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U1 2 introduction to geography
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U1 2 introduction to geography

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  • 1. Aa .. UNITS 1 & 2 1ESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  • 2.  Blue planet  mostly water  Equator  imaginary lines, divides the Earth in 2 equal parts or hemispheres. Which hemisphere has more land? Which hemisphere has more water?
  • 3.  The Earth is part of the Solar System. Why is life on Earth possible?
  • 4.  Life on Earth is possible due to:  Atmosphere  Water  Moderate temperature
  • 5. We use a system of imaginary lines (meridians & parallels) that form a grid that enables us to locate any point on Earth by using geographic coordinates.
  • 6.  Imaginary lines that go from pole to pole. The main meridian (meridian 0º) is the Greenwich meridian, and it’s used to calculate the longitude.  Longitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Greenwich meridian. It varies from 0º to 180º either East or West from the Greenwich meridian.
  • 7.  Imaginary lines that encircle the Earth perpendicular to its axis. The main parallel (parallel 0º) is the Equator, and it’s used to calculate the latitude.  Latitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Equator. It varies from 0º to 90º either North or South from the Equator.
  • 8. Let’s practice!! Locate the point…  30ºS 90ºE  40ºN 10ºW  0ºN 100ºW  70ºS 70ºE  60ºN 0ºW
  • 9. a) P.10, exercise 1. b) P.16, exercise 4. c) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth. Include:  Equator  Greenwich meridian  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS) d) Complete the worksheet.
  • 10. The Sun’s rays fall with a different inclination at different latitudes.We distinguish different climate zones:  WARM ZONE  TEMPERATE ZONE  COLD ZONE WARM ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE COLD ZONE COLD ZONE
  • 11. e) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth, including:  Equator  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS)  Warm zone  Temperate zone  Cold zone f) Name the imaginary lines that delimit the… • Warm zone • Temperate zone • Cold zone
  • 12. MAIN PARTS: • CORE • MANTLE • CRUST
  • 13. LITHOSPHERE:  Formed by the crust and the upper-most solid part of the mantle.  It’s broken into tectonic plates.
  • 14. TECTONIC PLATES:  Are constantly moving over the mantle.  When the tectonic plates separate or collide, crust is created or destroyed.
  • 15. PANGAEA
  • 16. WHEN TWO PLATES SEPARATE  fractures or rifts are created. Magma comes out from these fractures and when it solidifies new crust is formed.
  • 17. When it happens in two oceanic plates, volcano-islands are formed: Canary Islands, Iceland,…
  • 18. Rift valley in Africa
  • 19. WHEN TWO PLATES COLLIDE  one moves under the other. This process is known as subduction. Normally it creates volcanoes, earthquakes or mountains.
  • 20. Himalaya in Asia
  • 21. Subduction process in the western coast of South-America. Volcanoes & earthquakes are very common.
  • 22.  Most of the Earth, 71%, is covered by water, and it’s mostly in the southern hemisphere.  Land only occupies 29%, and it’s mostly in the northern hemisphere.
  • 23. Which are the 6 continents? Which are the 5 oceans?
  • 24. a) P. 18  exercises 2, 3, 4, 5 b) Draw a diagram with the internal layers of Earth. c) Draw a map of the world with the 6 continents and the 5 oceans. d) Define the following concepts:  Tectonic plates  Subduction  Rift  Crust  Mantle  Lithosphere e) What percentage of the Earth’s surface is land? And water?
  • 25. Large areas of flat terrain, no higher than 200m above sea level.
  • 26. Plains higher than 200m above sea level.
  • 27. Elevations of the terrain above the surrounding land with steep slopes and an altitude of more than 600m. Sierras (old mountain ranges): small groups and not very high mountains. Cordilleras (young mountain ranges): large groups and rather high mountains.
  • 28. Steep, younger mountains at high altitudes (ej: Himalayas).
  • 29. Sunken or depressed areas below the surrounding areas.
  • 30. Parts of the coast that jut out into the sea.
  • 31. Areas of sea surrounded by the coast on three sides.
  • 32. An area of land surrounded almost completely by water except for a part that is joined to the mainland.
  • 33. They are formed when the sea flows into the mouth of a river.
  • 34. Narrow inlets eroded by glaciers and penetrated by the sea.
  • 35. The extension of the continents under the sea waters.
  • 36. A steep incline found between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain.
  • 37.  Oceanic ridges (dorsal oceánica): underwater mountain ranges.  Oceanic trenches (fosa oceánica): narrow, long depressions on the ocean floor. Large flat areas of the deep ocean floor (4,000- 5,000m below sea level). In them we can find:
  • 38. Relief is…  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES: Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  • 39.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny
  • 40.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes
  • 41.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes
  • 42.  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  • 43. Wind erosion (Alxa desert, Mongolia)
  • 44. Temperature erosion (Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid)
  • 45. Water erosion (Playa de las Catedrales, Lugo)
  • 46. Water erosion (Glacier in Iceland)
  • 47. Human erosion
  • 48. EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  • 49. a) P. 20  exercise 2 b) P. 22  exercises 5, 6 c) P. 23  exercise 1 d) What is the concept for the following definition? “The process by which the surface of the earth is worn away”. e) Name 5 factors that erode the relief. f) What’s orogeny? When does it happen?
  • 50. Freshwater is very scarce on Earth.  97,5%  salted water  2,5%  fresh water
  • 51.  Fresh water  In rivers, glaciers, lakes, aquifers.  Salted water  In seas & oceans  Constantly moving: waves, tides & ocean currents.
  • 52. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =player_embedded&v=l37ofe9haMU https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =player_embedded&v=CTQ6ciHENgI
  • 53.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur e=player_embedded&v=JpV7NIJTxD0
  • 54. Lake Quilotoa (water-filled caldera in a volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes) The GREAT LAKES between USA and Canada
  • 55. P. 24  exercises 1, 2, 3.