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# U1 2 introduction to geography

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• 1. Aa .. UNITS 1 & 2 1ESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
• 2.  Blue planet  mostly water  Equator  imaginary lines, divides the Earth in 2 equal parts or hemispheres. Which hemisphere has more land? Which hemisphere has more water?
• 3.  The Earth is part of the Solar System. Why is life on Earth possible?
• 4.  Life on Earth is possible due to:  Atmosphere  Water  Moderate temperature
• 5. We use a system of imaginary lines (meridians & parallels) that form a grid that enables us to locate any point on Earth by using geographic coordinates.
• 6.  Imaginary lines that go from pole to pole. The main meridian (meridian 0º) is the Greenwich meridian, and it’s used to calculate the longitude.  Longitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Greenwich meridian. It varies from 0º to 180º either East or West from the Greenwich meridian.
• 7.  Imaginary lines that encircle the Earth perpendicular to its axis. The main parallel (parallel 0º) is the Equator, and it’s used to calculate the latitude.  Latitude: distance measured in degrees from any point to the Equator. It varies from 0º to 90º either North or South from the Equator.
• 8. Let’s practice!! Locate the point…  30ºS 90ºE  40ºN 10ºW  0ºN 100ºW  70ºS 70ºE  60ºN 0ºW
• 9. a) P.10, exercise 1. b) P.16, exercise 4. c) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth. Include:  Equator  Greenwich meridian  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS) d) Complete the worksheet.
• 10. The Sun’s rays fall with a different inclination at different latitudes.We distinguish different climate zones:  WARM ZONE  TEMPERATE ZONE  COLD ZONE WARM ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE TEMPERATE ZONE COLD ZONE COLD ZONE
• 11. e) Copy & complete the following diagram of Earth, including:  Equator  Tropic of Cancer (23.5º N)  Tropic of Capricorn (23.5º S)  Arctic Circle (66.5 ºN)  Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)  North Pole (90º N)  South Pole (90ºS)  Warm zone  Temperate zone  Cold zone f) Name the imaginary lines that delimit the… • Warm zone • Temperate zone • Cold zone
• 12. MAIN PARTS: • CORE • MANTLE • CRUST
• 13. LITHOSPHERE:  Formed by the crust and the upper-most solid part of the mantle.  It’s broken into tectonic plates.
• 14. TECTONIC PLATES:  Are constantly moving over the mantle.  When the tectonic plates separate or collide, crust is created or destroyed.
• 15. PANGAEA
• 16. WHEN TWO PLATES SEPARATE  fractures or rifts are created. Magma comes out from these fractures and when it solidifies new crust is formed.
• 17. When it happens in two oceanic plates, volcano-islands are formed: Canary Islands, Iceland,…
• 18. Rift valley in Africa
• 19. WHEN TWO PLATES COLLIDE  one moves under the other. This process is known as subduction. Normally it creates volcanoes, earthquakes or mountains.
• 20. Himalaya in Asia
• 21. Subduction process in the western coast of South-America. Volcanoes & earthquakes are very common.
• 22.  Most of the Earth, 71%, is covered by water, and it’s mostly in the southern hemisphere.  Land only occupies 29%, and it’s mostly in the northern hemisphere.
• 23. Which are the 6 continents? Which are the 5 oceans?
• 24. a) P. 18  exercises 2, 3, 4, 5 b) Draw a diagram with the internal layers of Earth. c) Draw a map of the world with the 6 continents and the 5 oceans. d) Define the following concepts:  Tectonic plates  Subduction  Rift  Crust  Mantle  Lithosphere e) What percentage of the Earth’s surface is land? And water?
• 25. Large areas of flat terrain, no higher than 200m above sea level.
• 26. Plains higher than 200m above sea level.
• 27. Elevations of the terrain above the surrounding land with steep slopes and an altitude of more than 600m. Sierras (old mountain ranges): small groups and not very high mountains. Cordilleras (young mountain ranges): large groups and rather high mountains.
• 28. Steep, younger mountains at high altitudes (ej: Himalayas).
• 29. Sunken or depressed areas below the surrounding areas.
• 30. Parts of the coast that jut out into the sea.
• 31. Areas of sea surrounded by the coast on three sides.
• 32. An area of land surrounded almost completely by water except for a part that is joined to the mainland.
• 33. They are formed when the sea flows into the mouth of a river.
• 34. Narrow inlets eroded by glaciers and penetrated by the sea.
• 35. The extension of the continents under the sea waters.
• 36. A steep incline found between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain.
• 37.  Oceanic ridges (dorsal oceánica): underwater mountain ranges.  Oceanic trenches (fosa oceánica): narrow, long depressions on the ocean floor. Large flat areas of the deep ocean floor (4,000- 5,000m below sea level). In them we can find:
• 38. Relief is…  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES: Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
• 39.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny
• 40.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes
• 41.  Formed by INTERNAL FORCES: Orogeny Earthquakes Volcanoes
• 42.  Transformed by EXTERNAL FORCES Atmosphere (wind, temperature) Water Living things EROSION  TANSPORTATION  SEDIMENTATION
• 43. Wind erosion (Alxa desert, Mongolia)