the W.R.E. (476), Constantinople became the sole capital of the Empire. At the end of the 5th Century: the barbarians (Franks, Visigoths, Ostrogoths…) were too busy consolidating their new monarchies (Germanic Kingdoms), so they lost their interest in the Byzantine territories.
  15. 15. 2) THE GOLDEN AGE:THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN  6th Century During the reign of Emperor Justinian (527-565) & his wife EmpressTheodora, the Byzantine empire was at its best. Justinian tried to reestablish the unity & splendor of the Roman Empire.  Military triumphs. Largest extension of the empire.  Cultural achievements:  Code of Justinian  Hagia Sophia Basilica  Economic prosperity
  16. 16.  MILITARY TRIUMPHS: Justinian conquered many territories to the Germanic Kingdoms (Visigoths, Ostrogoths…), reaching the empire it’s maximum extension: • Italy • Sicily • Corsica • Sardinia • Balearic Islands • Territories in South Hispania • Territories in North Africa
  17. 17.  THE CODE OF JUSTINIAN: Justinian revised & gathered the old Roman law, added new ones, and created a new code of laws: the Corpus Iuris Civilis (body of civil law), also known as “The Code of Justinian”. It has provided the foundation for most modern European law systems. One of the laws in Justinian's Code: “A PERSON IS INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY”.
  19. 19. It was a period of ECONOMIC PROSPERITY due to… • Dynamic trade through the Mediterranean, thanks to the strategic position of Constantinople. • Development of important manufacturing industries (tapestries, jewels, silk…) Byzantine wedding ringByzantine silk
  20. 20. a) Why was the Byzantine Empire able to resist the Barbarians’ attacks in the 5th Century? b) Why did the barbarians lost their interest in the Byzantine territories after the fall of Rome? c) Who was Justinian? Explain his main achievements. d) To which Germanic tribes did the new territories conquered by Justinian belonged to???  Italy  Sicily  Corsica  Sardinia  Balearic Islands  Territories in South Hispania  Territories in North Africa
  21. 21. 3) RETREAT & DECLINE OF BYZANTIUM  7th – 15th Century  The empire fell into a period of difficulties:  Financial crisis due to the cost of Justinian’s military campaigns.  Religious crisis: • Internal struggles between iconoclasts (they ban religious representations) and its opponents (iconodules). • East-West schism (1054).  This weakened the Byzantine empire, who lost many territories: • MUSLIMS  Holy Land, Syria, Egypt, N.Africa. • VISIGOTHS  South Hispania. • NORMANS (VIKINGS)  Italy (11th Century). • …
  22. 22. Beginning of the 9th Century End of Justinian's reign - 6th Century Territorial evolution of the Byzantine Empire… End 11th Century
  23. 23.  11th Century: the Byzantines (Orthodox) asked the European States (Catholics) to help them fight against the Turks (Muslims). Together they carried out several Crusades: religious wars carried out to bring back Christian religion to the Holy Land (which was under Muslim control). They successfully pushed back theTurks, but instead of giving those territories back to the Byzantines, the European crusaders established several kingdoms of their own.
  24. 24. 1453: theTurks finally conquered Constantinople and renamed it “Istanbul”. The Byzantine Empire had reached its end. Animation of the end of the Byzantine Empire: http://geacron.com/en/?v=m&lang=en&z=6&x=20.0830137 98071&y=43.224388770681&nd=0&d=1100A1150A1200A1 250A1300A1350A1400A1450A1453&di=1100&tm=p&ly=yy yy&fi=-500&ff=1500&sp=2&e=0&rp=0&re=0&nv=2
  25. 25. e) After Justinian’s reign the Byzantine empire entered into a period if difficulties. What was the consequence of this fact? f) Who conquered the Holy Land from the Byzantines? g) What were the Crusades? Explain their causes & consequences. h) Who were the Crusaders? i) Who & when put an end to the Byzantine Empire? ended? Did Constantinople continued to exist?
  26. 26. BYZANTINE EMPIRE BASILEUS He has total power: Army Administration (formed by lots of civil servants) Church is controlled by the… Sub-divided into… THEMATAS (provinces) STRATEGOS (political & military chief. They were under direct control of the Basileus) Each themata was governed by a… He controls…
  27. 27. AGRICULTURE: employed most of the population:  Who owns the land? Nobles & monasteries (the Church)  Who works the land? Serfs & slaves
  28. 28. TRADE & MANUFACTURES: also very important due to the strategic position of Constantinople between Europe, Asia, Mediterranean & Black Seas  all type of products were traded…
  29. 29.  China:  Silk SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  30. 30.  India:  Spices  Ivory  Pearls SPICES IVOY PEARLS SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  31. 31.  Northern Europe:  Amber  Furs  Grain SPICES IVOY PEARLS SILK AMBER FURS GRAIN = CONSTANTINOPLE
  32. 32. With all those products, artisans were able to develop rich manufactures:  Tapestries  Jewels  Artistic objects Byzantine wedding ring Byzantine silk Byzantine sword with gems Byzantine chalices
  33. 33. a) Fill in the blank map indicating the products that the Byzantine Empire traded from China, India & northern Europe. b) Define the following words: ▪ Basileus ▪ Thematas ▪ Strategos c) Page. 15, exercises 3 & 4.
  34. 34. What was the official religion of the Roman Empire in 476?
  35. 35.  At the beginning, the religion of the Byzantine empire was the same as the one of the Germanic Kingdoms: CHRISTIANITY.  However, disputes concerning religious beliefs & traditions start to happen, leading to several conflicts:  One argument concerned the use of icons in religious worship and prayers. This caused struggles between iconoclasts (they ban religious representations) & its opponents (iconodules).  The East-West Schism: religious conflict caused by the rivalry between the pope in Rome & the patriarch in Constantinople (he refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope). In 1054 Christianity divided into 2 branches: Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church
  37. 37.  BYZANTINE ART = evolution of the Roman art + influences of oriental art.  Most important forms of art: Churches Mosaics Icons
  38. 38.  CHURCHES: characteristics: Use of the Greek-cross plan. Greek Cross VS Latin Cross
  39. 39. Use of semicircular arches. Semicircular arch VS Other type of archs
  40. 40. Use of large domes over pendentives resting on pillars. Dome Pendentive Pillar/pier
  41. 41. Use of half-domes and buttresses to download the heavy weight of the central dome.
  42. 42. Built with bricks, sometimes covered with marble.
  43. 43. Decorated with rich mosaics.
  44. 44.  BYZANTINE CHURCHES: best examples: Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. St. Mark’s inVenice (Italy)
  45. 45.  MOSAICS: Used to decorate the walls and domes of the churches. Made with tessellas: small, coloured pieces of ceramic, stone or glass. Use of golden backgrounds to create a glittering and luxurious effect that reflected the power and wealth of the Byzantine Empire. They represented religious or imperial themes.
  46. 46. Empress Theodora and her attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy). Emperor Justinian and his attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy).
  47. 47. Christ Pantocrator ("All-powerful"). This depiction can be found in many byzantine churches: Hagia Sophia, Cefalu Cathedral (Sicily),…
  48. 48.  ICONS: Religious images painted on wood. Themes: Christ, theVirgin, saints. Characteristics of the painted figures: Flat and one-dimensional Rigid and unnatural expression. Use of gold paint to represent the radiance of Heaven.
  49. 49.  Give the concept for the following definitions: ENGLISH SPANISH DEFINITION Church in which the arms (nave and the transept) are of equal length. The main body of a church, where most seats are located. Transept Transepto Transverse section of a church, which lies across its main body. An arch that is exactly half a circle. A hemispherical roof A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular dome and a square base on which the dome is set. A vertical support for a structure. Generally it’s square or rectangular. A stone or brick structure that supports the weight of something above it. A type of hard stone that’s usually white Image made by putting together tessellas (small pieces of colored ceramic, stone or glass).
  50. 50. nave transept ENGLISH SPANISH DEFINITION Greek-cross plan Planta de cruz griega Church in which the arms (nave and the transept) are of equal length. Nave Nave The main body of a church, where most seats are located. Transept Transepto Transverse section of a church, which lies across its main body. Semicircular arch Arco de medio punto An arch that is exactly half a circle. Dome Cúpula A hemispherical roof Pendentives Pechinas A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular dome and a square base on which the dome is set. Pillar / Pier Pilar A vertical support for a structure. Generally it’s square or rectangular. Buttresses Contrafuertes A stone or brick structure that supports the weight of something above it. Marble Mármol A type of hard stone that’s usually white Mosaic Mosaico Image made by putting together tessellas (small pieces of colored ceramic, stone or glass).
  51. 51. 1) Use of the Greek-cross plan. 2) Use of semicircular arches. 3) Use of large domes over pendentives resting on pillars. 4) Use of half-domes and buttresses to download the heavy weight of the central dome. 5) Built with bricks, sometimes covered with marble. 6) Decorated with rich mosaics.
  52. 52.  St. Mark’s church inVenice has a G_____-c____ plan.The crossing (area where the n____ and the t_______ intersect) is covered with a large d____ over p__________. There are several s_____________ archs.The walls and the dome are covered with bright m_______ made with t_________ (small coloured pieces of c_________, s______ or glass). G________ backgrounds have been use to create a luxurious effect.
  53. 53.  395: EmperorTheodosius divides the Roman Empire.  476: W.R.E. falls due to the invasion of the GermanicTribes.The Franks assumed the power in north Gaul.The first Frankish king was Clovis, an impressive military commander from the Merovingian dynasty. ROME CONSTANTINOPLE
  54. 54. Clovis, first king of the Franks. He belonged to the Merovingian dynasty. (481-511) In 507 he expelled the Visigoths from southern Gaul.
  55. 55.  7th CENTURY: Merovingian kings left government affairs in the hands of the Mayors of the Palace, who became the real power. This position was hereditary in the family of Charlemagne’s ancestors.  8th CENTURY:  The Mayor of the PalaceCharles Martel (Charlemagne’s grandfather) defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Poitiers (732).This victory forced the Muslims to retreat to the Iberian Peninsula, and consolidated the power of the Mayors of the Palace.  In 751 his son, Pippin the Short (Charlemagne’s father) deposed the last Merovingian king (Childeric III) with the Pope’s approval.This was the start of the Carolingian dynasty.  In 768 his son,Charlemagne became king of the Franks. He was the greatest Carolingian monarch.
  56. 56. Pippin the Short being crowned king of the Franks by the Pope (751) Fight between a Muslims and Franks at the Battle of Poitiers (732)
  57. 57.  CHARLEMAGNE’S REIGN (768-814):  In 768 he became king of the Franks.  He wanted to reestablish the unity & splendour of the oldW.R.E. He conquered:  North of Italy from the Lombards  Central Europe from the Bavarii and the Avars  North of Germany from the Saxons.  In 800 he was crowned emperor by the Pope in St.Peter’s Church in Rome.  In 814 he died, and his son Louis the Piadous became king.When he died the empire was divided between his 3 sons in the Treaty ofVerdun (843). The empire of Charlemagne collapsed due to internal disputes and foreign invasions, particularly the Vikings.
  58. 58. Territories at the death of Charlemagne (814) Territories at the death of Pippin the Short (768)
  59. 59. Map of Europe after theTreaty ofVerdun (843)
  60. 60. Old St.Peter’s Church in Rome Charlemagne crowned emperor on Christmas day, 800 by Pope Leo III in St. Peter’s Church in Rome.
  61. 61.  POLITICAL ORGANIZATION:  Pope  religious power  King/Emperor  military & political power. His capital was inAachen (Germany). To control the territory it was divided it into:  COUNTIES: territories ruled by a count who was chosen by the emperor. He was in charge of carrying out imperial commands, collecting taxes, administering justice…  MARCHES: territories on the borders of the Empire that had to be defended.They were ruled by a marquis, military governors in charge of defending the frontiers of the Empire.
  62. 62.  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: very hierarchical. EMPEROR NOBILITY & CLERGY FREE PEOPLE (most of them peasants; some merchants & artisans) SERFS Political & military power. Owners of the land. Nobles were in charge of political or military duties (counts, marquises, knights…) Laboured the lord’s lands (beginning of FEUDALISM!) Laboured the lord’s lands and belonged to their lord.
  63. 63.  FEUDALISM: system in which every person had to swear loyalty to the person above them in return for something else (lands, shelter, protection…)
  64. 64. a) Which was the first Frankish dynasty? And the first king? b) When did the battle of Poitiers took place? What were the consequences of this battle c) Who was Pippin the Short? Why was he important? d) Who did Charlemagne defeat? Explain what territories did he add to his empire after these defeats. e) When & where was Charlemagne crowned emperor? What happened to his empire after his death? f) P. 19, exercise 2.
  65. 65.  HERALDRY: the practice of creating or studying coats of arms (or heraldic badges), a symbol of a family's identity and values.  Heraldic badges seem to have been first used by counts & marches in Carolingian times during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814 AD).  They began to be used due to the need to distinguish participants quickly and easily in combat. Each knight chose symbols and colors to represent his family.These coats of arms have been passed down throughout generations. Make groups of four, and create a Coat of Arms to represent your clan!!!!
  66. 66. Coat of Arms of the Count of Paris Coat of Arms of the County of Aquitaine Coat of Arms of the Marquis of Roquefort A very common symbol in French heraldry is the “Fleur-de- lis”. Some historians think that the three leaves represent the medieval social classes: those who worked, those who fought and those who prayed. Others think that it comes from the legend of Clovis who had received them from the Holy Virgin at his coronation, meaning that the Franks’ authority came directly from God.
  67. 67. 1º) SELECT A SHIELD http://www.imaginon.org/fun/whippi ngboy/createacoatofarms.asp
  70. 70. 4º) DESIGN A MANTLING (a piece of ornamental cloth depicted issuing from a helmet and surrounding a shield)
  73. 73.  Inspired in Roman culture.  Most important architectural achievement: Charlemagne’s palace in Aachen (Germany) of which today only the Palatine Chapel remains.  Language: Latin  Illuminated manuscript: manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of goldwork decoration (decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations).  Small sculptures
  74. 74. The Palace of Aachen was a group of buildings with residential, political and religious purposes chosen by Charlemagne to be the centre of power of the Carolingian Empire. It was located in Aachen (Germany). Council Hall Thermae Palatine Chapel Main door Hot Springs Emperor’s private residence Treasure Hall Most of it was built in the 790s. Today only the Palatine Chapel remains.
  75. 75. The Palatine Chapel was the basis for today’s Aachen Cathedral.
  76. 76. Octagonal plan Exterior
  77. 77. Octagonal dome covered with mosaics Semicircular arches
  78. 78. Charlemagne’s throne
  79. 79. Charlemagne’s sculpture in bronze (24 cm high) Ivory plaque, probably of a book cover.
  80. 80. a) Copy & complete the outline on p.21 b) P.22: ex 2, 3. c) Compare maps on pages 13 & 15 and explain the territorial expansion of the Byzantine Empire during Justinian's rule. (You need to explain what territories did he conquered & to who). d) What is the relation between Byzantium, Constantinople & Istanbul? e) Explain the East-West Schism. f) Write a paragraph with your own words explaining the evolution of the Frankish Kingdom between 476 and 843. g) Indicate what happened on these dates: 395 / 476 / 751 / 768 / 800 / 814 / 840 / 843 / 1054 / 1453