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It's All About the Data!

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Enterprises react more often to threats than to vulnerabilities since threats are more visible and frightening. So it seems to go with data protection -- our enterprises seem intent on getting the ...

Enterprises react more often to threats than to vulnerabilities since threats are more visible and frightening. So it seems to go with data protection -- our enterprises seem intent on getting the latest gizmos to protect against the most visible threats. We should, instead, be thinking about the overall structure of vulnerabilities and what structure of protections it implies. This presentation shows an enterprise-architectural view of vulnerabilities that can endanger our data and suggests a rational program of protections that can minimize them. It’s not flashy, but it is effective.

David C. Frier, CISSP, Security Practice Leader, CIBER New York

David Frier is the Security Practice Lead for CIBER, Inc. the global IT consultancy with the local presence. Now in the 32nd year of his IT career, he has performed consulting work in the areas of Enterprise Architecture, Disaster Recovery, SOX Audit (as the auditOR), SAS 70 and ISO 17799 Audit (as the auditEE), mission critical operations, enterprise encryption solutions, and Data Leakage Prevention (DLP). David holds the CISSP and CRISC certifications.

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    It's All About the Data! It's All About the Data! Presentation Transcript

    • It’s All About the Data!
      David C. Frier, CISSP
      Security Practice Lead
      CIBER, Upstate NY
      Oct. 21, 2010
    • CIBER Profile
      CIBER is a $1Billion Global IT Services Company that Builds, Integrates and Supports Business Applications and IT Infrastructures for Business and Government
      • Consistent growth and profitability since 1974
      • More than 8,500 employees
      • NYSE (CBR) - Headquartered in Denver
      • 85 Offices in 18 countries
      • US and Offshore Development Centers
      • Global IT Operations Centers – US & Europe
      • Global practices supported by local resources
      • Fortune 500 and mid-market leaders/challengers
      • Focus on quality: ISO 9001, CPMM, SAS 70
    • Frier Profile
      Frier is a less-than-$1Billion IT Professional who Builds, Integrates and Supports Business Applications and IT Infrastructures for Business and Government
      • Consistent growth since 1957
      • (first up then out)
      • (DCF) - Headquartered in Rochester
      • IT Operations first established in 1979
      • IT Security, Operations, Architecture
      • Project Management and Consulting
      • Training and IT Evangelism
      • CISSP, CRISC (pending)
    • Outline
      What is in scope of Data Protection?
      What Threats exist?
      Who Cares?
      What is included in Data Protection?
      Is Data Protection Effective
      One approach for Data Classification
    • Regulated Data
      HIPAA
      PCI
      GLBA
      PII/SPI
      Under Safe Harbor
      Subject to Breach Disclosure laws
      Strategic Data
      IP
      Sales & Marketing Data
      Financial (SOX)
      M&A, Recruiting, other non-public plans
      Data Protection – what is in scope
    • Lost or Stolen Devices
      Laptops and removable storage most common
      Disposal
      Incorrect disposal of disk and tape media
      Criminal Attacks
      Hacking more than physical theft
      Network Exposure
      Misconfigured web presence
      Email attachments
      Malicious Insiders
      Threats to Data
    • Who cares about Data Protection Programs?
      Source: Business Case for Data Protection, Ponemon Institute, July 2009
    • Data Loss Prevention- Network
      Data Loss Prevention- Endpoint
      Data Loss Prevention- Storage
      Content Discovery (Process)
      Email Filtering
      Database Activity Monitoring
      Full Drive Encryption
      USB/Portable Media Encryption or Device Control
      Enterprise Digital Rights Management
      Database Encryption
      Application Encryption
      Web Application Firewall
      Backup Tape Encryption
      Entitlement Management
      Access Management
      Data Masking
      Network Segregation
      Server/Endpoint Hardening
      Enterprise Data Protection – what is included
    • Perceived Effectiveness ¹
      CEOs: 58%
      Other C-Levels: 48%
      Which Controls are Most Effective²
      Data Loss Prevention- Network
      Data Loss Prevention- Endpoint
      Data Loss Prevention- Storage
      Content Discovery (Process)
      Email Filtering
      Are Corporate Data Protection Programs Effective?
      1 – Source: Business Case for Data Protection, Ponemon Institute, July 2009
      2 – Source: Securosis 2010 Data Security Survey, Securosis, LLC, … 2010
    • Which Controls are Least Effective?
      Email Filtering
      USB/Portable Media Encryption or Device Control
      Database Activity Monitoring
      Backup Tape Encryption
      Content Discovery (Process)
      Notice anything odd?
      Why Are Corporate Data Protection Programs Effective?
      Source: Securosis 2010 Data Security Survey, Securosis, LLC, … 2010
    • Do you know what you are charged to protect?
    • Who recognizes this?
      Kings play chess on finely grained sand
    • Did you take zoology in school?
      Kings play chess on finely grained sand
      Kingdom
      Phylum
      Class
      Order
      Family
      Genus
      Species
    • Use a Taxonomy
      From Kingdoms, the highest level, down to individual reports and documents
      Seven layers may seem like a lot
      …but it’s easy to find pockets where you need more
      Data Classification
    • Start with “Public” and “Non-Public”
      You might add a third for customer-privileged information
      Most Data protection effort will focus on Non-Public
      The point of the taxonomy is to successively sharpen the focus of the enterprise data protection efforts
      Data Classification -- Kingdoms
    • This is a good layer for your data owner organizations
      Yes: All data must have an owner.
      Owners make the decisions about what level of protection is needed
      Typically, data owners are the groups that own the processes that create/update/delete the data
      From here down you will see categories repeated
      This is the way to express the matrix nature of some of these designations across the top-down hierarchy
      Data Classification -- Phyla
    • Data Classification -- Classes
      At the Class level you can apply the levels-of-sensitivity classifications
      Confidential
      Sensitive
      “Company only”
      These are suggestions only… the important thing is to be consistent across all the data with what you do at a given level
    • With Order, start to divide up the data into groups of related business processes
      Example: within the HR phylum,
      Payroll
      Benefits
      Performance Mgt.
      Recruiting
      Each of these may be in different classes for sensitivity
      Class designations will often repeat across phyla but that’s OK
      Data Classification -- Orders
    • For Family, get to the application or system level
      For example, within the Benefits order
      One app manages Health Care
      Another manages PTO
      Another for Tuition Reimbursement
      etc.
      It is also likely that this isolates specific business processes
      “Applications” in this context may be modules within larger enterprise systems
      Data Classification -- Families
    • Genus is a particular data type
      Reports
      Databases
      Feed files
      Species is instances of those types
      “The weekly payroll register”
      “The monthly healthcare claims report”
      Data Classification – Genus & Species
    • Let’s look at that payroll report
      Kingdom – Non-public
      Phylum – HR
      Class – Confidential
      Order – Payroll
      Family – ADP interface
      Genus – Reports
      Species – Payroll report
    • Classification and handling decisions may be made wherever appropriate
      For example, a single massive database may power an enterprise HRIS that is classified at the Order level
      And that database might not be safe to have try to support multiple levels of security, so you decide to take the “worst case” approach.
      You may not need all the levels
      But if you give yourself the room you will get this done to enough detail to make informed decisions
      Data Classification – Put it to use
    • Determine Regulatory Scope
      Prioritize Coverage
      Phase-in Programs
      Get below-C Mgt. Buy-In
      Communicate why you are acting to protect this and not that (yet)
      Data Classification – Put it to use
    • Remember!
      It’s all about the data!
    • Ponemon Reports
      http://www.ponemon.org/data-security
      Securosis Survey
      http://www.imperva.com/resources/analyst.html
      CIBER
      http://www.ciber.com/
      Frier
      dfrier@ciber.com
      More Resources