2.  PREHISTORY (4,2 m.y.a. – 3,000 BC)
 ANCIENT AGE (3,000 BC – 476 AD)
 MIDDLE AGES (476 – 1453/92):
 EARLY MIDDLE AGES  5th – 10th Centuries
 HIGH MIDDLE AGES  11th - 13th Centuries
 LATE MIDDLE AGES  14th - 15th Centuries
 MODERNAGE (1453/92 – 1789)
 CONTEMPORARY AGE (1789 –TODAY)
3.  98 – 117 AD  EmperorTrajan.The Roman
empire reaches it’s largest extension. From:
 EUROPE: British Isles,
Rhine & Danube rivers
 ASIA: Tigris river
 AFRICA: Sahara Desert
4.  395  EmperorTheodosius.
Division of the Empire between his sons:
 Western Roman
 Eastern Roman Empire
5.  Western Roman Empire (capital:
▪ 476: falls due to the invasion of the Germanic
Tribes or “barbarians”.
▪ Last emperor = Romulus Augustulus (10
years old!)  deposed by a barbarian military
▪ Germanic Kingdoms  each tribe assumed
the power in the territories in which they were
 Visigoths  most of Hispania
 Franks  Gaul (France)
 Ostrogoths  Italian Peninsula
 Angles and Saxons  Britain
6.  Eastern Roman Empire (capital:
▪ Known as Byzantine Empire because the capital
(Constantinople) had been settled over an old Greek
colony called BYZANTIUM.
▪ 1453: falls to the OttomanTurks.
7.  So far we have….
▪ Germanic kingdoms in the former W.R.E.
▪ Byzantine empire in the E.R.E.
 But in the 7th century a 3rd
civilization aroused nearby!!!
▪ Religion of the Muslims.
▪ Mohammad is its prophet
▪ Origined in the city of
Mecca, in the Arabian
8.  CONCLUSION: from the beginning of the 7th century
3 civilizations were going to fight for the dominion
of the former territories of the Roman Empire:
 Germanic kingdoms (Catholic
Christians)  West
 Byzantine empire (Orthodox
Christians)  East
 Islamic empire (Muslims) 
9.  In a map depict the situation of Europe & the
Middle East at the beginning of the 7th Century. To
do so locate:
▪ Territories of the W.R.E. (Germanic kingdoms)
▪ Territories of the E.R.E. (Byzantine Empire)
▪ Territories were Islam was founded.
 P.13. Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4.
10.  Initial territories of the Byzantine Empire
 Asia Minor
11.  During most of its existence, the empire was
the most powerful economic, cultural, and
military force in Europe.
 5 periods:
1) Protobyzantine Era  5th Century
2) Golden Age: reign of Justinian  6th Century
3) Retreat of Byzantium  7th – 8th Century
4) Age of recovery  9th – 10th Century
5) Decline and collapse  11th – 15th Century
12. 1) PROTOBYZANTINE ERA  5th Century
Unlike the W.R.E, the Byzantine emperors were able to
resist the barbarian’s attacks thanks to greater financial
resources which enabled them to…
Pay foreign mercenaries.
Placate invaders by paying them tributes.
Fortify the walls of Constantinople.
13. 476: theW.R.E. falls, and
Constantinople becomes the
sole capital of the Empire.
At the end of the 5th Century:
the Germanic tribes were too
busy consolidating their new
monarchies, so they lost their
interest in the Byzantine
14. 2) THE GOLDEN AGE:THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN  6th Century
The height of Byzantine history was the reign of Emperor
Justinian (527-565) and his wife EmpressTheodora.
Justinian intended to reestablish the unity and splendor of the
former Roman Empire.
15. The empire reached it’s largest extension. Justinian’s
 Balearic Islands
 Territories in the
South of Hispania
 Territories in the
North of Africa
16. TO WHICH GERMANIC TRIBES DID THE NEW
TERRITORIES CONQUERED BY JUSTINIAN
 Balearic Islands
 Territories in the South of Hispania
 Territories in the North of Africa
17.  Besides the military triumphs, Justinian's reign was also to be
remembered due to several cultural achievements:
• THE CODE OF JUSTINIAN: Justinian revised and gathered the old
Roman laws, added new ones, and created a new codification of laws:
the CorpusJuris Civilis (“body of civil law”). It has provided the
foundation for most modern European law systems.
One of the laws
18. • CONSTRUCTIONOF HAGIA SOPHIA BASILICA
19.  It was also a period of economic prosperity due to…
• Dynamic trade through the Mediterranean
• Development of important manufacturing industries
(tapestries, jewels, silk…)
Byzantine wedding ringByzantine silk
20. 3) RETREAT OF BYZANTIUM  7th – 8th Century
The empire fell into a period of difficulties:
 Financial crisis due to the cost of Justinian’s military campaigns.
 Religious crisis due to the internal struggles between iconoclasts (who
ban religious images) and iconodules (who venerate religious images ).
 Territorial losses: for example
 VISIGOTHS  conquered South Hispania.
 ISLAM  conquered the Holy Land, Syria & Egypt (the richest
provinces) & the north ofAfrica.
 Other losses  N. Italy, Corsica, Sardinia…
The loss of these territories meant that now most Byzantine territories
had a Greek culture.This fact led to a change in the official language of
the Empire from Latin to Greek.
21. The Byzantine Empire was able to survive to the Muslims’ attacks
due to their superior fleet and the use of the “Greek Fire” (a
mysterious incendiary weapon!).
22. The Byzantine Empire at
the end of the 8th Century
The Byzantine Empire at the
end of Justinian's reign in the
6th Century (year 565)
23. 4) AGE OF RECOVERY  9th – 10th Century
The Islamic Empire was in crisis, so Byzantine emperors were
able to regain some territories (ej: North of Syria).
In the religious aspect a new problem aroused: the rivalry
between the pope in Rome & the patriarch in Constantinople
(who refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope).This
confrontation led to the East–West Schism (1054): the division
of the Church into two independent parts:
Eastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
24. The Byzantine Empire at
the end of the 8th Century
The Byzantine Empire at
the beginning of the 11th
Century (year 1025).
26. 5) DECLINEAND COLLAPSE  11th – 15th Century
Normans  invaded the Italian territories.
Byzantines asked the European States to help them fight
against the Turks.Together they carried out several crusades:
religious wars undertaken to restore Christian religion in the
Holy Land (which was now under Muslim control).They
successfully pushed back theTurks, but instead of giving those
territories back to the Byzantines, the crusaders established
several kingdoms of their own.
27. Map of the Crusader States
created by the European
crusaders after helping the
Byzantines push back the Turks.
28. In 1453, theTurks finally
renamed it “Istanbul”.The
Byzantine Empire had reached
Animation of the end of the Byzantine Empire:
29.  Who were these
 Romulus Augustulus
 Explain the East-West
 What were the two main
cultural achievements of
 Do you think that the
European States really
helped the Byzantines to
fight against the Turks
in the 11-15th
He has total
(formed by lots
of civil servants)
control of the
Each themata was
governed by a…
31. Legal system based on Roman laws  Code of Justinian
(Corpus Juris Civilis ).
One of the laws
32. AGRICULTURE: employed most of the population:
 Who owns the land? Nobles & monasteries (the Church)
 Who works the land? Serfs & slaves
33. TRADE & MANUFACTURES: also very important due to the
strategic position of Constantinople between Europe, Asia, the
Mediterranean Sea & the Black Sea  all type of products were
34.  Fill in a map with the products that the
Byzantine Empire traded with:
 Northern Europe
38. With all those products, artisans were able to develop rich
 Artistic objects
Byzantine wedding ring
Byzantine silk Byzantine sword
39.  BYZANTINE ART = evolution of the Roman art + influences of
 Most important forms of art:
40.  BYZANTINE CHURCHES: characteristics:
Use of the Greek-cross plan.
Greek Cross VS Latin Cross
41. Use of semicircular arches.
Semicircular arch VS Other type of archs
42. Use of large domes over pendentives resting on pillars.
43. Use of half-domes and buttresses to download the heavy
weight of the central dome.
44. Built with bricks, sometimes covered with marble.
45. Decorated with rich mosaics.
46.  BYZANTINE CHURCHES: best examples:
Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Turkey)
St. Mark’s inVenice (Italy)
47.  Give the concept for the following definitions:
ENGLISH SPANISH DEFINITION
Church in which the arms (nave and the transept) are of equal
The main body of a church, where most seats are located.
Transept Transepto Transverse section of a church, which lies across its main body.
An arch that is exactly half a circle.
A hemispherical roof
A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular
dome and a square base on which the dome is set.
A vertical support for a structure. Generally it’s square or
A stone or brick structure that supports the weight of something
A type of hard stone that’s usually white
Image made by putting together small pieces of colored
ceramic, stone or glass.
48. Byzantine churches were built with ______, though
sometimes they were covered with _______ and
decorated with rich ________. Usually they were built
using a ______ - ____ plan. In them we can find
______________ arches and large ______ over
_____________ that rest on _______. To download
the heavy weight of the central dome Byzantines used
_____-_______ and _______________.
49.  BYZANTINE MOSAICS:
Used to decorate the walls and domes
of the churches.
Made with tessellas: small, coloured
pieces of ceramic, stone or glass.
Use of golden backgrounds to create a
glittering and luxurious effect that
reflected the power and wealth of the
They represented religious or imperial
50. Empress Theodora and
her attendants (in the
church of San Vitale in
Emperor Justinian and
his attendants (in the
church of San Vitale in
51. Christ Pantocrator ("All-powerful").
This depiction can be found in many
byzantine churches: Hagia Sophia,
Cefalu Cathedral (Sicily),…
52.  BYZANTINE ICONS:
Religious images painted on wood.
Themes: Christ, theVirgin, saints.
Characteristics of the painted figures:
Flat and one-dimensional
Rigid and unnatural expression.
Use of gold paint to represent the
radiance of Heaven.
53.  St. Mark’s church inVenice has a
G_____-c____ plan.The crossing (area
where the n____ and the t_______
intersect) is covered with a large d____
over p__________. There are several
s_____________ archs.The walls and
the dome are covered with bright
m_______ made with t_________
(small coloured pieces of c_________,
s______ or glass). G________
backgrounds have been use to create a
54.  395: EmperorTheodosius divides the Roman Empire. Honorius
inherits the W.R.E.
 476: W.R.E. falls due to the invasion of the GermanicTribes.The
Franks assumed the power in north Gaul.
The first Frankish king was Clovis, an impressive military
commander from the Merovingian dynasty. His main
achievement was to expel theVisigoths from south Gaul (507).
55. Clovis, first king of the Franks.
He belonged to the
56.  7th CENTURY: Merovingian kings left government affairs in the
hands of the Mayors of the Palace, who became the real power.
This position was hereditary in the family of Charlemagne’s
 8th CENTURY:
 The Mayor of the PalaceCharles Martel (Charlemagne’s grandfather)
defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Poitiers (732). This victory forced the
Muslims to retreat to the Iberian Peninsula, and consolidated the power of
the Mayors of the Palace.
 In 751 his son, Pippin the Short (Charlemagne’s father) deposed the last
Merovingian king (Childeric III) with the Pope’s approval.This was the start of
the Carolingian dynasty.
 In 768 his son, Charlemagne became king of the Franks. He was the greatest
57. Pippin the Short being
crowned king of the
Franks by the Pope
Fight between a Muslims and Franks
at the Battle of Poitiers (732)
58.  CHARLEMAGNE’S REIGN (768-814):
 In 768 he became king of the Franks.
 He wanted to reestablish the unity and splendour of the oldW.R.E.
 North of Italy from the Lombards
 Central Europe from the Bavarii and the Avars
 North of Germany from the Saxons.
 In 800 he was crowned emperor by the Pope in St.Peter’s Church in Rome.
 In 814 he died, and his son Louis the Piadous became king.When he died the
empire was divided between his 3 sons in the Treaty ofVerdun (843).
The empire of Charlemagne collapsed due to internal disputes and
foreign invasions, particularly theVikings.
59. Territories at the death of
Territories at the death of
Pippin the Short (768)
60. Map of Europe after theTreaty ofVerdun (843)
61. Old St.Peter’s Church in Rome
Charlemagne crowned emperor
on Christmas day, 800 by
Pope Leo III in St. Peter’s
Church in Rome.
62.  POLITICAL ORGANIZATION:
 Pope  religious power
 King/Emperor  military & political power.
His capital was inAachen (Germany).
To control the territory it was divided it into:
 COUNTIES: territories ruled by a count who
was chosen by the emperor. He was in
charge of carrying out imperial commands,
collecting taxes, administering justice…
 MARCHES: territories on the borders of the
Empire that had to be defended.They were
ruled by a marquis, military governors in
charge of defending the frontiers of the
63.  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: very hierarchical.
FREE PEOPLE (most of
them peasants; some
merchants & artisans)
Political & military power.
Owners of the land.
Nobles were in charge of
political or military duties
Laboured the lord’s
lands (beginning of
Laboured the lord’s
lands and belonged
to their lord.
64.  FEUDALISM: system in
which every person had to
swear loyalty to the person
above them in return for
something else (lands,
65.  HERALDRY: the practice of creating or studying coats of arms
(or heraldic badges), a symbol of a family's identity and values.
 Heraldic badges seem to have been first used by counts &
marches in Carolingian times during the reign of Charlemagne
 They began to be used due to the need to distinguish
participants quickly and easily in combat. Each knight chose
symbols and colors to represent his family.These coats of arms
have been passed down throughout generations.
Make groups of four, and create a Coat of Arms
to represent your clan!!!!
66. Coat of Arms of the
Count of Paris
Coat of Arms of the
County of Aquitaine
Coat of Arms of the
Marquis of Roquefort
A very common symbol in French heraldry is the “Fleur-de-
lis”. Some historians think that the three leaves represent
the medieval social classes: those who worked, those who
fought and those who prayed. Others think that it comes
from the legend of Clovis who had received them from the
Holy Virgin at his coronation, meaning that the Franks’
authority came directly from God.
67. 1º) SELECT A SHIELD
68. 2º) SELECT A SHIELD COLOR THAT REPRESENT
YOUR CLAN’S VALUES
69. 3º) SELECT AN ANIMAL THAT REFLECTS YOUR
70. 4º) DESIGN A MANTLING (a piece of ornamental cloth
depicted issuing from a helmet and surrounding a shield)
71. 5º) SELECT YOUR SUPPORTERS
72. 6º) ADD YOUR MOTTO THAT REPRESENTS YOUR
73.  Inspired in Roman culture.
 Most important architectural achievement: Charlemagne’s
palace in Aachen (Germany) of which today only the Palatine
 Language: Latin
 Illuminated manuscript: manuscript in which the text is
supplemented by the addition of goldwork decoration
(decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations).
 Small sculptures
74. The Palace of Aachen was a
group of buildings with
residential, political and religious
purposes chosen by Charlemagne
to be the centre of power of the
Carolingian Empire. It was located
in Aachen (Germany).
Council Hall Thermae
Most of it was built in the 790s.
Today only the Palatine Chapel
75. The Palatine
Chapel was the
basis for today’s
76. Octagonal plan Exterior
77. Octagonal dome
covered with mosaics
78. Charlemagne’s throne
79. Charlemagne’s sculpture
in bronze (24 cm high)
Ivory plaque, probably
of a book cover.