TIME
&
PLACE
TIME & PLACE
 Chronology: 4000 - 31 BC,
 Modern country: Egypt
TIME & PLACE
 Location:
• On the banks of the Nile river:
provided them with fertile land. ,
since once a year it overflo...
NILE RIVER FLOODING
TIME & PLACE
 At the beginning, the Egyptian civilization was
divided into 2 independent kingdoms:
 Lower Egypt (delta a...
ACTIVITY 1
COPY AND ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

1) When did the Egyptian civilization
developed?

2) What modern count...
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT (ACTIVITY 2)
 There were 4 main periods separated by the so-called
“intermediate periods”:
...
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT
• OLD KINGDOM (3100 - 2181 BC):
• Capital: Memphis
• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by...
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT
• MIDDLE KINGDOM (2055 - 1795 BC):
• Capital: Thebes
• It is a time of territorial expansion...
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT
• NEW KINGDOM (1550 - 1069 BC):
• Capital: Thebes.
• Period of enormous prosperity. The terr...
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT
• LATE PERIOD (715 -31 BC):
• Egypt lost its power to the Persians, the Greeks, and
finally ...
IN 525 BC THE PERSIANS (LEADED BY THE KING CAMBYSES II) CONQUERED EGYPT.
IN 332 THE GREEKS (UNDER ALEXANDER THE GREAT) CONQUERED EGYPT.
FINALLY, IN 31 BC THE ROMANS (LEADED BY OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS, THE 1ST
ROMAN EMPEROR) CONQUERED EGYPT AND MADE IT A ROMAN PROV...
POLITICAL,
SOCIAL &
ECONOMIC
ORGANIZATION
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
PHARAOHS were the maximum leaders,
they had absolute power: they had control
over EVERYTHING:
 Pol...
SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Egyptian society was very HIERARCHICAL .
The PYRAMID is a perfect symbol to represent this complexity!...
ACTIVITY 3: SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
To represent the HIERARCHICAL SOCIETY
of Ancient Egypt, you are going to…
a) Draw a Pyrami...
ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION
EGYPTIAN ECONOMY

Based on:
Irrigated agriculture:
- Wheat (for bread)
- Barley (for beer)
- Legumes...
Egyptian
cultural
legacy
A) CULTURAL ASPECTS
 They developed the HIEROGLYPHIC writing . Usually they used
papyrus for writing.

The Rosetta Stone ...
A) CULTURAL ASPECTS
 HIEROGLYPHIC writing: there are over 6.000 hieroglyphics.
Some hieroglyphics represent ideas:
 An a...
A) CULTURAL ASPECTS
 Pharaohs names were written inside “cartouches”:
an oval with a horizontal line at one end which
ind...
A) CULTURAL ASPECTS
 They also developed algebra, geometry, astronomy… This enabled
them to make a calendar of 365 days d...
B) EGYPTIAN RELIGION & BELIEFS
 They were POLYTHEISTIC  believed in many gods.
 They believed in life after death (afte...
Many of these
gods had a
zoomorphic
aspect (half
human, half
animal), which
was a way of
symbolizing
aspects of their
func...
ACTIVITY 4: egyptian gods
Choose an Egyptian god an prepare a poster
(size A4) including:
1) Drawing (not printed!)

OSIRI...
LIFE AFTER DEATH:
MUMMIFICATION & JUDGEMENT OF OSIRIS
Egyptians believed than humans were made of a body & a soul (the ka)...
1) JUDGMENT OF OSIRIS
ACTIVITY 5: the judgement of osiris
The
deceased

Anubis (god
of embalming
and the dead)

Anubis (god of
embalming and
the...
2) MUMMIFICATION
ACTIVITY 6: COMIC OF THE mummification
process
VIDEO:
1) Embalmers washed and purified the body with
water from the Nile.
...
THE CANOPIC JARS
The Canopic Jars were the representation of the four sons of Horus (god of the sky, war
and protection). ...
ACTIVITY 6: COMIC OF THE mummification
process
5) They filled the body with aromatic herbs and other dry
materials.
6) To ...
BODY WRAPPED IN STRIPES OF LINEN
SARCOPHAGUS
SARCOPHAGUS
C) ARTISTIC ACHIEVEMENTS
Egyptian art was mainly related to religion (gods & afterlife).
ARCHITECTURE: main building mate...
TEMPLES
TEMPLES
Function:
Homes of the gods
Commemoration of pharaohs
Best examples:
 Luxor  dedicated to god Amun (king of ...
ACTIVITY 7: STRUCTURE OF EGYPTIAN
TEMPLES

2) Pylons

3) Patio
1) Avenue of
sphinxes

5) Sanctuary
4) Hypostyle
hall

1) A...
TEMPLE OF LUXOR
TEMPLE OF KARNAK:
columns in the sides
of the patio &
in the hypostyle hall.
TEMPLE OF ABU
SIMBEL
It was dug out of rock.
ROYAL TOMBS:
- Mastabas
- Pyramids
- Hypogeum
Poor people were buried in holes in the desert….. but pharaohs and
nobles we...
1) MASTABAS
 1st royal tombs
 They were flat-roofed, rectangular pyramids.
 They had a burial chamber built beneath the...
2) PYRAMIDS
 Largest funerary monuments in the world.
 Different types:
 Step pyramids
 Bent pyramids
 Normal pyramid...
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT
PYRAMID (CHEOPS) OF GIZA
STEP PYRAMID
Several mastabas on top of
each other, each one slightly
smaller than the previous
one.
BENT PYRAMID
When Egyptians first tried to make a pyramid with straight sides (instead
of steps), they made the sides too ...
NORMAL PYRAMIDS
The Red Pyramid (also known as the North Pyramid), was
the 1st “true” pyramid  this time builders got the...
THE PYRAMIDS’ BUILDERS
People used to think the pyramids were built by slaves who were treated harshly, but
the workers we...
3º) HYPOGEUM
 Underground tombs that were dug out of rock.
 They were the burial tombs of the Pharaohs of the New Kingdo...
THE DISCOVERY OF THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN
The most famous Egyptian tomb of all was built for Tutankhamun, the boy king who ...
THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN
1ST SARCOPHAGUS OF
TUTANKHAMUN
2ND SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN
3RD SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN
FUNERARY MASK AND MUMMY OF
TUTANKHAMUN
THE
END
Egypt
Egypt
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Egypt

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Transcript of "Egypt"

  1. 1. TIME & PLACE
  2. 2. TIME & PLACE  Chronology: 4000 - 31 BC,  Modern country: Egypt
  3. 3. TIME & PLACE  Location: • On the banks of the Nile river: provided them with fertile land. , since once a year it overflowed. • In the middle of a desert: isolated them from enemies.
  4. 4. NILE RIVER FLOODING
  5. 5. TIME & PLACE  At the beginning, the Egyptian civilization was divided into 2 independent kingdoms:  Lower Egypt (delta area)  Upper Egypt (valley area) King Menes unified them in 3100 BC. This event is taken as the beginning of ANCIENT EGYPT. King Menes, the first Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
  6. 6. ACTIVITY 1 COPY AND ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 1) When did the Egyptian civilization developed? 2) What modern country is it today? 3) What geographical conditions influenced its development? 4) Who and when unified upper Egypt & lower Egypt?
  7. 7. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT (ACTIVITY 2)  There were 4 main periods separated by the so-called “intermediate periods”: PERIOD CHRONOLOGY CAPITAL OLD KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM LATE PERIOD - MAIN EVENT
  8. 8. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT • OLD KINGDOM (3100 - 2181 BC): • Capital: Memphis • Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by king Menes. The Great Pyramids of the pharaohs Cheops, Chephren & Mykerinos are built at Giza.
  9. 9. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT • MIDDLE KINGDOM (2055 - 1795 BC): • Capital: Thebes • It is a time of territorial expansion.
  10. 10. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT • NEW KINGDOM (1550 - 1069 BC): • Capital: Thebes. • Period of enormous prosperity. The territorial expansion continued, and Egypt reached its maximum extension. Some well-known pharaohs of this period were Ramses II & Tutankhamen. TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL, DEDICATED TO RAMSES II TUTANKHAMEN’S FUNERARY MASK
  11. 11. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EGYPT • LATE PERIOD (715 -31 BC): • Egypt lost its power to the Persians, the Greeks, and finally in 31 BC to the Romans who in made it a Roman province. ROMAN EMPIRE IN 31 BC
  12. 12. IN 525 BC THE PERSIANS (LEADED BY THE KING CAMBYSES II) CONQUERED EGYPT.
  13. 13. IN 332 THE GREEKS (UNDER ALEXANDER THE GREAT) CONQUERED EGYPT.
  14. 14. FINALLY, IN 31 BC THE ROMANS (LEADED BY OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS, THE 1ST ROMAN EMPEROR) CONQUERED EGYPT AND MADE IT A ROMAN PROVINCE. CLEOPATRA WAS THE LAST EGYPTIAN PHARAOH. ROMAN EMPIRE IN 31 BC
  15. 15. POLITICAL, SOCIAL & ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION
  16. 16. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION PHARAOHS were the maximum leaders, they had absolute power: they had control over EVERYTHING:  Political power  imposed law & justice  Military power  commanded the army  Owners of all the land  Controlled trade with other territories  They were considered living gods To be able to control everything in such a large territory, pharaohs had people to help them: • Governors • Clerks, administrators (scribes were the most important) • A very organized army.
  17. 17. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Egyptian society was very HIERARCHICAL . The PYRAMID is a perfect symbol to represent this complexity!!! Pharaoh & family Priests & nobles Clerks (scribes, army officers…) Farmers, craftsmen (artisans) and traders. Slaves
  18. 18. ACTIVITY 3: SOCIAL ORGANIZATION To represent the HIERARCHICAL SOCIETY of Ancient Egypt, you are going to… a) Draw a Pyramid with 5 levels. b) Put the following Egyptian social groups in its corresponding level. • Priests & nobles • Clerks (scribes, army officers…) • Slaves • Pharaoh & his family • Farmers, craftsmen (artisans) and traders.
  19. 19. ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION EGYPTIAN ECONOMY Based on: Irrigated agriculture: - Wheat (for bread) - Barley (for beer) - Legumes - Figs - Cotton Farming: - For food: pigs, sheep, poultry. - For work: oxen, donkeys. Other economic activities: Advanced craftwork Trade controlled by the pharaoh.
  20. 20. Egyptian cultural legacy
  21. 21. A) CULTURAL ASPECTS  They developed the HIEROGLYPHIC writing . Usually they used papyrus for writing. The Rosetta Stone (found at the end of the 18th century), in which the same text is written in 3 different scripts (hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek), provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.
  22. 22. A) CULTURAL ASPECTS  HIEROGLYPHIC writing: there are over 6.000 hieroglyphics. Some hieroglyphics represent ideas:  An arm with a pot means “gift”, “offering”.  An arm with a shield and a mace means “combat”, “”fight“. Other hieroglyphics represent sounds.  For example an owl represents the phonetic sound “M”. NOTE: the Hieroglyphic character for our letters "i" and "e"; "f“ and "v"; “o”, “u” and “w” are the same.
  23. 23. A) CULTURAL ASPECTS  Pharaohs names were written inside “cartouches”: an oval with a horizontal line at one end which indicated that the text enclosed was a royal name. The oval surrounding their name was meant to protect them from evil spirits. 1º) Draw a cartouche in a blank sheet of paper. 2º) Write in it your name using hieroglyphics!! 3º) Decorate it!!
  24. 24. A) CULTURAL ASPECTS  They also developed algebra, geometry, astronomy… This enabled them to make a calendar of 365 days divided into 24 periods (our hours).
  25. 25. B) EGYPTIAN RELIGION & BELIEFS  They were POLYTHEISTIC  believed in many gods.  They believed in life after death (afterlife). Their belief was so strong and important to the people that great preparation was made for death and burial: 1º) The preparation of the body itself (mummification). 2º) Burial places (mastabas, pyramids, hypogeum).
  26. 26. Many of these gods had a zoomorphic aspect (half human, half animal), which was a way of symbolizing aspects of their functions or personalities. Ex: birds to symbolize wisdom  the wings of birds raise them above others.
  27. 27. ACTIVITY 4: egyptian gods Choose an Egyptian god an prepare a poster (size A4) including: 1) Drawing (not printed!) OSIRIS 2) Name 3) Name in hieroglyphics 4) Description: • What is he/she god/goddess of? • How does he look like? • Symbols? Osiris is the Egyptian god of the afterlife & agriculture. He was depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side. His symbols, are a crook and flail.
  28. 28. LIFE AFTER DEATH: MUMMIFICATION & JUDGEMENT OF OSIRIS Egyptians believed than humans were made of a body & a soul (the ka). There were 2 requirements to live forever in paradise (afterlife): 1) THE SOUL (KA)  had to pass the Judgment of Osiris, otherwise the dead’s heart (which contained the soul) would be eaten by a demon (Ammit). The “Book of the Dead” contained information about how to pass this judgment. 2) THE BODY  had to be preserved. That’s why they were mummified.
  29. 29. 1) JUDGMENT OF OSIRIS
  30. 30. ACTIVITY 5: the judgement of osiris The deceased Anubis (god of embalming and the dead) Anubis (god of embalming and the dead) took the deceased to the “Two Truths hall”. The heart of the deceased Ammit (crocodiledemon) The f eather that symbolizes Maat (goddess of truth) The heart of the deceased was weighed against a feather (which symbolises Maat, the goddess of truth). Thoth (god of writing and knowledge) recorded the result. If the heart was heavier, Ammit (demon) would eat it, and the deceased wasn’t allowed to the afterlife. Thoth (god of writing & knowledge) The deceased Horus (god of the sky, war and protection) Osiris (god of the af terlif e) If the heart was lighter, the deceased was led by Horus (god of the sky, war and protection) and was received by Osiris (god of the afterlife) who would confirm his access to the afterlife.
  31. 31. 2) MUMMIFICATION
  32. 32. ACTIVITY 6: COMIC OF THE mummification process VIDEO: 1) Embalmers washed and purified the body with water from the Nile. 2) The brain was extracted through the nose with a hook. 3) They cut the corpse on one side, and removed all the organs (intestines, lungs, stomach & liver) except the heart. The heart was left inside the body, since it was thought to embody the soul. 4) Each organ was put into a different Canopic Jar.
  33. 33. THE CANOPIC JARS The Canopic Jars were the representation of the four sons of Horus (god of the sky, war and protection). They were funerary gods and protected the mummified organs. Duamutef: in jackal form, protected the stomach. Qebehsenuef: in falcon form, protected the intestines. Hapi: in baboon form, protected the lungs. Imseti: in human form, protected the liver.
  34. 34. ACTIVITY 6: COMIC OF THE mummification process 5) They filled the body with aromatic herbs and other dry materials. 6) To avoid decomposition, the body was dried by covering it natron (a type of salt), which absorbed the moisture from the body. 7) After 70 days, they cleaned the dry corpse and wrapped it with strips of white linen. 8) A funerary mask was placed on the corpse, which was then placed in a sarcophagus.
  35. 35. BODY WRAPPED IN STRIPES OF LINEN
  36. 36. SARCOPHAGUS
  37. 37. SARCOPHAGUS
  38. 38. C) ARTISTIC ACHIEVEMENTS Egyptian art was mainly related to religion (gods & afterlife). ARCHITECTURE: main building material  stone. Temples  homes of the gods, or to commemorate a pharaoh (Luxor, Karnak, Abu Simbel). Tombs  burial places of the pharaohs: o Mastabas o Pyramids (Giza complex: Cheops, Chefren, Mykerinos). o Hypogeum (Valley of the Kings). SCULPTURE: Reliefs  to decorate temples’ walls. Free-standing figures  official or religious use. Represented gods/pharaohs/nobles/clerks. PAINTINGS: decorated interior of tombs & temples. Scenes of everyday life or religious topics.
  39. 39. TEMPLES
  40. 40. TEMPLES Function: Homes of the gods Commemoration of pharaohs Best examples:  Luxor  dedicated to god Amun (king of the gods).  Karnak  dedicated to god Amun (king of the gods).  Abu Simbel (dug out of rock)  dedicated to Pharaoh Ramses II.
  41. 41. ACTIVITY 7: STRUCTURE OF EGYPTIAN TEMPLES 2) Pylons 3) Patio 1) Avenue of sphinxes 5) Sanctuary 4) Hypostyle hall 1) AVENUE OF SPHINXES: a sphinx was a mythical creature with the body of a lion & the head of a human. It was thought of as a guardian. 2) PYLONS: served symbolically as guard towers against evil forces. 3) PATIO: it’s the place where believers were received. 4) HYPOSTYLE HALL: it was a room of columns covered with a ceiling. Only clerks, nobles, priests and the pharaoh had access to it. 5) SANCTUARY: the room with the statue of the god. Only pharaohs and priests had access to it.
  42. 42. TEMPLE OF LUXOR
  43. 43. TEMPLE OF KARNAK: columns in the sides of the patio & in the hypostyle hall.
  44. 44. TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL It was dug out of rock.
  45. 45. ROYAL TOMBS: - Mastabas - Pyramids - Hypogeum Poor people were buried in holes in the desert….. but pharaohs and nobles were laid to rest in tombs that would last forever and show the world their glory.
  46. 46. 1) MASTABAS  1st royal tombs  They were flat-roofed, rectangular pyramids.  They had a burial chamber built beneath them.
  47. 47. 2) PYRAMIDS  Largest funerary monuments in the world.  Different types:  Step pyramids  Bent pyramids  Normal pyramids  Inside a pyramid there were many chambers (rooms) and passages. The pharaoh’s sarcophagus and its funerary treasure was in the “Burial chamber”. To avoid its sacking, there were blocked passageways & hidden entrances… false passages led to false chambers…  Biggest & most well known pyramids: the ones of the pharaohs Cheops, Chephren & Mykerinos (located in Giza).
  48. 48. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT PYRAMID (CHEOPS) OF GIZA
  49. 49. STEP PYRAMID Several mastabas on top of each other, each one slightly smaller than the previous one.
  50. 50. BENT PYRAMID When Egyptians first tried to make a pyramid with straight sides (instead of steps), they made the sides too steep. Halfway through the construction, they tried to correct this by making them less steep at the top, but this left the pyramid looking a little strange. It became known as the Bent Pyramid.
  51. 51. NORMAL PYRAMIDS The Red Pyramid (also known as the North Pyramid), was the 1st “true” pyramid  this time builders got the angle right, and the sides slope gently to a point. Egypt´s most famous pyramids are at Giza: Cheops, Chephren & Mykerinos King’s buried in these pyramids were members of the same family (father, son and grandson).
  52. 52. THE PYRAMIDS’ BUILDERS People used to think the pyramids were built by slaves who were treated harshly, but the workers were actually free men. They were paid by the pharaoh, and they were proud to be part of such an amazing achievement.
  53. 53. 3º) HYPOGEUM  Underground tombs that were dug out of rock.  They were the burial tombs of the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom. (afraid of sacking).  Best examples: in the Valley of the Kings  the most famous tomb in it was Tutankhamun’s. The discovery in 1922 of this nearly intact tomb enabled historians to increase their knowledge of Ancient Egypt civilization.
  54. 54. THE DISCOVERY OF THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN The most famous Egyptian tomb of all was built for Tutankhamun, the boy king who died when he was not much more than 18 years old. Over 3,000 years passed. Most Egyptian royal tombs were ransacked by robbers, leaving only fragments of the treasures. But in 1922, a British archaeologist named Howard Carter was searching the Valley of the Kings. He had almost given up hope of finding anything new when he found the intact tomb of Tutankhamun.
  55. 55. THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN
  56. 56. 1ST SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN
  57. 57. 2ND SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN
  58. 58. 3RD SARCOPHAGUS OF TUTANKHAMUN
  59. 59. FUNERARY MASK AND MUMMY OF TUTANKHAMUN
  60. 60. THE END

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