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Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
Understanding Contexts of Use
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Understanding Contexts of Use

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One of the challenges facing interaction designers today is understanding different contexts of use. Our designs are being used in constantly changing environments, with emergent behaviour creating …

One of the challenges facing interaction designers today is understanding different contexts of use. Our designs are being used in constantly changing environments, with emergent behaviour creating new, unexpected solutions. Mobile devices provide unique opportunities to address context, but come with a range of constraints – as simple as the amount of ambient light or as complex as integration between local hardware and remote services.

How can interaction designers identify and address the impact of context, especially when key areas may be outside their influence or responsibility? Is it possible to identify the elements of context which are critical to a design succeeding? What design opportunities can understanding context bring to interactions?

This presentation will help interaction designers understand the implications of contexts of use, and how it can improve their design deliverables. It will cover tools and techniques for identifying context, with examples from mobile hardware, software and service interactions.

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  • 1. Understanding contexts of use Miles Rochford | Nokia Design interaction09, Vancouver 8 February 2009 All opinions expressed in this presentation are my own and do not necessarily represent the official view of Nokia.
  • 2. http://www.jnd.org/NNg-Photographs/DonNorman2003-4.jpg
  • 3. THE WAY I SEE IT OPINION Workarounds and Hacks: The Leading Edge of Innovation Donald A. Norman Nielsen Norman Group and Northwestern University | norman@nngroup.com For years I have been pondering innovative idea. Psychologists invention of these techniques. the similarities and contradic- agree that this can happen, but Think lightbulb, radio, automo- tions among the ways of coming they add the important caveat bile, telephone, television, home up with new ideas for products. that chance favors the prepared computer, cooking equipment, “Design research,” as this phase mind. These insights usually and for that matter, almost is called, offers a wide range follow a prolonged period of everything that we use on a of methods. The marketing intensive thought and study of daily basis. community has long champi- the problem. Does this mean that we oned focus groups, surveys, Do we need formal observa- should ignore the formal meth- and questionnaires, whereas tional methods? When I talk ods? No, because great design- the user-centered community to today’s foremost designers, ers are rare. And all of us have favors observation, contextual most are scornful. At first, I seen the horrors that result analysis, and ethnography. Each was quite disturbed by this when unskilled, unobservant method has its proponents and attitude: Why were they so dis- designers, engineers, or pro- detractors. missive of these methods? Was grammers create their prod- I have also pondered the it just arrogance? The problem ucts. So what methods should emphasis by most practitioners, is, I found their work excellent; those of us who are less skilled abetted by many product-design if they were arrogant, it was use? courses, to invent novel prod- well deserved. But further inter- I am not a fan of undirected, ucts and services to fill the action with them convinced explorative ethnography. This needs discovered through what- me that they were experts at is an excellent procedure for ever form of design research the human-centered design, except developing our scientific under- group practices. This pondering that they did it informally, standing of human behavior, led to my “Filling Much-Needed without the fuss and formality but it is too diffuse for practical application. I prefer directed Holes” column in the January + that we ascribe to the activities. [1] Norman, D. A. observation: Search out the February 2008 issue of interac- Great designers are like great “Filling Much-needed Holes.” interactions 15, workarounds, hacks, and clever tions, where I suggested that novelists: scrupulous observers no. 1 (2008): 70–71. improvisations of everyday although many of our clever of human behavior. Although life. That’s where the answers ethnographic and field meth- they are scornful of formal lie: someone else has already ods are designed to find unmet methods, they themselves are July + August 2008 encountered the need, someone needs, most are far better off if expert practitioners of observa- else has already hinted at a they stay unmet [1]. tion, and if you can corner them solution. Where do new ideas come in a quiet room (or better yet, a Nokia’s designers, the New from? How should designers noisy bar), they will brag about [2] Holson, Laura M. York Times tells us, visited China create, transform, innovate? those abilities. “Hoping to Make Phone Buyers Flip “ New York and noticed people using the Some assume that inspira- Moreover, the great inven- Times, 29 February, 2008. sec. C1, p.8. backlight from their mobile tion strikes suddenly in the tions that have changed our interactions phones as a source of light, so night: Without warning insight lives did not come into being they added a penlight to some strikes, and the inventor through our ethnographic of their phones [2]. astounds all with a powerful, methods: They preceded the 47 IA XV-4.V19.indd 47 6/19/08 3:23:33 PM http://www.jnd.org/NNg-Photographs/DonNorman2003-4.jpg
  • 4. THE WAY I SEE IT OPINION Workarounds and Hacks: The Leading Edge of Innovation Donald A. Norman Nielsen Norman Group and Northwestern University | norman@nngroup.com For years I have been pondering innovative idea. Psychologists invention of these techniques. the similarities and contradic- agree that this can happen, but Think lightbulb, radio, automo- tions among the ways of coming they add the important caveat bile, telephone, television, home up with new ideas for products. that chance favors the prepared computer, cooking equipment, “Design research,” as this phase mind. These insights usually and for that matter, almost is called, offers a wide range follow a prolonged period of everything that we use on a of methods. The marketing intensive thought and study of daily basis. community has long champi- the problem. Does this mean that we oned focus groups, surveys, Do we need formal observa- should ignore the formal meth- and questionnaires, whereas tional methods? When I talk ods? No, because great design- the user-centered community to today’s foremost designers, ers are rare. And all of us have favors observation, contextual most are scornful. At first, I seen the horrors that result analysis, and ethnography. Each was quite disturbed by this when unskilled, unobservant method has its proponents and attitude: Why were they so dis- designers, engineers, or pro- detractors. missive of these methods? Was grammers create their prod- I have also pondered the it just arrogance? The problem ucts. So what methods should emphasis by most practitioners, is, I found their work excellent; those of us who are less skilled abetted by many product-design if they were arrogant, it was use? courses, to invent novel prod- well deserved. But further inter- I am not a fan of undirected, ucts and services to fill the action with them convinced explorative ethnography. This needs discovered through what- me that they were experts at is an excellent procedure for ever form of design research the human-centered design, except developing our scientific under- group practices. This pondering that they did it informally, standing of human behavior, led to my “Filling Much-Needed without the fuss and formality but it is too diffuse for practical application. I prefer directed Holes” column in the January + that we ascribe to the activities. [1] Norman, D. A. observation: Search out the February 2008 issue of interac- Great designers are like great “Filling Much-needed Holes.” interactions 15, workarounds, hacks, and clever tions, where I suggested that novelists: scrupulous observers no. 1 (2008): 70–71. improvisations of everyday although many of our clever of human behavior. Although life. That’s where the answers ethnographic and field meth- they are scornful of formal lie: someone else has already ods are designed to find unmet methods, they themselves are July + August 2008 encountered the need, someone needs, most are far better off if expert practitioners of observa- else has already hinted at a they stay unmet [1]. tion, and if you can corner them solution. Where do new ideas come in a quiet room (or better yet, a Nokia’s designers, the New from? How should designers noisy bar), they will brag about [2] Holson, Laura M. York Times tells us, visited China create, transform, innovate? those abilities. “Hoping to Make Phone Buyers Flip “ New York and noticed people using the Some assume that inspira- Moreover, the great inven- Times, 29 February, 2008. sec. C1, p.8. backlight from their mobile tion strikes suddenly in the tions that have changed our interactions phones as a source of light, so night: Without warning insight lives did not come into being they added a penlight to some strikes, and the inventor through our ethnographic of their phones [2]. astounds all with a powerful, methods: They preceded the 47 IA XV-4.V19.indd 47 6/19/08 3:23:33 PM http://www.jnd.org/NNg-Photographs/DonNorman2003-4.jpg
  • 5. About me All opinions expressed in this presentation are my own and do not necessarily represent the official view of Nokia. Miles Rochford
  • 6. About Nokia Design Nokia Corporation
  • 7. What is context of use? Why is it relevant to design? How can you apply it?
  • 8. What is context of use? Why is it relevant to design? How can you apply it?
  • 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Boeing_B-17G.png
  • 10. What is context of use?
  • 11. What is context of use? The right thing,
  • 12. What is context of use? The right thing, at the right time,
  • 13. What is context of use? The right thing, at the right time, in the right place,
  • 14. What is context of use? The right thing, at the right time, in the right place, for the right person.
  • 15. What is context of use? The right thing, at the right time, in the right place, for the right person.
  • 16. Example: Ocado http://www.flickr.com/photos/bitful/2419725762/
  • 17. Example: Ocado Right thing Low cognitive load Right time Unpack quickly (or partially) Right place In your kitchen Right person Busy (or lazy) people
  • 18. What is context of use? Why is it relevant to design? How can you apply it?
  • 19. Why are we here? To create interactions that go beyond peoples’ needs and expectations. We want to become better designers.
  • 20. How can we be better designers? http://www.uie.com/articles/five_design_decision_styles Unintended Design Self Design Genius Design Activity-Focused Design People-Focused Design
  • 21. What does people-focused mean?
  • 22. What does people-focused mean? Nokia Design People are our inspiration. Observe, then design.
  • 23. What does people-focused mean? http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/en/About-Design/ UK Design Council Design the right thing, design the thing right.
  • 24. What is context of use? Why is it relevant to design? How can you apply it?
  • 25. europe.nokia.com/lifetools
  • 26. Tom Jenkins, Manu Zavattaro, Eddie Shannon, Miles Rochford
  • 27. Later, back in the studio... Tom Jenkins
  • 28. Design Cluedo. Cluedo ™ & © www.hasbro.com
  • 29. How can we do this better?
  • 30. How can we do this better? Define. Document. Deliver.
  • 31. Define. Identify your different contexts: What? Where? When? Who? Establish your laws of physics.
  • 32. Define. Document. How do your laws of physics impact on the interactions you are designing? Prioritise. Compromise?
  • 33. Define. Document. Deliver. Create great interactions for each of your different contexts.
  • 34. How can you apply it? Define. Laws of physics. Document. Prioritise. Compromise? Deliver.
  • 35. So now what? Take it home with you. Try it out next week. Rinse, repeat.
  • 36. What is context of use? Why is it relevant to design? How can you apply it?
  • 37. What is context of use? The right thing, at the right time, in the right place, for the right person.
  • 38. “[Designers need a] fearlessness of really listening” Shelley Evenson, Carnegie Mellon University Service Design Network, November 2008, Amsterdam http://www.design.cmu.edu/files/shelleyevenson_100x100.jpg
  • 39. Empathy. The one tool you need as a designer.
  • 40. Thank you. Merci. Kiitos.
  • 41. Thank you. Merci. Alastair Curtis (Nokia Chief Designer) for his support. Nokia (UK) Limited for assisting in funding this trip. The Nokia Design Service & UI Design team (especially Joe, Tom, Eddie, Manu and Bill) for their comments and suggestions. Flickr and Wikipedia contributors (see each slide for details). The energy used to produce this presentation, including transport, was provided by carbon neutral sources or offset through ClimateCare.org.
  • 42. Questions? miles.rochford@nokia.com www.slideshare.net/rochford @21five

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