Aa
..
UNITS 1 & 2
1ESO
IES Camilo José Cela
Teacher: Rocío Bautista
 Blue planet  mostly water
 Equator  imaginary lines, divides the Earth
in 2 equal parts or hemispheres.
Which
hemisph...
 The Earth is part of the Solar System.
Why is life on Earth possible?
 Life on Earth is possible due to:
 Atmosphere
 Water
 Moderate temperature
We use a system of imaginary lines (meridians & parallels)
that form a grid that enables us to locate any point on Earth
b...
 Imaginary lines that go from pole
to pole. The main meridian
(meridian 0º) is the Greenwich
meridian, and it’s used to c...
 Imaginary lines that encircle the
Earth perpendicular to its axis.
The main parallel (parallel 0º) is
the Equator, and i...
Let’s practice!! Locate the point…
 30ºS 90ºE
 40ºN 10ºW
 0ºN 100ºW
 70ºS 70ºE
 60ºN 0ºW
a) P.10, exercise 1.
b) P.16, exercise 4.
c) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth. Include:
 Equator
 Greenwic...
The Sun’s rays fall with a different inclination at different
latitudes.We distinguish different climate zones:
 WARM ZON...
e) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth, including:
 Equator
 Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)
 Tropic of Capricorn...
MAIN PARTS:
• CORE
• MANTLE
• CRUST
LITHOSPHERE:
 Formed by the crust and the upper-most
solid part of the mantle.
 It’s broken into tectonic plates.
TECTONIC PLATES:
 Are constantly moving over the mantle.
 When the tectonic plates separate or collide, crust is created...
PANGAEA
WHEN TWO PLATES SEPARATE  fractures or rifts
are created. Magma comes out from these fractures and
when it solidifies new...
When it happens in two oceanic
plates, volcano-islands are formed:
Canary Islands, Iceland,…
Rift valley in Africa
WHEN TWO PLATES COLLIDE  one moves under
the other. This process is known as subduction. Normally it
creates volcanoes, e...
Himalaya
in Asia
Subduction process
in the western coast
of South-America.
Volcanoes &
earthquakes are
very common.
 Most of the Earth, 71%,
is covered by water,
and it’s mostly in the
southern hemisphere.
 Land only occupies
29%, and i...
Which are the 6 continents?
Which are the 5 oceans?
a) P. 18  exercises 2, 3, 4, 5
b) Draw a diagram with the internal layers of Earth.
c) Draw a map of the world with the 6...
Large areas of flat terrain, no higher than
200m above sea level.
Plains higher than 200m above sea level.
Elevations of the terrain above the surrounding
land with steep slopes and an altitude of more than
600m.
Sierras (old mou...
Steep, younger mountains at high
altitudes (ej: Himalayas).
Sunken or depressed areas below the surrounding
areas.
Parts of the coast that jut out into the sea.
Areas of sea surrounded by the coast on three
sides.
An area of land surrounded almost completely by
water except for a part that is joined to the
mainland.
They are formed when the sea flows into the
mouth of a river.
Narrow inlets eroded by glaciers and penetrated
by the sea.
The extension of the continents under the sea
waters.
A steep incline found between the continental
shelf and the abyssal plain.
 Oceanic ridges
(dorsal oceánica):
underwater mountain ranges.
 Oceanic trenches
(fosa oceánica):
narrow, long depressio...
Relief is…
 Formed by INTERNAL FORCES:
Orogeny
Earthquakes
Volcanoes
 Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES:
Atmosphere
(wi...
 Formed by INTERNAL FORCES:
Orogeny
 Formed by INTERNAL FORCES:
Orogeny
Earthquakes
 Formed by INTERNAL FORCES:
Orogeny
Earthquakes
Volcanoes
 Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES
Atmosphere (wind, temperature)
Water
Living things
EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTA...
Wind
erosion
(Alxa desert,
Mongolia)
Temperature
erosion
(Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid)
Water
erosion
(Playa de las
Catedrales,
Lugo)
Water
erosion
(Glacier in
Iceland)
Human erosion
EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
a) P. 20  exercise 2
b) P. 22  exercises 5, 6
c) P. 23  exercise 1
d) What is the concept for the following
definition?...
Freshwater is very scarce on Earth.
 97,5%  salted water
 2,5%  fresh water
 Fresh water
 In rivers, glaciers, lakes,
aquifers.
 Salted water
 In seas & oceans
 Constantly moving: waves, tides ...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature
=player_embedded&v=l37ofe9haMU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature
=player_embed...
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur
e=player_embedded&v=JpV7NIJTxD0
Lake Quilotoa
(water-filled
caldera in a
volcano in the
Ecuadorian Andes)
The GREAT LAKES between
USA and Canada
P. 24  exercises 1, 2, 3.
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
U1 2 introduction to geography
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U1 2 introduction to geography

  1. 1. Aa .. UNITS 1 & 2 1ESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  2. 2.  Blue planet  mostly water  Equator  imaginary lines, divides the Earth in 2 equal parts or hemispheres. Which hemisphere has more land? Which hemisphere has more water?
  3. 3.  The Earth is part of the Solar System. Why is life on Earth possible?
  4. 4.  Life on Earth is possible due to:  Atmosphere  Water  Moderate temperature
  5. 5. We use a system of imaginary lines (meridians & parallels) that form a grid that enables us to locate any point on Earth by using geographic coordinates.
  6. 6.  Imaginary lines that go from pole to pole. The main meridian (meridian 0º) is the Greenwich meridian, and it’s used to calculate the longitude.  Longitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Greenwich meridian. It varies from 0º to 180º either East or West from the Greenwich meridian.
  7. 7.  Imaginary lines that encircle the Earth perpendicular to its axis. The main parallel (parallel 0º) is the Equator, and it’s used to calculate the latitude.  Latitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Equator. It varies from 0º to 90º either North or South from the Equator.
  8. 8. Let’s practice!! Locate the point…  30ºS 90ºE  40ºN 10ºW  0ºN 100ºW  70ºS 70ºE  60ºN 0ºW
  9. 9. a) P.10, exercise 1. b) P.16, exercise 4. c) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth. Include:  Equator  Greenwich meridian  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS) d) Complete the worksheet.
  10. 10. The Sun’s rays fall with a different inclination at different latitudes.We distinguish different climate zones:  WARM ZONE  TEMPERATE ZONE  COLD ZONE WARM ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE COLD ZONE COLD ZONE
  11. 11. e) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth, including:  Equator  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS)  Warm zone  Temperate zone  Cold zone f) Name the imaginary lines that delimit the… • Warm zone • Temperate zone • Cold zone
  12. 12. MAIN PARTS: • CORE • MANTLE • CRUST
  13. 13. LITHOSPHERE:  Formed by the crust and the upper-most solid part of the mantle.  It’s broken into tectonic plates.
  14. 14. TECTONIC PLATES:  Are constantly moving over the mantle.  When the tectonic plates separate or collide, crust is created or destroyed.
  15. 15. PANGAEA
  16. 16. WHEN TWO PLATES SEPARATE  fractures or rifts are created. Magma comes out from these fractures and when it solidifies new crust is formed.
  17. 17. When it happens in two oceanic plates, volcano-islands are formed: Canary Islands, Iceland,…
  18. 18. Rift valley in Africa
  19. 19. WHEN TWO PLATES COLLIDE  one moves under the other. This process is known as subduction. Normally it creates volcanoes, earthquakes or mountains.
  20. 20. Himalaya in Asia
  21. 21. Subduction process in the western coast of South-America. Volcanoes & earthquakes are very common.
  22. 22.  Most of the Earth, 71%, is covered by water, and it’s mostly in the southern hemisphere.  Land only occupies 29%, and it’s mostly in the northern hemisphere.
  23. 23. Which are the 6 continents? Which are the 5 oceans?
  24. 24. a) P. 18  exercises 2, 3, 4, 5 b) Draw a diagram with the internal layers of Earth. c) Draw a map of the world with the 6 continents and the 5 oceans. d) Define the following concepts:  Tectonic plates  Subduction  Rift  Crust  Mantle  Lithosphere e) What percentage of the Earth’s surface is land? And water?
  25. 25. Large areas of flat terrain, no higher than 200m above sea level.
  26. 26. Plains higher than 200m above sea level.
  27. 27. Elevations of the terrain above the surrounding land with steep slopes and an altitude of more than 600m. Sierras (old mountain ranges): small groups and not very high mountains. Cordilleras (young mountain ranges): large groups and rather high mountains.
  28. 28. Steep, younger mountains at high altitudes (ej: Himalayas).
  29. 29. Sunken or depressed areas below the surrounding areas.
  30. 30. Parts of the coast that jut out into the sea.
  31. 31. Areas of sea surrounded by the coast on three sides.
  32. 32. An area of land surrounded almost completely by water except for a part that is joined to the mainland.
  33. 33. They are formed when the sea flows into the mouth of a river.
  34. 34. Narrow inlets eroded by glaciers and penetrated by the sea.
  35. 35. The extension of the continents under the sea waters.
  36. 36. A steep incline found between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain.
  37. 37.  Oceanic ridges (dorsal oceánica): underwater mountain ranges.  Oceanic trenches (fosa oceánica): narrow, long depressions on the ocean floor. Large flat areas of the deep ocean floor (4,000- 5,000m below sea level). In them we can find:
  38. 38. Relief is…  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES: Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  39. 39.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny
  40. 40.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes
  41. 41.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes
  42. 42.  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  43. 43. Wind erosion (Alxa desert, Mongolia)
  44. 44. Temperature erosion (Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid)
  45. 45. Water erosion (Playa de las Catedrales, Lugo)
  46. 46. Water erosion (Glacier in Iceland)
  47. 47. Human erosion
  48. 48. EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
  49. 49. a) P. 20  exercise 2 b) P. 22  exercises 5, 6 c) P. 23  exercise 1 d) What is the concept for the following definition? “The process by which the surface of the earth is worn away”. e) Name 5 factors that erode the relief. f) What’s orogeny? When does it happen?
  50. 50. Freshwater is very scarce on Earth.  97,5%  salted water  2,5%  fresh water
  51. 51.  Fresh water  In rivers, glaciers, lakes, aquifers.  Salted water  In seas & oceans  Constantly moving: waves, tides & ocean currents.
  52. 52. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =player_embedded&v=l37ofe9haMU https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =player_embedded&v=CTQ6ciHENgI
  53. 53.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur e=player_embedded&v=JpV7NIJTxD0
  54. 54. Lake Quilotoa (water-filled caldera in a volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes) The GREAT LAKES between USA and Canada
  55. 55. P. 24  exercises 1, 2, 3.

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