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Ancient Greek Religion

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  • 1. GREEK RELIGION
  • 2. 4.1 Olympian gods • Polytheistic • Same appearance and sentiments as humans, but they differed because of: • immortality (they lived forever) • exceptional powers • They were thought to live in Mount Olympus.
  • 3. Do you know what a story is called when there is no scientific evidence?
  • 4. It is called a…. MYTH!!! The Greeks had a lot of myths to explain: 1) Human emotions (anger, love, jealousy, family fights and battles…) 2) Natural disasters and events (famine, earthquakes, birth/pregnancy, death…) MYTHOLOGY = tales of gods & heroes.
  • 5. Every culture has a creation myth/explanation: How does your culture explain the creation of the Earth??? With science? With religion? With myths?
  • 6.  The universe began in a state of emptiness called Chaos.  Gaia (Earth), arose out of Chaos.  Gaia mated with Uranus, producing children who were called the Titans.
  • 7.  Fearing his children, Uranus confined them within the huge body of Gaia.  Gaia and Cronus, the youngest Titan, plotted revenge. Using a sickle provided by Gaia, Cronus attacked Uranus and castrated him—that is, removed his sex organs.
  • 8.  Cronus then freed the Titans from inside Gaia and became king of the gods.  During his reign, the work of creating the world continued.  Thousands of divinities were born, including the gods or goddesses of death, night, the rivers, and sleep.
  • 9.  Cronus married his sister Rhea. They had 3 daughters & 3 sons together.  But Cronus feared that he, like Uranus, would be taken over by his children. He therefore swallowed his first five children as soon as they were born.  To save her sixth child, Zeus, Rhea hid the infant Zeus on the island of Crete.
  • 10.  After Zeus grew up, he returned to challenge his father. Zeus then led his brothers and sisters in a war against Cronus and the other Titans.  This war was called the Titanomachy. It lasted 10 years. Zeus and his followers finally won the war.
  • 11.  The victorious gods and goddesses chose Zeus as their ruler and agreed to live with him on Mount Olympus.
  • 12. Who are some of the most important Greek gods?
  • 13. ZEUS Roman name Jupiter • Zeus was the supreme god of the Olympians.
  • 14. Hera Roman name Juno • Hera was the goddess of marriage. She was the wife of Zeus and Queen of the Olympians.
  • 15. APHRODITE Roman name Venus • Aphrodite was the goddess of love, beauty and fertility. She was also a protectress of sailors.
  • 16. ARES Roman name Mars • Ares was the god of war, or more precisely of warlike frenzy.
  • 17. HEPHAESTUS Roman name Vulcan • Hephaestus was the god of fire and crafts or the two together, hence of blacksmiths.
  • 18. ARTEMIS Roman name Diana • Artemis was the goddess of the hunt. She helped women in childbirth, but also brought sudden death with her arrows.
  • 19. HESTIA Roman name VESTA • She is Zeus´s sister and wife She takes care of the Hearth and protects homes and born children.
  • 20. HERMES Roman name Mercury • Hermes was the messenger of the gods and guide of dead souls to the Underworld.
  • 21. POSEIDON Roman name Neptune • Poseidon was the god of the sea, earthquakes and horses. Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain.
  • 22. APOLLO Roman name Apollo • Apollo was the god of prophesy, music and healing.
  • 23. ATHENA Roman name Minerva • Athena was the goddess of crafts and the domestic arts and also those of war and wisdom. She was the patron goddess of Athens. Her symbol was the owl.
  • 24. HADES Roman name Pluto • Hades was the God of the dead and ruler of the Underworld, which was called Hades after the god. Hades abducted Persephone, who became his queen.
  • 25. The Romans adopted their religion and changed the names of the gods. Look at page 121. Can you see how the Romans changed the names? Give some examples:
  • 26. • Greeks also believed in heroes (½ god, ½ human), like Achilles (Aquiles) or Heracles (Hércules)
  • 27. 4.2 Religious worship Greeks worshipped their gods in several ways…
  • 28. PRAYERS, OFFERINGS & ANIMAL SACRIFICES Took place in the temples.
  • 29. ORACLES The gods’ answers to human questions. Temple of Apollo, where the Oracle of Delphi took place
  • 30. GAMES OR SPORTING COMPETITIONS Festivals dedicated to the gods. -most important took place in Olympia in honor of Zeus
  • 31. Activity: Role-play!!! In small groups (4 or 5 students), you will create a short play based on the Olympic gods. You must each represent a god and invent a myth where all the gods play an important role. The play should be about 5-10 minutes. • Gods’ and their symbols are on page 121

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